Syrian Woman to Ivanka: “How Shameless, You Are Proud Your Father Murders Us”

Global Research, October 31, 2019
Syria News 11 April 2017

This article was originally published in 2017.

Ivanka Trump on Twitter, how shameless you are to be proud of your father’s murderous bombings of Syria.   Are you both afraid because Syria is protecting Syrians from foreign terrorists armed and funded with US tax monies?.

Mrs. Ivanka Trump, you should tell your father to stop murdering us.  Stop causing Syrian women to be widows, Syrian students to end studies from bombs on buses, and Syrian kids to be orphans.  How can you know nothing about the horrible war the Syrian women, Syrian men, Syrian children have been going through since this ugly, western war was imposed on us, in 2011.

Syrian women spend their lives rearing their children, to see them grow into good men.  They spend days and nights to make the child a real man, or a good woman. We are not rich in material wealth, but rich in our morals, and this is why we love our homeland.

A beautiful Syrian wife lost her young husband, her love, because of your father’s crimes, Ivanka.  This husband was her knight, a well educated man, a brave officer who was defending his country, Syria, against the mercenaries who came here from all over the world, killers sponsored by the US, Europe, Turkey and the wahhabi Saudi and Qatar.

Her husband was not in someone else’s country, invading it, or bombing it, like what your American soldiers have done to Iraq in 2003, and have been doing in Syria since 2013.

Unlike your invaders, Firas Hammoud is a true hero, a Syrian man who was murdered by your father, while he was defending his own country, within his own country.

They Sha’ayrat airbase which terrorist President Trump has bombed is one of the important airfields in the fight against the so-called Islamic State in Syria and Iraq.  It has been used to defeat the alQaeda terrorists in PalmyraHama, and Homs.

The successful advances of the Syrian Arab Army against foreign terrorists is the cause of the terrorists in Idlib, and the US, to go crazy. Every time our army advances against your savages, the US or Israel comes to their rescue.  Military service is required of all men and voluntary by women.  Every Syrian family has someone fighting to defend our country.  Our blessed soldiers protect us; they do not invade other countries to slaughter their populations.

Many civilians in the Sha’ayrat village were also murdered by your father’s illegal bombings. Your father murdered 7 civilians and 4 of them were children. People ran out of their homes thinking they would be safer outside in case your father thought of bombing their houses, too.

Your father continues to spread the horrors against us that Obama began and Clinton promised to continue.

I feel the words of this young widow Ghanea, her tears and her broken heart.

When they carried the coffin, I cried.  I cried because it is a pain to die at this age, it is a pain, Firas…. The colonel that later died together with Firas had ordered that he come to the base.  Through the speaker, he said, “Firas Hammoud, come to the base.”  As his friend later told me, just when Firas arrived at the base the fire exploded.  There aren’t sufficient words to explain all.  The man is gone and talking aboout it doesn’t make sense.  This is horrible:  A mother is raising her son, teaching him to be an amazing and exceptional boy who is growing.  And the suddenly in a certain moment, the US from a ship in the Mediterranean Sea bombs an airbase and innocent people, not important who they may be, a general or the Senior Lieutenant Firas, they bomb us to kill us all and say it is a fight against terrorism. — Ghanea Hammoud

All of Syria knows her grief, grief that your country has given us. I too have lost a family member in this ugly and unjust war you have imposed on us.

Every soldier in the Syrian Arab Army has a Syrian family, so why would he kill his own family? Yet this is the lie of your country and your father who suddenly used the CNN that he called “fake news!” as his reason to murder more of us.

It is more of the western media lies against our people.  The only ones who bomb Syrians are the US and its terrorist-sponsoring allies, companions in death and destruction, companions in genocide.

US uses its soldier invaders as cannon fodder and then uses their funerals to advertise for more foreign wars.

However for the SAA, when we lose a soldier we can’t replace him.  Every soldier is a unique human being, moral and well educated. They are not interchangeable. They have joined this dirty war imposed on our country to defend our country.

Have you, Ivanka, thought of the children of the people your father bombed? Or don’t you have time to see beyond CNN’s fake news? To see that the man your news used as source is a British man illegally here.  He is a British man whose medical license was taken away by his country.  Don’t you have time to see that this man spent the day giving interviews and asking for money?

Have you thought about how many of our families sleep without food and can’t have medicine because of the war your country put to our country, because of the terrible sanctions your country put to our country (except not to your terrorists sent to us who vacation in Turkey).

Where is your humanitarian care for Kafarya and al Fou’aa’s besieged children? For the children of Yemen, of Iraq, Somalia, and the Ukraine?

Oh, come on! You only know about Khan Sheikhoun because fake news! CNN was the conduit for a fake doctor (who was charged in kidnapping in UK) illegal in our country?

Syria joined the OPCW in 2013, under Russian and American supervisors! The removal of Syria’s chemical weapons was completed by June 2014.  Your terrorist “rebels” threaten us with chemical and biological weapons and fast poisons since 2012.  One of your American mercenaries illegal in Syria wrote a friend that “FSA” had chemicals and could use them to blame our president. They used them to murder our soldiers in Khan al Asal, they used them in al Ghouta and when they killed us and them they told the world the weapons were given by Saudi Bandar.  Your “moderate” terrorists might have chemical weapons stolen from Libya after the US turned that country to al Qaeda’s hands.  Your paid terrorists in our homeland have a path between Idlib and Turkey.  They go back and forth and bring weapons from around the world.  They might also bring in more chemical weapons.

But the victims of the fake chemical attacks in Khan Sheikhoun were kidnapped in Majal and Khattab the week before.  Some were brought to Khan Sheikhoun to be murdered and use their bodies for news so your father made the excuse to murder more of us.  Your fake news showed your CIA- and British intelligence-owned White Helmets (killers and organ traders) running around without proper protection for a chemical attack, but like a miracle not hurt by it. And your fake doctor was lying on what kind of chemical it was even though he would have been killed by it, if it had really been used.

Our civilization is thousands of years old and you try to erase us. This will not happen, no matter how many lies you tell.

Ivanka, I wonder how you sleep at night, to be proud of your father’s murders. You and Nikki Haley with all this death you promote against us, against us who have never harmed you.  Condoleeza Rice made similar lies.  She joked about “creative chaos” and “birth pains” while supporting genocide in this region.

We Syrians are civilized.  It is a crime here, to kill a cat.  We don’t murder.  We defend ourselves through our heroic Syrian Arab Army.

This is our fearless leader, our lion President Bashar al Assad.

You brag that you are proud that your father murders us.  Have you no shame? — Afraa Dagher

Syrian first lady Asmaa Bashar Al Assad held a reception on the occasion of Mother’s Day, 21st March 2013, to show the gratitude of all Syrians to over 5,000 Syrian mothers whom each of them sent all of her sons to defend the country in the face of an unprecedented NATO and stooges alliance with all evil forces on the planet including Al Qaeda terrorists to destroy Syria, the mother of all mothers.

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Featured image: Syrian girl injured when moderate terrorists fired moderate bombs at her Sariah Hassoun primary school; all images in this article are from Syria News

Lebanon’s “Revolution” Is Without Revolutionary Ideology

Global Research, October 31, 2019

There is a revolution in Lebanon without a revolutionary ideology. It is spontaneous, and if memory serves one well, spontaneous revolutions end up badly for the left. Although the left was at its peak in the less spontaneous German uprising of 1918-1919, the right-wing militias defended the state, won and murdered Rosa Luxemburg.

There is practically very little left left, and the slogans of the Lebanese spontaneous revolution are as shallow and insidious as any of its Arab Spring predecessors. Calling for the removal of the sectarian system without removing its associated capital will rotate the same class into power with another form of sectarianism.

Sectarianism is the form of working-class differentiation or the basis of capital, a social relationship rooted in history and incarnated by much of the working class. To misunderstand the impulsiveness of the uprising is suicidal for remnants of the socialist forces. People want bread and democracy, but it is geostrategic-rent bread, as opposed to homegrown bread, and Western-style democracy, or the rule of US-led capital delegated to its local proxies that they want. ‘Words mean so many different things’ and there is paucity of alternative revolutionary concepts.From the spectrum of democratic choices, only shades of selective democracy are being proposed.

These are democracies that alienate the masses. They are based on the central democratic model where most vote for an imperial government to bomb and invade a developing country because they share a vested interest in imperial rents. In a selective democracy there are natural underlings and theworking-class lets capital to do what is best for capital. The ideology of capital incarnate in the working class, now the thingified people who replicate the thingified capitalists, reflects the short-termism of profit making. In Lebanon much has been invested in the idea that what is good for business is good for me. In short, there is a crisis of revolutionary consciousness and alternatives as elsewhere.

The crisis in Lebanon however is severe. For thirty years, the private Lebanese banks owned by the comprador ruling class charged five to ten times the prevailing world interest rate on bonds of the Lebanese government. Today, the state’s debt to the national banking sector is close to twice the income of the country. After thirty years of borrowing to reconstruct, Lebanon has no potable water supply, public transport, electricity, and cannot even remove its trash. Its capital city and only freshwater lake are possibly the most polluted on earth. Jobs are scarce, and emigration is high. The neoliberal policy of fighting inflation under open capital account, dollarized the economy, usurped much of national wealth, and brought the share of the wage bill from national income from about 50 percent in the late nineties to twenty five percent in 2015. With so much rationing of credit to production and indirect taxes dragging down demand, most private-sector loans owed to the banking sector are non-performing or unlikely to be repaid. The state cannot service its debts without draconian tax and privatisation measures. After years of austerity to pay exorbitant interests on a self-fuelling debt, the public, business and household sectors are all effectively insolvent. If the US decided to delay disbursements to finance future spending with more debt, the house of cards could come tumbling down.

In development finance, this latter point of US-governed international financial institutions (IFIs) lending US dollars on time to pay for state spending or imports, lest otherwise the national currency tumble and inflation lead to hunger and riots, is called the short-leash policy. It is a textbook case. In Ghana for instance, President Kufuor had to abide by the conditionality of privatising the Ashanti gold mines as loan disbursement was postponed forcing the population onto the streets just before the 2001 elections. In Lebanon too, the newly proposed reform programme by the incumbent prime minister proposes a fire-sale bonanza of most public assets. Through resource divestiture, neoliberalism imparted inimical growth in the productive forces, including productive capital stock, employment and growth in the incomes of the poorest working strata. Capital-biased institutions blocked broader participation in the decision-making process as the state retreated and vacated the ground for the imperialistically-funded civil society. Neoliberalism, the reigning ideology, does not choose people who are corrupt and in the business of promoting their self-interests. It creates the historical context into which it is only possible for corruption to grow. Corruption defined not in terms of personal ethical considerations is integral to a market economy and gauged by the rate of transfer of public into private wealth. The open capital account, the peg to the dollar, the tax on the poor and the privatisation of public assets are examples of context/corruption.

The prevailing concepts with which the crisis is being tackled are the same ones that were used as weapons against people in the past. Tax workers and privatise public assets – that is Moses and the prophets. Clearly, such measures, or the demands to try the corrupt without eliminating the context of corruption, are not at all revolutionary. To be sure, there are no revolutions without revolutionising the concepts with which reform is carried out. In view of the socialist ideological disaster, the only concepts available for public consumption are the putative neoliberal ones. The working class asks how do we pay for a debt that has become the wealth of the comprador class, as opposed to how we get rid of the comprador and its neoliberal policies. The comprador, to be sure, is a class, a historical social relationship of power reproduced by ideology, by the idea that not only our bread is imported, but our conceptual framework as well. For now, the salient conceptual alternatives are all about increasing state revenues from bread and butter tax to service an odious debt. In the case of Lebanon, the leakages are so pronounced that no matter the earnings from privatisation, the remedy would still be short-term. No one is talking about debt cancelation or, lesser serious reforms, like standstill agreements whereby the banks take zero interests until the economy recovers.

In Egypt, Libya, Yemen, Syria and to a lesser extent Tunisia, the spontaneity of the Arab Spring, the revolution in times of socialist ideological retreat, resulted in deeper crises. The revolutionary spontaneity in Lebanon appears to further destroy the national sources of people’s incomes, which are already quite low. However, the Lebanese banks also have put themselves at risk by lending at rates that brought the economy to a halt. Had they accepted lower rates of return over longer periods to allow the country’s productive capacity and demand to rise in order to earn more in the future, their business would be more secure; that is simple arithmetic. However, the chemistry of sectarianism, the political process by which capital fakes its differences to acquire more rents from the state, is quite complex. It is sort of like a Buick competing with a Chevrolet although both are General Motors. The banks do not truly belong to Lebanon. They are institutions of the international financial class, the social relation that has organised the resilience of capital for centuries. It is a class that personifies the reason of the commodity as self-expanding value. It is impersonal and objective, it is history and knows no right or wrong. It is a class neither obtuse nor short-sighted. It risks some funds for the bigger booty, prospects of control and the business of militarism.

The Middle East is a region of war and oil. Physicians for Social Responsibility noted that the global war on terror has killed 4 million or more.[1] The US has spent 32 Million per hour on war since 2001, which means some financial institution was absorbing the war debit as credit and billions were made in the spinoffs of the financial markets.[2] Now these numbers are gross underestimates, but they are indicative of how true, as Karl  Liebknecht pointed out, that war is big business. Lebanon is at the heart of this region and it has almost always been in war whether with US-Israel or its Lebanese proxies. The now dormant inter-communal proxy war may awaken again. There is much more to be gained by the international financial class as it scapegoats its Lebanese compradors and immiserates Lebanon to the point of eroding the social basis by which Lebanon conducts people’s war in self-defence. The world ruling combination of finance and militarism could set Lebanon ablaze again. The evident objective of imperialism is to contain Hezbollah, but the not so obvious objective is the de-valorisation process, which reduces the costs of inputs for capital over its economic cycle. To shed light on the situation in deeply divided Lebanon, it is best to project the course of developments by moving from the broader political picture to the narrower one inside Lebanon.

Looking at Lebanon from the outside in

Had these been revolutionary times, or times in which radical concepts prevailed, nothing short of the expropriation of the robber baron class, the nationalisation of the banking sector, and the regulation of the capital account, could have been proposed as remedies. A revolution in revolutionary times and in this bloodied area may involve immediate violence against the ruling class. However, never in the past 200 years have the socialist alternatives available to humanity to organise its metabolic rate of reproduction been so absent. So far, the anarchy of production has overconsumed man and nature, yet economic planning, the historical priority by which to respond to the existentialist calamity, does not even figure on the spectrum of debate. The rich die earlier as a result of pollution related diseases, but not as early as the poor. The Veblenian consumption trap of recognition for status and power self-consumes the participants of all social classes. Impulsive uprisings are afoot across the planet, yet the people one sees on the streets are not the masses. They are not armed with progressive ideology, with ironclad modes of organisation, and a preparedness for peoples’ war. Capital is pure violence. People or working classes without revolutionary thought and the exercise of violence in self-defence are neither masses nor proletariat. They are appendages to capital, thingified people.

The business of imperialism in the Middle East is bigger than the business of Lebanese banks. Nearly nothing to do with Lebanon’s internal political landscape has to do with Lebanon. Lebanon’s development and politics are all about the US’s ambitions to control the region, especially to retain hegemony over the Persian Gulf. Reigning over the Gulf is the power that underwrites global dollarization and the imperial rents attendant thereupon. In fact, the United States is already on a low-key war-footing with Iran, a war whose boomerang effect is part of the effort to contain China. The deepening sanctions, the US armed proxies and Kurdish secession are but the tip of the US-offensive. Unmistakably, no matter the calculated costs, US-capital whose mind is the reason of the commodity is preparing to strike the Eastern flank of the Persian Gulf. For the commodity and its reason, war is a means but also end in itself. The Gulf happens to be a most strategic waterway from which thirty percent of seaborne world oil supply passes every day. Hegemony over the Gulf is priceless. True, the US exports oil, but hegemonising oil is a source of controlcumpower, and power, both military and ideological, is the primacy in the primacy of politics. Without that primacy, without arresting the development of others and regulating labour reproduction, there will be no profits. Power is what makes a subject of history; a subject who is capable of moulding social relations to accommodate low-cost production. The subject in value relationships also shapes how much of what is being produced goes to capital, and how much goes to labour, albeit over the lifecycle of society. A powerful subject implements the demands of possibly the most egregious of laws, the law of value. This is no simple double entry bookkeeping in dollars designed and printed by the US-treasury. Capital is not a person; it has real people working for it. It is a social being or a social relationship, which political economy names capital for brevity or coquetry.

The US is the operating structure of capital.  It already controls the western shores of the Gulf and to control the eastern shores would undoubtedly strengthen its position at the helm in the international division of labour. If the US leaves things as they are and accepts Iranian partial control over Gulf waters, it would also have to accept a downgrading of its imperial stature, which would imply massive tectonic realignments of global powers, including perhaps an orderly workout of the US’s debt and its overstretched US dollar, among other losses de-structured around imperial rents. But the Gulf for US imperialism is an indispensable condition of empire. It epitomises an existential question for an empire whose crisis deepens with the ascent of China. Lebanon, bordering Israel to the North and in possession of effective weaponry, threatens the imperial security arrangement for the surrounding region.

That Lebanon is socially and constitutionally sectarian and geopolitically rent-based is no anomaly under the rule of capital. Working class division or sectarianism is the normal condition of the labour process under capital. Without labour differentiation, capital, the ruling social relation, will appear for the fiction that it really is and cease to be. The French, former colonial power in Lebanon, and their heirs invested heavily in Lebanon’s sectarianism. Lebanon is sort of a precursor in sectarianism or a first experiment in the process applied in distinct ways in Iraq. As a society disarticulated along sectarian lines, a country whose national productive capacity was destroyed by war, Lebanon survives by geostrategic rents. It imports nearly twenty billion US$ and exports around three billion US$.  These imports require the county to raise its interest rate and set aside nearly the equivalent of its GDP in reserves to finance imports. And although the country almost always has a primary surplus, as it reduces spending on schools and health to service the debt, it runs a significant fiscal deficit as a result of servicing high interest-internal borrowing. The interest rate is kept too high to account for the risks and to draw in dollars to address balance of payments shortfalls.

Most of debt is internal, 80 or 90 percent. Such is an odd case for a small country recovering from years of war in the developing world. Lebanon’s debt to GDP is said to be at nearly150 percent, but it is in fact bigger (total income is about 50 billion US dollars). Only countries under the financial umbrella of US-led international finance can boast such an internal borrowing record while maintaining a currency peg and low inflation rates. A caveat is in order here: the debt to GDP ratio may be much higher because sometimes after 2005, the private bank responsible for issuing national statistics corrected the GDP figures upward to make the debt to GDP ratio look smaller. In December 2006, the debt to GDP ratio was 183 percent, and oddly enough, it went down to 151 percent in 2018. Lebanon did not have a national bureau of statistics then and most statistics were produced by one of its private banks. One must use the qualifying ‘nearly’ when speaking of figures, for although statistics everywhere are a point of view, they are even more so in Lebanon.

Lebanon’s Banks are family and political nomenklatura-owned. These financial institutions have drawn tremendous profits from holding high-interest state debt. They did so knowing that the faulty reconstruction efforts boosted by a constitution that denied the representation of labour in the state made sure that all funds destined for reconstruction went to banks and to the ruling comprador class. Without social reconstruction nothing constructs, and people build the sect leader not themselves. The post-war constitution reconfirmed sectarianism de jure, and the masses became many sects competing for rents from the state through their own sectarian leadership.  Lebanon’s financial institutions are overstocked with cash because of banking privacy, and a considerable portion of their assets is of dubious origin. Their assets are about quarter of a trillion US$. They have an interest in putting the state into debt and buying the debt to launder much of their illegitimate cash. A former finance minister complained that the central bank overruled him and issued bonds at high interest rates even when the state did not need to borrow.

In 1990, the government issued reconstruction bonds at about forty percent yearly rates. The banks gladly obliged and doubled their initial loans in about two years.  As noted above, the complex chemistry of baleful sectarianism is more complicated than the calculus of the debt. Banks earned tremendous rents on bonds and placed part of the capital abroad, while the remaining portions rolled over into additional debts. As time went by, new loans financed old and new debts, especially as internal and external deficits gaped wide. The debt grew as Lebanon’s tepid growth rates, powered by public and private borrowing to boost consumption, induced further austerity. Austerity compressed demand far below what was necessary to boost state revenues to settle new interest payments. As in typical Ponzi schemes, the debt grew at higher rates than the economy. If the scheme unfolds now, the earlier huge banking profits have been deposited abroad. The resulting runaway inflation would cripple the economy.

Non-oil exporting states in the Near East are traditionally geopolitical rent states. After the first Arab oil boom in the seventies, these countries became more dependent on rents. It was a combination of IFI supported structural adjustment and Gulf aid and remittances that gradually de-industrialised them. De-industrialisation deepened their dependence on handouts, or properly put, imperialist investments in social divisions and imperialist securitisation. It would be bizarre to believe that the US-Euro imperialism that has mown down nearly a billion people in its wars since 1500 A.D. benevolently delivers aid to humanity, or it would make efforts to arrest wars and the natural disaster. It is rather odder to entertain the thought that the Gulf states enjoy any significant autonomy to deliver aid without American consent.

As is typical of social processes under capitalism, which homogenise cultures and traditions and erase variety, Gulf aid to almost starving lower strata laced with Salafism homogenised the multifarious traditions of Islam. From dress codes to burial customs, the otherwise tolerant Islamic world was becoming more like a Xerox version of Saudi Islamism. To be sure, the Saudi version of Islam is a modern, colonially reared and concocted tradition meant to hold cultural and industrial development at bay while Arabian oil falls into the grip of empire. Gulf rents delivered to Lebanon and other states were plainly linked to the US’s political objectives to contain socialism and to create weak and internally divided states.  US-sponsored rents from the Gulf not only eroded national production requiring indigenous knowhow, they reduced the state-distribution functions and the capacity of the state to deliver social welfare. Almost everywhere, the vacuum was filled by US-supported Islamists and liberals. During the Arab Spring, Islamists commandeered the revolts and with unconditional funding from the Gulf, they either attacked their states or were elected and introduced yet more neoliberal programmes than their predecessors. For post-war Lebanon things were no different. Rents bred either the liberal NGO’s or the Islamists. The former on paper declare women or any identity to be equal, but in actuality they do not deliver them from poverty. Liberalism is arguably more devastating than Islamism because it completely erases the social class or reality under the banner of freedom. It is indeed a freedom for humans to perish early from hunger while enjoying the liberty of fitting into an identity pre-selected for them by capital, the social power and the agent of history. Islamists, on the other hand justify the demobilisation of resources by divine fiat. Neither speaks of freedom from want.

Post-war Lebanon which had suffered the destruction of its infrastructure and industry depended more on external sources of funding to maintain consumption.  As the state emerged weaker after the war and its social function was delegated to US-European sponsored civil society or to the parallel institutions of the sect. To rephrase an earlier point, what we see in the demos of Lebanon today is a thirty years investment in reactionary politics personified in people who suffer the same dire class conditions under phantasmagorical doses of intense neoliberalism. The social reaction could boil into a solid class position, but the left is weak in terms of organisation and resources, while the Gulf or European backed NGOs and sects have at their disposal extensive financial means.

In addressing the causes of lapses in development, mainstream social science falsely dichotomises constituents of the agency of history into internal and external. It blames the victimised classes for their self-inflicted misery. It does it so that history absolves the US-European structure of capital. But these Arab working classes are too weak and consistently under assault, often by the belligerence of war and poverty, and violently prohibited from organising into agents of history. The defeated are consistently stripped of agency.  The truly powerful make historical choices. They truly vote in historical time. The colonials or later US imperialism lay down with the power of their bombs, starvations, invasions, and tailored constitutions the margins of actions available for subjugated people. These powers impose the historical imperatives. They empower and institutionalise sectarian and ethnic forms as purveyors of rent from the subjugated state such that the state is always in a state of low or high intensity civil war. They set the material foundations and impose a false scarcity to promote inter working-class war. And by doing this they make profits from the war and set the stage by the continual disempowerment of people to make future profits.

The Lebanese, for instance, can cast this or that vote for the sectarian lackey of imperialism who will do whatever to provide jobs for some of his sect members. However, his rent acquisition action always comes at the expense of other sect members and the working class as a whole. Incomes under capital are rents and if sects bid against each other they lower the share of social wage from the total income pie for the whole of the working class.  The dividedness also weakens the state by the loss of sovereignty arising upon the living insecurity of the working class and holds it hostage to imperialist strategy. In the case of Lebanon, the short leash of finance, the few billion dollars needed to service the debt are currently being delayed and US imperialism is calling the shots. It has something up its sleeve and it has to do with Hezbollah. The US-led financial class through its control of the Lebanese finance casts the real vote in real historical time. It just sits back and watches, while the vote of the vanquished Lebanese population, rhetorically speaking, appears as a mere ornament of modern-day slavery.

The big divide and Iran

The US spares no effort to destabilise the region. As should be obvious, it does so because by devastating and warring it empowers itself and reduces the reproduction costs of labour. This latter point is at the heart of higher profit rates not only because the pressure of refugees on wages, but also in terms of the real value, the real commodities and the hours of labour it takes to sustain the working class, much less is expended on labour. In political economy parlance, that is called a reduction of necessary labour, which is another way of saying if capital pays less than is necessary for people over their lifetime, it makes more profits. In-fighting lowers the cost of people and what they own in resources.

At this historical juncture, fomenting the Sunni-Shiite divide, the in-fighting at play in Iraq and elsewhere is both an end in itself and end to weaken Iran. Also, by raising tensions in the Gulf, and by virtue of its gigantic military presence there, US-led capital holds the world in suspense relative to the instability it injects in oil supply routes. Imperial ransom from the rest of the world tallies with protracted military tension or turmoil in the Gulf. The scurry to the safety of the dollar market alone resituates the US atop of the global pyramid. War or tension in the Gulf is a win-win situation for ‘US-led capital.’ The use of the term US-led capital is more appropriate than the use of the term US because the poor in the US are also subjected to the wrath of their home grown imperialism. The recent figures on poverty in the US indicate that half the population subsists at below the poverty line.[3]

Regionally, Israel, a state constructed around Jewish identity, has an innate aversion for Hezbollah and a less-sectarian Lebanon. Although Israel has no aversion to its adversaries wallowing in class conflict painted over by religion, Hezbollah is a successful paramilitary force and a model for people’s war. To be sure, Hezbollah’s power, its victory in liberating South Lebanon, had reconfirmed the effectiveness of people’s war. No weapon superiority bestows an occupier with the power to rule over a people against their will. Outright victory of an occupying force over an occupied people was and is no longer possible, short of complete annihilation – naturally under the rule of capital that means the continuation of wars. Hezbollah is stronger after its experience in the Syrian war and better armed. For that reason, Israel is keen to have Hezbollah consume itself in Lebanese misery or in an inter-communal war. Aware of Israel’s intentions, Hezbollah had solidified its ties to other progressive forces in Lebanon and the region.

As per the old lessons of national liberation wars, the premise of larger and deeper fronts, especially ones that involve grassroots support that combine security with development, better positions liberation struggles. Although anti-imperialism is not a class-inherent characteristic of the Iranian ruling classes, imperialism deprives peoples, peoples from all sort of classes and not only the working class in developing formations, not only of their control over resources, but also of their lives or longevity. Imperialism often consumes the peripheral comprador, the labour aristocrat and possibly the whole of social nature with its uranium-laced bombs. It depopulates to earn profits. The prematurely wasted life in wars or war related austerity is itself a product of militarism, just as a coke can is a product of the Coca-Cola corporation and industrialism. The more cokes and wasted-lives are consumed-realised, the more returns capital generates.

The Iranian ruling class is a rentier class. While some in Iran delude themselves with mini imperialist ambitions, the struggle of Iran’s people is a struggle to literally exist. Dreams of grandiosity related to past empire is delusional for Iran. The reality that Iran will meet the fate of Iraq or Afghanistan is demonstrably present. The barometer of the strength of its national front remains the extent to which it socialises, subsidises basic commodities, and creates social employment positions founded on a national money cycle – free from international finance, to cement the grounds for people’s war. Iran may have inroads in the Near East, but these were cavities purposefully carved by the US, not by some conspiracy, but by the reason of history abiding by the desires of the self-expanding commodity. Fetishism, the rule of commodities, through its ideology commands real processes and people believe that their imaginary relations to these real processes are real. Their relationship to the sect is not real because the only reality is that of the social class as it produces what people need to survive. Put differently, it is living labour deprived of better living conditions that produces and reproduces people and not identity. A reading of the historical moment, the balance of forces, would clearly show that Iran is in a position of self-defence. Its present government, however, is short on the delivery of jobs and welfare to solidify the social grounds for people’s war. Based on the premise that encroachment wars in this region are an industry of militarism and that imperialism reinforces waste accumulation through depopulation, the security of Iran through Hezbollah is a shared and co-dependent security with Lebanon.

Security in Lebanon is inversely related to sectarianism – here one has in mind the historically determined modern identity sect that acts a conveyor belt for rents. The sect imposed by imperialism as a form of social organisation vitiates class unity, consciousness and the solidarity required for anti-imperialist struggle. The degree to which sectarian divisions surface and security sinks principally corresponds to the retreat of socialist ideological crisis worldwide. In better times, before the Lebanese war, working class cohesion was in the process of formation diluting sectarian differences. Some indicate that inter-sectarian rapprochement under progressive parties and slogans was the reason for which imperialism unleashed its right-wing cronies against the masses igniting the Lebanese war of 1975-1989. After the war ended in 1989, the right learnt its lesson and rents were channelled to sects by degree of loyalty. Such was the effort to obviate the real social being of people, the working class and its institutions. The Lebanese revolution faces the weight of a history in which a cultural identity instrumentalised by capital has acquired a supernatural power. Received perception has it that against all odds such identity exists in the same shape and form it is across history.

The demos prove that class is the reality that resurfaces in times of crisis. Penuries of bread and democracy, poverty in Lebanon, are cross-sectarian. Bread and democracy are presupposed by social relationships before they become things or acts. They are historical and power relationships obtained from class struggle. These concepts, the bread and the democracy, even for the left they have become reified and ahistorical. They are simply the things and the boxes of the ballot boxes. They are maintained as such because Western Marxism peddles them as such. The Western left-intellectuals, with slightly more leisure than others in the developing world, churn out concepts that fit the R2P designs. Overlooking capital’s history and the current social and natural calamity, these pseudo-leftists harbour a deep fascination for the selective democratic model of Western capital and see its atrocities as prerequisites for progress.

Conceptualised differently, bread is the social wage share that requires delinking from the West, working class solidarity and, necessarily but not exclusively, armed struggle against imperialism. Development obtains from combining security with resistance. Poverty in Lebanon could have been worse than Egypt’s without Hezbollah and its resistance. Some sectarian leaders are using the poverty they inflicted upon people through their banks to negotiate a higher share of imperial rents as a price for handing over Hezbollah.

Democracy is an end to alienation. People no longer relinquish the popular will through the voting system. It is about the organs of labour consistently voting for labour in state policy with or without the ritual ballot box. Democracy is not labour as ‘an’ organic constituent of the state, it is ‘the’ organic constituent of the state. Yet, few understand the depth of the conceptual crisis and the idea that people’s representation in the state has to be organic. Demanding one-man one-vote realises democracy only when man is social man; the real man of society reproduced by the value of society, the socially necessary labour invested in him or her. Social man is a subcategory of the working class and, therefore, democracy is the rule of the working class.

Who is more democratic China whose revolution of 1949 heralded prosperity and eliminated poverty or the US which sinks half of its population and half the world into poverty? The working class is there, but it is not brought into focus because people have been taught to think in forms devoid of history, in the ‘now,’ while indeed the ‘now’ or the present do not exist in real time. Capital paid teachers, universities and media to distort people’s minds and erase the social alternatives. The cliché capitalism won against socialism has become truth as if history is a football game and not an ongoing process of massacres and environmental destruction. Without being democratically armed with weapons, without revolutionising concepts and ideology, the working class will always be a proletariat in waiting.

People negate the system, but adopt the conceptual alternatives of the system itself as their alternatives. As they uncritically assimilate the rule of capital, no matter what procedure of voting they choose, they will be electing capital’s authoritarianism. As capitalists and working people personify things or commodities, the development attendant upon the production-consumption of commodities by commodities will continue to end in the human and environmental waste visible all around.

Lebanon again

The crisis in Lebanon was inevitable. Why the banks usurped so much so as to debilitate the state has to do with capital’s objectives to create a social crisis capable of weakening Hezbollah. As the currency falls and the cost of living rises, sectarians and their NGOs are at work to derail the uprising. History bereft of socialist ideology is on their side. The NGO’s will divert cries for justice into a cry against Hezbollah. The US’s conditionality here is being put as such: hand over the weapons of Hezbollah and get the funding needed to maintain the consumerist standard of living. But borrowing short term will only delay the onslaught of poverty for few months. For imperialism, the reason of the commodity adopted by history, the poverty of all sects is necessary because it cheapens inputs from humans and otherwise in production and profits.

To reiterate: the reason why the private banking sector has sucked the country dry with exorbitant interest rates for such a long time is because its patron the international financial class makes more money out of poverty and war in Lebanon and the region. The bigger world financial class and its militarism may sacrifice the smaller Lebanese banking class. However, no matter how sects are positioned on the inside, events in Lebanon will unfold in synch with how the US fares in its regional war offensive. A glimmer of hope exists here as the rise of China arrests the growth of European civilisation, a store of culture whose ethos is to waste or to accumulate by waste. The real world happens to be a planet plagued with overproduction crises, which necessitate that money should be made in wars and in socially imposed under-consumption. Waste produced under waste accumulation also produces a consumerist man indulged in an overly entropic mode of self-consumption. Scarcity constructed to differentiate labour or to pit the working class against each other by designating quaweaponizing identity as the vehicle for rent acquisition abounds. In terms of the real physical scarcity however, not even oil is scarce anymore.

Capital’s logic of cost minimisation, the production of waste for profit, becomes the repository of the system. In times of socialist ideological retreat, the absurd becomes real as reality conforms to the logical forms of mainstream economics. Value relations become waste relations, the ruling class becomes the wasting class and the working class becomes the wasted class. The formalism of capital’s mainstream logic, the two-dimensional diagrammatic in which prices clear excess commodities, becomes more and more a condition in which the excess commodity to be cleared is living labour. Arresting European civilisation, the body of knowledge and traditions of expansion by war, the structural embodiment of that wasting capital, is the historical necessity.

Subordinately, the flux of this spontaneous revolution in Lebanon is a test of the left’s resolve. The left is poised against imperialist NGOs with logistical support from the Gulf states destined to lure the support of despairing people with bribes needed for survival. As people lose income, the left has to provide the alternatives. For the working class to become a proletariat, it must broadly align against reactionary positions. So far, spontaneity mixed with liberal or Islamist NGOs has been a suicide-trap for socialism. The left can commit the anecdotal suicide, it could jump from the superstructure and hit the base, but it could also through struggle carry the day.

*

Renowned author and Middle East analyst, Professor Ali Kadri teaches Economics ath the National University of Singapore (NUS). He is a Research Associate of the Centre for Research on Globalization (CRG)

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Notes

[1] https://www.mintpressnews.com/do-the-math-global-war-on-terror-has-killed-4-million-muslims-or-more/208225/

[2] https://www.commondreams.org/views/2018/03/21/we-have-spent-32-million-hour-war-2001

[3] Yes, Half of Americans Are In or Near Poverty: Here’s More Evidence https://www.commondreams.org/views/2017/10/16/yes-half-americans-are-or-near-poverty-heres-more-evidence

The Mother of Messes in Syria

Image result for The Mother of Messes in Syria

October 20, 2019

Eric S. MARGOLIS

What a mess. The imperial cooks in Washington have turned poor Syria into a poison pit of warring factions, with disastrous results for all.

Henry Kissinger once quipped that it is more dangerous being America’s ally than its enemy. A good example is how Washington used the Kurds in Syria to fight ISIS and then ditched them to face the wrath of the mighty Turkish military alone.

A great hue and cry has gone up from the US corporate media and Congress that the Kurds are being betrayed. The evangelical far right and Israel’s supporters are leading this charge. Israel has secretly been arming and aiding Kurds in Iraq, Iran and Syria since 1975 as a dandy way of splintering the fragile Arab Mideast.

But President Trump was right when he said that the Kurds had been richly paid by Washington for their services, adding ‘they are no angels.’ Some facts ignored by the US media:

– Kurds, a tribal, non-Semitic people of Persian origin are, like Palestinians, a stateless people who are sand in the eye of the Mideast. They inhabit the uplands of Syria, Iraq, Armenia, and Iran. Kurds are a handsome, warlike people renowned for their fighting abilities and courage. They have long battled neighboring Arab and Iranian tribes over pasture land and water resources.

– The Obama administration got talked into arming and financing the extremist Islamic State group by the deep state and Israel as a way of overthrowing Syria’s secular government, an ally of Iran. The US-equipped Iraqi Army sent to fight IS ran for their lives. When Islamic State threatened Baghdad, the US Air Force intervened and crushed it. Rogue elements of Islamic State ran amok, creating all sorts of atrocities. Some IS units still receive covert Israeli cross-border support.

The US found it expedient to pay Kurdish militias, known as YPG, to fight remnants of the rag-tag IS, an armed mob whose danger was wildly exaggerated by western media. IS was a perfect excuse to keep US military forces in the Mideast. Turkey helped arm IS.

– Turkey’s Kurdish minority is 15-20% of its 80 million people. The dangerous Marxist PKK movement has been calling for an independent Kurdish state since the 1980’s. I covered the war in Turkey’s southern Anatolia between the PKK and the Turkish Army, a bloody affair of bombings and massacres that left over 40,000 dead. Turks go ballistic at the very mention of an independent Kurdish state, calling Kurds ‘mountain Turks’ and Marxist `terrorists.’

Kurds were harshly repressed by various Turkish governments and their generals. But when the Ottoman Turks marched tens of thousands of Armenian prisoners to Syria during World War I, Kurdish tribes raped and massacred them in great numbers. In the 1920’s, the sainted Winston Churchill authorized use of poison gas against ‘unruly’ Kurdish and Afghan tribes.

– US attempts to overthrow Syria’s government created national chaos. The scrubby eastern third of Syria had a mixed tribal population, but the Kurdish YPG militia declared it independent from Syria, declaring a new Kurdish state called Rojava. To no surprise, a confusing melee developed between Syrian forces and Arab tribal fighters, US units, Kurdish militias, IS and tribes aligned to Damascus. Turkey, aghast at the prospects of an independent Kurdish state next door, decided to send in its army which had been demanding action against armed Kurdish groups.

Into this maelstrom strode Donald Trump, who knew nothing about Syria. There were only about 1,000 US troops in Syria, but they could call down the US Air Force based in nearby Qatar. These token troops are being withdrawn to neighboring Iraq, which remain a US-occupied nation with a puppet government, an American garrison of at least 5,000 troops, and oceans of oil.

In short, Syria is being ground up by wars for no good purpose. Turkey made a grave error by joining efforts to overthrow Syria’s Assad regime. The US, France, Britain and Israel have no business at all there. Only Russia has a legitimate geopolitical interest in Syria, which is close to its southern border. So far, Vlad Putin has played a very skillful game of big power chess in Syria while the US has blundered time and again.

ericmargolis.com

The views of individual contributors do not necessarily represent those of the Strategic Culture Foundation.

Interference by Unnamed “Foreign Powers” in Canada’s Elections? The Invasion of “America’s Backyard”

Global Research, October 19, 2019

This article addresses the alleged interference of unnamed “foreign powers” in Canada’s elections as well as the historical process of US interference, including an outright secret US Military Invasion of Canada formulated in the 1930s.

US-Canada relations is not an issue for debate in the 2019 Canada elections campaign.

***

In 1934, War Plan Red was amended to authorize the immediate first use of poison gas against Canadians and to use strategic bombing to destroy Halifax if it could not be captured.  …  

“In August 1935, the US held its largest peacetime military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging at the Canadian border south of Ottawa, and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania. (February 11-13, 1935, hearings of the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on Air Defense Bases (H.R. 6621 and H.R. 4130. This testimony was to have been secret but was published by mistake. See the New York Times, May 1, 1935, p. 1.

Scroll down for details

***

Are the Russians coming to disrupt our elections scheduled for October 21st? Back in July, Canada’s Minister of Democratic Institutions Karina Gould  intimated that Canada’s 2019 elections could be the target of interference by foreign powers.

While Ottawa did not explicitly point its finger at the Kremlin, the official statement and media reports intimated that it could be Russia (and possibly China) because Vladimir Putin had allegedly interfered in favor of Donald Trump in the 2016 US presidential elections.  And apparently Moscow had also intervened in the French elections.

The Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS) and the RCMP were said to be “monitoring foreign threat activity in Canada and around the world”.

“At this time, we haven’t seen direct threats to the 2019 general election,” the official said.

CSIS continues to observe hostile foreign actors “taking steps to position themselves to clandestinely influence, promote or discredit certain messages, candidates or groups during the campaign,” the official added. (CBC, July 09, 2019)

Three months prior to the October 2019 Elections,  the Trudeau government issued a “Cabinet Directive on the Critical Election Incident Public Protocol” (CEIPP) to “protect Canada’s Democratic Institutions”  against unnamed foreign powers
.

The Cabinet Directive on the Critical Election Incident Public Protocol sets out the ministers’ expectations with respect to the general directions and the principles to guide the process for informing the public during the writ period of an incident that threatens Canada’s ability to have a free and fair election. Consult the document here

In the event of a threat by a foreign power to disrupt the election, a top level national security panel “will inform the prime minister”,  (see Global News, July 9, 2019)

Russia Dirty Tricks? 

With some exceptions, Canada’s media has remained silent on the matter. According to a recent “authoritative”  CTV  report  the Kremlin is once again up to “Dirty Tricks”, intent upon manipulating Canada’s elections. Which party are they going to support?

In an attempt to stop foreign interference during the 2019 Canadian federal election, Canada’s top security agencies are monitoring the web 24/7. Canadian Security Intelligence Service (CSIS), works hand in hand with a largely secret organization, Communication Security Establishment (CSE), …

….  Former Russian troll Vitaly Bespalov thinks the Russians have already come up with new ways to meddle with our political views. After being implicated for interfering in the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, they have to be more creative as Canadians get ready to go to the polls.

“So now I think they are going to invent some other schemes of influencing the audience. It will be done in a different way. No need to look for trolls on Facebook, they will find a new way.”

 

Intervention of an Unnamed Foreign Power: The United States of America

There is ample of evidence of foreign interference by an “unnamed foreign power”, which has barely been mentioned in the course of the election campaign.

In Canada’s history, as well as during the mandate of the Justin Trudeau’s government, the United States of America (rather than “unnamed foreign powers”) has intervened in what is euphemistically called  “America’s Backyard”, i.e. a nation state inside America’s sphere of influence.

And I am not referring to former president Obama’s recent statement in support for Justin Trudeau.

 

 

Washington is on record of having interfered in elections  in 45 countries according to political scientist Dov H. Levin of Carnegie Mellon University.  

While Canada is not mentioned in Don H Levin’s study, the history of US interference in Canada’s internal affairs goes far beyond the process of meddling in Canadian elections.

Canadian farmers are acutely aware of how the Trump administration in 2017 imposed without real negotiation, a complete overhaul of trade and investment relations leading to the formation of the so-call United States, Mexico, Canada USMCA trade agreement which is intended to replace NAFTA.

Politicians in the Trudeau government were coopted. The economic impacts of this agreement on Canada’s economy are potentially devastating.

But there is much more in our history which has a direct bearing on national sovereignty and democracy in Canada. While US interventionism is part of our history, US-Canada relations are not an issue for debate in the election campaign.

Flashback to 1930…

America’s Plan to Invade Canada

While the US plan to Annex Canada in 1866 (a de facto act of war formulated as a Bill by the US Congress) is on record, most Canadians are unaware that the US in the late 1920s had formulated a detailed plan to invade Canada, entitled “Joint Army and Navy Basic War Plan — Red”. The plan was approved by the US War Department under the presidency of Herbert Hoover in 1930.

It was updated in 1934 and 1935 during the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt. It was withdrawn in 1939 following the outbreak of the Second World War. (The full text of the 1935 Invasion Plan is in Annex)

This insidious military agenda which was intent on ultimately annexing Canada to the US as well as disabling the British Empire, involved the planned bombings of four major cities: Vancouver, Montreal, Quebec City and Halifax.

And guess who was assigned to oversee these bombings: General Douglas MacArthur (image left, 1940s), who was US Army chief of staff (1930-37). MacArthur’s mandate coincided with  the release of the 1930 and 1935 invasion plan of Canada. As we recall MacArthur was subsequently put in charge of leading the bombing raids against Japan during World War II. (See Floyd Rudman)

The 1935 plan to invade Canada consisted of a 94-page document “with the word SECRET stamped on the cover.” It had been formulated over a period of over five years (See full text in Annex).

In February 1935, the [US] War Department arranged a Congressional appropriation of $57 million dollars to build three border air bases for the purposes of pre-emptive surprise attacks on Canadian air fields. The base in the Great Lakes region was to be camouflaged as a civilian airport and was to “be capable of dominating the industrial heart of Canada, the Ontario Peninsula” (from p. 61 of the February 11-13, 1935, hearings of the Committee on Military Affairs, House of Representatives, on Air Defense Bases (H.R. 6621 and H.R. 4130). This testimony was to have been secret but was published by mistake. See the New York Times, May 1, 1935, p. 1.

In August 1935, the US held its largest peacetime military manoeuvres in history, with 36,000 troops converging at the Canadian border south of Ottawa, and another 15,000 held in reserve in Pennsylvania. The war game scenario was a US motorized invasion of Canada, with the defending forces initially repulsing the invading Blue forces, but eventually to lose “outnumbered and outgunned” when Blue reinforcements arrive. This according to the Army’s pamphlet “Souvenir of of the First Army Maneuvers: The Greatest Peace Time Event in US History” (p.2). ( Professor F.W. Rudmin Queen’s University Kingston, Ontario, Comments on “War Plan Red”,

One of the updates to the 1930 invasion plan was the use of chemical weapons against civilians:

In 1934, War Plan Red was amended to authorize the immediate first use of poison gas against Canadians and to use strategic bombing to destroy Halifax if it could not be captured.” (Ibid)

It is worth noting that in the course of World War II,  a decision was taken by the War Department to retain the invasion plan on the books. War Plan Red was declassified in 1974.

Raiding the Icebox. How the US Media Trivializes History

The Washington Post, which casually dismissed the historical significance of “Joint Army and Navy Basic War Plan — Red”, nonetheless acknowledged the aggressive nature of the proposed military endeavor:

“A bold plan, a bodacious plan, a step-by-step plan to invade, seize and annex our neighbor to the north. …First, we send a joint Army-Navy overseas force to capture the port city of Halifax, cutting the Canadians off from their British allies.

Then we seize Canadian power plants near Niagara Falls, so they freeze in the dark.

Then the U.S. Army invades on three fronts — marching from Vermont to take Montreal and Quebec, charging out of North Dakota to grab the railroad center at Winnipeg, and storming out of the Midwest to capture the strategic nickel mines of Ontario.

Meanwhile, the U.S. Navy seizes the Great Lakes and blockades Canada’s Atlantic and Pacific ports.  … “(Raiding the Icebox; Behind Its Warm Front, the United States Made Cold Calculations to Subdue Canada, by Peter Carlson, Washington Post, 30 December 2005, emphasis added)

The original documents pertaining to the invasion of Canada including “War Plan Red” and “Defence Scheme No. 1.” are in the archives of the US Army War College in Carlisle, Pa.  (url link no longer functional)

The  plan is detailed. It involves both military as well an intelligence components. According to historian John Major “War, Plan Red” also consisted in “a series of possible pre-emptive American campaigns to invade Canada in several areas and occupy key ports and railways before British troops could provide reinforcement to the Canadians…”

Concluding Remarks Concerning US Interference

While the 1935 invasion of Canada Plan was never carried out, historically “the military threat of an invasion plan served to oblige Canada to ultimately surrender to US political and economic pressures.”

In recent history, this hegemonic objective was achieved in 2002 with the creation of US Northern Command (NorthCom).

Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld announced unilaterally that US Northern Command would have jurisdiction over the entire North American region. US Northern Command’s jurisdiction as outlined by the US DoD includes, in addition to the continental US, all of Canada, Mexico, as well as portions of the Caribbean, contiguous waters in the Atlantic and Pacific oceans up to 500 miles off the Mexican, US and Canadian coastlines as well as the Canadian Arctic.

Rumsfeld is said to have boasted that:

“NORTHCOM – with all of North America as its geographic command – ‘is part of the greatest transformation of the Unified Command Plan [UCP] since its inception in 1947.’”

NorthCom’s stated mandate is to “provide a necessary focus for [continental] aerospace, land and sea defenses, and critical support for [the] nation’s civil authorities in times of national need.”(Canada-US Relations – Defense Partnership – July 2003, Canadian American Strategic Review (CASR),


ANNEX

The complete text of the 1935 Invasion of Canada can be consulted here  (Introduction by Prof Floyd Rudmin, Queens University) See below
See also Michel Chossudovsky, America’s Plan to Annex and Invade Canada
 and America’s Plan to Invade Canada 
US Invasion of Canada Plan 
 .
Full-text reproduction of the 1935 plan for a US invasion of Canada prepared at the US Army War College, G-2 intelligence division, and submitted on December 18, 1935.
 .
The following is a full-text reproduction of the 1935 plan for a US invasion of Canada prepared at the US Army War College, G-2 intelligence division, and submitted on December 18, 1935. This is the most recent declassified invasion plan available from the US archival sources. Centered pagination is that of the original document.
 .
The spelling and punctuation of the original document are reproduced as in the original document, even when in error by present-day norms. This document was first identified by Richard Preston in his 1977 book, “The Defence of the Undefended Border: Planning for War in North America 1867-1939” (Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.)
 .
Preston’s reference citation (p. 277) identified this to be archived at the US Military History Collection, Carlisle Barracks, Pa., coded AWC 2-1936-8, G2, no. 19A. It was located by the US National Archives and supplied on microfilm.
 .
                       SUPPLEMENT NO. 3

                             TO

                 REPORT OF COMMITTEE NO. 8

                          SUBJECT:

      CRITICAL AREAS OF CANADA AND APPROACHES THERETO
      _______________________________________________
 .

                        Prepared by:

                     SUBCOMMITTEE NO. 3

               Major Charles H. Jones, Infantry, Chairman.
               Lt. Col. H.W. Crawford, Engineers.

  I. Papers Accompanying.
     ___________________
  1. Bibliography.                      (Omitted, filed in Rec.Sec.)
  2. List of Slides.                                "
  3. Appendices (1 and 2).                          "
  4. Annexes. (Incl. A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,K, and L)      "

  II. The Study Presented.
      ___________________
       Determine under the geographical factor, the critical areas in
 Crimson (Canada) and the best approaches thereto for Blue.  A critical
 area is assumed to be any area of such strategic importance to either
 belligerent that control thereof may have a material bearing on the out-
 come of the war.

 III. Facts bearing on the study.
      __________________________
   1. General Considerations:
       An area in Crimson territory may be of strategic importance from
 the viewpoint of tactical, economic, or political considerations.  In the
 final analysis, however, critical areas must be largely determined in the
 light of Red's probable line of action and Crimson's contribution to that
 effort.
   2. Geographical Features of Canada.
   a. Location and extent.  The location and extent of the Dominion of
   _
 Canada is shown on the Map herewith (see Exhibit A).  It comprises the
 entire northern half of the the North American continent, excepting only
 Alaska and the coast of Labrador, a dependency of the colony of New-
 foundland.
       The principal political subdivisions are those located along the
 border of the United States.  These from east to west are:
       (1) The Maritime Provinces:
            Prince Edward Island.
            Nova Scotia.
            New Brunswick.
       (2) Quebec.
       (3) Ontario.
       (4) The Prairie Provinces:
            Manitoba.
            Saskatchewan.
            Alberta.


                                   -41-

       (5) British Columbia.
       Newfoundland, while not a part of the Dominion of Canada, would
 undoubtedly collaborate in any Crimson effort.
   b. Topography. (Slide 14852)
   _
      The great area in eastern Canada underlain by rocks of Precambrian
 age is known as the Canadian Shield.  Its northern boundary crosses the
 Arctic archipelago; the eastern boundary lies beyond Baffin Island and
 Labrador, and reaches the depressed area occupied by the St. Lawrence, a
 short spur crossing this valley east of Lake Ontario to join the Adirondack
 Mountains of New York.  The southern boundary runs from this spur west to
 Georgian Bay thence along the north shore of Lake Huron and Lake Superior,
 thence northwest from the Lake of the Woods to the western end of Lake
 Athabaska.  Its average elevation does not exceed 1500 feet.  The greatest
 known elevations are in the eastern part of Baffin Island and along the
 coast of northern Labrador.  Peaks of the Torngat Mountains of Labrador
 have elevations of between 4000 and 5000 feet.  The coast is one of the
 boldest and most rugged in the world, with many vertical cliffs rising
 1000 to 2000 feet high.  Occasional exceptions occur in which there are
 reliefs of several hundred feet, as in the hills along the north shore of
 Lake Huron and Lake Superior.  The area is dotted with lakes, large and
 small, and of irregular outline.  A lowland of considerable extent
 stretches for some distance into Ontario and Manitoba from Hudson Bay.
      Extending south and west form the Canadian Shield, between the Ap-
 palachian Mountains on the east and the Cordilleras on the west, lies the
 Great North American plain.  The northeastern portion of this plain called
 the St. Lawrence lowlands occupies southern Ontario, south of a line ex-
 tending from Georgian Bay to the east end of Lake Ontario; eastern Ontario
 lying between the Ottawa and St. Lawrence rivers, and that part of Quebec
 lying adjacent to the St. Lawrence between Montreal and Quebec.
      The plain west of the Canadian Shield, known as the Interior Plains,
 stretches northward to the Arctic Ocean between a line approximately join-
 ing Lake Winnipeg and Lake Athabasca, Great Slave Lake and Great Bear Lake
 on the east, and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains on the west.
      That part of the St. Lawrence Lowlands lying in the eastern angle of
 Ontario, and in Quebec south of Montreal and extending down the St. Law-
 rence is comparatively flat and lies less than 500 feet above sea level.
 On the lower St. Lawrence it is greatly narrowed by the near approach of
 the Appalachian system to the Canadian Shield.  The part lying adjacent to
 Lakes Ontario, Erie and Huron is of less even surface, has its greatest
 elevation of over 1700 feet south of Georgian Bay and slopes gently to
 the Great Lakes.
      The Interior Plains region is in general rolling country with broad
 undulations and a slope eastward and northward of a few feet per mile,
 descending from an elevation of 3000 to 5000 feet near the mountains on the
 west to less than 1000 feet at the eastern border.  The rolling character
 of the area is relieved by several flat topped hills, by flat areas that
 formed the beds of extensive lakes, and by deep river valleys.
      The Appalachain and Arcadian regions occupy practically all that part
 of Canada lying east of the St. Lawrence, with the exception of the lowlands
 west of a line joining Quebec City and Lake Champlain.  The Applachain
 region is a continuation into Quebec of three chains of the Applachain
 system of mountains.  The most westerly of these ranges, the Green Mountains
 of Vermont, stretches northeast into the Gaspe peninsula, where it forms
 flat topped hills some 3000 feet high.  The Acadian region, which includes

                                  -42-

 New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island is an alternation of
 upland with hills and ridges rising 2500 feet and higher.  Adjacent to the
 Bay of Fundy is a series of ridges rising in places to 1200 feet.  Between
 these two New Brunswick uplands, which converge toward the southwest is a
 lowland forming the whole eastern part of the province.  This lowland ex-
 tends east to include Prince Edward Island, the western fringe of Cape
 Breton Island and the mainland of Nova Scotia north of the Cobequid moun-
 tains, which have an elevation of 800 to 1000 feet.  South of the Cobequid
 Mountains lies a long narrow lowland stretching from Chedabucto Bay to
 Minas Basin, and along the Cornwallis Annapolis valley between North and
 South Mountains.  South of this lowland is a highland sloping to the Atlantic
 Coast.  The northern part of Cape Breton Island is a tableland 1200 feet
 high with its central part rising to an elevation of over 1700 feet.
      The Cordelleran region, a mountainous area bordering the Pacific
 extends from the United States through Canada into Alaska and embraces
 nearly all of British Columbia and Yukon and the western edge of Alberta
 and the Northwest Territories.  The eastern part of the Cordillera is occu-
 pied by the Rocky Mountains, with peaks rising to 10,000 feet and 12,000
 feet.  They extend northwest and fall away towards the Liard River.  The
 western part of the Cordillera is occupied by the Coast Range and the
 mountains of Vancouver and Queen Charlotte Islands.  The Coast Range rises
 to heights of 7000 to 9000 feet. Between the Rocky Mountains and the Coast
 Range lies a vast plateau 3000 to 4000 feet high and cut by deep river
 valleys.
   3. Population.
      According to the census of 1931, the total population on June 1, 1931
 was 10,376,786, of whom 5,374,541 were males.  The inhabited areas of the
 Dominion are essentially confined to a narrow strip along the United States
 boundary, generally south of the 56th parallel of latitude west of the Lake
 Winnipeg, and south of the 49th parallel of latitude east of Lake Superior.
 Approximately 10% of the total population are found in the Maritime provinces,
 61%  in Quebec and Ontario, 23% in the Prairie Provinces and 6% in British
 Columbia.
      Of the present population, 51.86% are of British descent, 28.22%
 French, and the remainder of widely scattered nativity.
   4. Climate.
      The climate of southern Canada is comparable to that of the northern
 tier of the states of the United States.  The west coast of British Columbia
 tempered by the Pacific Ocean is mild and humid.  The prairie provinces
 generally experience extreme cold weather from November to March, with heavy
 snow fall.  The climate of southern Ontario, the St. Lawrence Valley and the
 Maritime Provinces is much milder that that of the prairie provinces, but
 freezing temperatures are general between the end of November and the first
 of April, and the ground is usually covered with between one and three
 feet of snow.  Any extensive military operations in Canada between November
 1st and April 15th would be extremely difficult, if not impossible.
   5. Communications.
   a. Railways.
   _
      There are only two railway systems in Canada, both crossing Canada
 east and west from the Atlantic to the Pacific.  These lines generally
 parallel the United States border, in some instances crossing through the
 United States.


                                -43-

      (1) The Canadian national Railways system (See inclosure B) belonging
 to and operated by the government, has eastern terminals at Halifax, N.S.,
 Portland, Maine (Grand Trunk), and through the Central Vermont, at Boston,
 New London and New York.  Western terminals are Vancouver and Prince Rupert
 B.C.  An extension from Cochrane, Ontario, to Moosonee, Ontario on James
 Bay, was completed by the Province of Ontario in July 1932, to connect with
 water routes to Churchill, Hudson Bay and with the northern route to Europe.
      (2) The Canadian Pacific system (see inclosure C) has its eastern
 terminus at Saint John, N.B. and it western terminus at Vancouver, B.C.
 As indicated by the systems maps, there are numerous branch lines serving
 the industrial and farming areas of the Dominion, and connecting lines ty-
 ing in with various railroads of the United States.
      From a military viewpoint, these railroads provide excellent trans-
 portation facilities for Blue, if invasion of Crimson is decided upon, and
 being located in close proximity to the border are, from the Crimson view-
 point, very liable to interruption.  This is particularly true at Winnipeg
 some 60 miles north of Blues border, through which both transcontinental
 systems now pass.  This fact probably encouraged Canada to construct the
 railroad from The Pass, Manitoba and develop the port at Churchill.
      Complete details concerning all railroads of Canada are contained in
 Appendix No. 1.
   b. Highways.
   _
      In recent years Canada has greatly increased and improved her road con-
 struction and while there are enormous stretches of country, particularly
 in the northern portion of the Dominion, with few or no roads, the southern
 portion is well served with improved roads.  A number of transcontinental
 motor roads are under construction or projected, the most important being
 the "Kings International Highway" from Montreal to Vancouver, via Ottawa,
 North Bay, Sudbury, Sault Ste. Marie, Winnipeg, MacLeod, Crow's Nest Pass,
 Fernia and Cranbrook.  Another highway is being constructed from
 Calgary to Vancouver.
      The principal roads in Ontario, Quebec and the Maritime Provinces
 are shown on Inclosure D, herewith.  Roads in the Prairie Provinces and
 British Columbia are shown on inclosure E.
      The majority of improved roads are classified as gravel; macadam and
 concrete construction amounting to only 7870 miles out of a total of some
 95,000 miles improved.  Gravel roads will require extensive maintenance
 under heavy motor traffic, especially during the spring.
   c. Water Transportation.
   _
      (1) Inland Waterways.
           The Great Lakes, with the St. Lawrence River, is the most im-
 portant fresh water transportation system in the world.  At the present
 time it affords a draft of 21.0 feet over all the Great Lakes and through
 the Welland Canal into the St. Lawrence.  From the Atlantic Ocean to Mon-
 treal, the present head of ocean navigation on the St. Lawrence, a draft
 of 30.0 feet is available, adequate for the great majority of ocean shipping.
 For some distance above Montreal the present channel has an available depth
 of only 14.0 feet.
          The inland waterway is of prime importance to the economic life
 of both the United States and Canada for the transportation of bulk com-
 modities, especially for the movement of wheat from the western plains to
 shipping centers on the eastern seaboard; of iron ore from the mines in
 Minnesota to foundaries along Lake Ontario; and for coal from  the mines of
 Pennsylvania and West Virginia to Ontario, Quebec and the northwest.


                                  -44-

          The locks at Sault Ste. Marie, the boundary channels between Port
 Huron and Detroit and to a lesser degree the Welland Canal are the critical
 points on this waterway and effective control of such areas is vital to
 Blue.
          Navigation on the Great Lakes is generally closed by ice from
 about the end of November to the first of April.
          The St. Lawrence River is ordinarily ice bound for a similar period,
 but somewhat later about early in December to the latter part of April.
 While there are a number of Canadian lake ports of importance, Montreal is
 the only one which would not be automatically closed by Blue control of the
 Lakes.  Montreal is also an important ocean port and will be considered
 along with other deep sea ports.
      (2) Ocean Shipping.
          The Dominion of Canada owns and operates a cargo and passenger
 carrying fleet consisting of some 57 cargo vessels and 11 passenger ships.
          The principal ocean ports and the magnitude of Canadian ocean
 traffic is indicated by the following tabulation:

 A. Number and tonnage of sea-going vessels entered and cleared at the
 principal ports of Canada. (For year ending March 31, 1934.)

                            SEA-GOING VESSELS
          PORT       arrived      departed    TOTAL TONS (REGISTERED)
          ____       _______      ________    _______________________
 Halifax, N.S. *        1259        1484            7,540,990
 Yarmouth, N.S.          535         519            1,102,191
 St. John, N.B. *        684         688            2,924,822
 Montreal, Quebec *     1078         907            7,266,569
 Quebec, Que.  *         397         308            3,388,829
 Prince Rupert, B.C.    1141        1155              251,881
 Vancouver, B.C. *      2332        2137           11,705,775
 Victoria, B.C.         1927        1938            8,874,481
 New Westminster, B.C.   678         700            3,123,606

                         IMPORTANT SECONDARY PORTS.

 Churchill, Man. *        15          15              132,000
 Three Rivers, Que        79          79              424,560
 Windsor, N.S.            56          69              201,032

 Note: The above figures do not indicate amount of commerce; Register tons
                         ______
 are gross tons. (Namely cubical contents in cubic feet divided by 100)
 less deductions for crews space, stores, etc.

          A brief description of the above ports to indicate size, avail-
 able depths and important terminal facilities is included in Appendix No.
 2.
          While the above tabulation lists the principal ports, it should be
                                               _________
 realized that there are a large number of less desirable ports having
 available depths at low water of from 20 to 30 feet and provided with satis-
 factory terminal facilities, which can be used in an emergency for landing
 troops or supplies.  Examples of this class of harbors are:
                  Pictou, N.S.
                  Sydney, N.S.
                  Canso, N.S.
                  Gaspe', Quebec
                  Sorel, Quebec


                                  -45-

      The port of Montreal, favorably located at the head of ocean naviga-
 tion on the St. Lawrence and the foot of inland navigation of the Great
 Lakes, is a natural shipping and railroad center.  The port of Quebec is
 less favorable situated economically being more than 100 miles northeast
 of Montreal.  Strategically, however, Quebec controls the commerce of Canada
 moving to or from the Atlantic seaboard.  Its possession by Blue would
 interrupt eastern rail and water communication between England and the Mari-
 time Provinces and the rest of Canada.
      The port of Halifax is one of the best harbors on the Atlantic Coast
 and the principal winter port of Eastern Canada.  The harbor has been ex-
 tensively developed by the Dominion government as a modern ocean terminal
 and naval base.  It is fortified, though much of the armament is obsoles-
 cent.  In case of war with Red, Halifax would become of prime importance
 to Red as a naval base and as a debarkation point for overseas expeditions
 in case Blue controlled the St. Lawrence.  However, the routes available
 for a Red advance from Halifax into northeastern United States or towards
 Quebec and Montreal are quite difficult.
      The port of Saint John, New Brunswick is similar in many respects to
 the port of Halifax.  It is open throughout the year and equipped with the
 most modern terminal facilities, including one of the largest drydocks in
 the world.  It is an important shipping center for grain and dairy products.
 Due to the proximity of the port to the United States border and the fact
 that the principal rail connections (C.P. Ry.) passes through the state of
 Maine, the port would be of little use to Crimson or Red, at least in the
 early stages of war, provided Blue made any effort to control this area.
      The port of Vancouver, B.C. came into prominence with the opening of
 the Panama Canal, providing an alternate route to that of the transcontinental
 railroads for grain, dairy, lumber and the other products of western Canada
 to Europe.
      The port of Victoria, on Vancouver Island, is similarly situated,
 but due to the absence of rail connection with the mainland is more concerned
 with passenger and mail traffic than with bulk commodities.  Esquimalt, two
 miles west of Victoria, and the only Canadian naval base on the west coast,
 is equipped with a large modern drydock, and affords good anchorage for the
 largest vessels.  Consequently this area is of prime importance to Crimson.
 With the closing of the Panama Canal to Red traffic and the presence of
 Blue naval forces based on Honolulu, its commercial value is largely des-
 troyed.  Assuming that Blue controls the St. Lawrence and cuts Crimson's
 eastern communication with Red, the areas importance is enhanced, although
 it remains a decidedly unsatisfactory outlet.  If Red should win control of
 the Pacific steamship lanes, the area becomes of first importance to Red.
 All factors considered, it must be controlled by Blue.
      The port of Prince Rupert is a first class harbor with modern terminal
 facilities and excellent and extensive anchorages.  It becomes of extreme
 importance to Crimson, if and when they are denied the use of the southwest
 British Columbia ports, although, as in the case of Vancouver, it affords
 a most unsatisfactory and hazardous route to Europe.  Physical occupation
 of Prince Rupert harbor by Blue is not vital, but closing the port to ocean
 traffic should be effected.
      The port of Churchill, Manitoba now offers a good harbor and limited
 but modern terminal facilities, affording a back door to the Prairie Provin-
 ces and, by way of Moosonee, Ontario, and the Temiskaming and Northern
 Ontario Railroad, with central and western Ontario.  Hudson Bay and James
 Bay are open to navigation only about 4 months of the year, but this condition
 is partially offset by the fact that the distance from the Prairie Provinces


                                 -46-

 to Europe, via Churchill is from 500 to 1000 miles shorter than the rail-
 water route via Montreal.  In case Red is denied the use of the Atlantic
 or Pacific ports, or both, Churchill will afford an outlet for grain and
 meat products from Ontario, Manitoba and Sasketchewan and an inlet for mili-
 tary supplies and troops from Europe unless the northern trade route through
 Hudson Strait is controlled by the Blue fleet, and this is improbable.
   d. Air Transportation (Civil).
   _
      During 1933 there were 90 commercial aircraft operators in Canada.
 Their activities included forest file patrols, timber cruising, air photo-
 graphy, transportation of passengers, express and mail, etc.
      To encourage a more widespread interest and knowledge of aviation
 the Department of National Defense, since 1928, has issued two light air-
 planes and made certain grants to each of 23 flying clubs and a large air
 terminal has been built at St. Hubert, seven miles south of Montreal and
 a terminal airdrome at Rimouski, Quebec for the reception of trans-atlantic
 mails.
      At the close of 1934 there were 101 air fields of all types, 368
 civil aircraft and 684 licensed pilots in Canada.  Some details of airports
 in New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are given in a letter from the Office of
 the Chief of Air Corps, herewith. (See inclosure F)
   e. Telephone and Telegraph.
   _
      (1) Cables.
          Six transoceanic cables have termini in Canada, five on the Atlantic
 and one on the Pacific.  The Atlantic cables are landed at Halifax, though
 several of them are routed through Newfoundland.  The Pacific cable lands
 at Vancouver from whence a cable also leads to the United States.
      (2) Radio.
          A transoceanic commercial radio beam service is carried on by a
 station at Drummondville, Quebec, with Australia, Great Britain and the
 United States.  In 1932 a direct radio telephone circuit with Great Britain
 was opened through the medium of this beam station.
      (3) General.
          Canada is well supplied with local telephone, telegraph and radio
 service.
          Interruption of Canada's trans-oceanic telegraph and radio service
 will seriously handicap Red-Crimson cooperation.
   6. Other Economic Factors.
   a. Agriculture.
   _
      Agriculture, including stock raising and horticulture, is the chief
 single industry of the Canadian people.  Canada is not only self-sustaining,
 as far as food is concerned, but has a large excess for export.  Food pro-
 duction is varied and so distributed throughout the dominion that each
 section is practically self-sustaining and cutting her off from the outside
 would would mere serve to deny her people certain luxuries, such as
 coffee, tea, sugar, spices and tropical fruit.
      The Maritime Provinces are noted for their fruit and vegetable crop,
 particularly for the oat and potato crops of Prince Edward Island and New
 Brunswick and apples in Nova Scotia.  Quebec and Ontario are mixed farming
 communities with the Niagara peninsula specializing in fruit.  Manitoba,
 Saskatchewan and Alberta are the principal wheat producing centers, with
 other grains and stock raising of increasing importance.  The rich valleys
 of British Columbia produce apples, other fruit and vegetables.


                                  -47-

   b. Forests.
   _
      The principal forests are in the provinces of British Columbia, Ontario,
 Quebec, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia.  The manufacture of lumber, lath,
 shingles and other products such as paper pulp, is the second most important
 Canadian industry.
   c. Mineral Resources.
   _
      Canada is one of the greatest mineral producing countries of the world.
 Nova Scotia, British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario, Alberta and the Yukon Ter-
 ritory contain the chief mining districts.  The following summary notes
 pertinent facts concerning minerals of primary military importance.
      Aluminum.  Aluminum was the 16th ranking Canadian export in 1934.
 Large quantities of bauxite, the principal source of supply were imported
 from the United States.
      Coal.
          There are enormous deposits of coal in Canada, largely in Nova
 Soctia and New Brunswick, in the east and in Alberta, Saskatchewan and
 British Columbia in the west.  Due mainly to the distance of the fields from
 the manufacturing and industrial centers, about 50% of the coal consumed
 is imported from the United States, via the Great Lakes.  Statistics for
 the calendar year 1933 show:
          Produced:
            Nova Scotia               6,340,790 tons
            New Brunswick               314,681  "
            Manitoba                      3,036  "
            Saskatchewan                903,776  "
            Alberta                   4,748,074  "
            British Columbia          1,484,653  "
            Yukon Territory                 638  "
          Imported:
            From United States        8,865,935 tons
            From United Kingdom       1,942,875  "
          Total - - - - - - ............................22,265,235 tons.
 (see slide 14855)
          In case of war with the United States, Canadas coal imports from
 this country would be cut off and her railroads and industrial activities
 seriously handicapped.  If Blue controlled the Quebec area and Winnipeg,
 Canada's railroads and industries dependent upon "steam power" would be
 crippled.
      Copper.
          The world production of copper in 1933 was (in short tons):
            Canada        149,992      Mexico         43,900
            Rhodesia      144,954      Peru           28,000
            Belgian Congo  73,409      Spain and )
            Chile         179,200      Portugal  )    34,720
            Japan          75,459      United States 196,190
          Canada's production was distributed approximately as follows:
            Province                   Tons
            ________                   ____
            Quebec                     35,000 Eastern Townships
            Ontario                    72,700 Sudbury area
            Manitoba                   19,000 Flin Flon
            Saskatchewan                1,600
            British Columbia           21,600 Western Manitoba


                                  -48-

      Iron and Steel.
         Canada ranks seventh among the nations as a producer of iron and
 steel but only a small percentage of her production is derived from domestic
 ores, in view of the abundant supply of higher grade ores in Newfoundland
 and Minnesota.  The Wabana section of Newfoundland contains the largest
 known single deposit of iron ore in the world.  There are large iron ore
 deposits in Quebec, northern Ontario and British Columbia but for various
 reasons they are handicapped for blast furnace treatment.  Iron and steel
 are produced in Nova Scotia (Sydney) and in Ontario.  Iron ore is obtained
 from the Mesabi Range in Minnesota, via the Great Lakes and from Newfound-
 land. (See slide 14856)  The bulk of iron and steel products, however, are
 imported, principally from the United States and the United Kingdom.
      Lead.
          Lead is obtained in Canada largely from deposits in British Columbia,
 the largest porting being exported to England.
      Nickel.
          The world production of nickel in 1933 was about 50,736 tons, of
 which about 82% originated in the Sudbury district, north of Georgian Bay
 in Ontario.  The remainder came chiefly from New Caledonia (Fr.).  A new
 deposit of nickel was recently discovered in northern Saskatchewan but has
 not yet been worked.
          Nickel is necessary to industry and indispensable in war.  Control
 of the Sudbury mines, in case of war, is therefor of vital importance.
      Petroleum.
          The production of crude oil or petroleum in Canada during 1934
 amounted to 1,417,368 barrels, principally from the Turner Valley field in
 Alberta.  A small amount is also obtained from wells near Monkton, New
 Brunswick and in southwest Ontario, between Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
 Considerable quantities are also imported from the United States.
      Zinc.
          Canada ranks fourth among the worlds producers of zinc.  Her out-
 put in 1934 totaled 298,579,531 pounds.  The principal producing mines are
 located in the Kootenay district of British Columbia and near Flin-Flon
 in northwest Manitoba.  Approximately 2/3 of the zinc exported goes to Great
 Britain.
   d. Manufacturing.
   _
      (1) General.
          Canada is the second largest manufacturing country in the British
 Empire, with Ontario and Quebec the most important industrial centers.  The
 relative standing of the various provinces during 1933, based on the value
 of products manufactured, was approximately as follows:
                 Ontario             $1,000,000,000.
                 Quebec                 650,000,000.
                 British Columbia *     146,500,000.
                 Manitoba                91,000,000.
                 Alberta                 55,000,000.
                 Nova Scotia             53,000,000.
                 New Brunswick           45,000,000.
                 Saskatchewan            36,000,000.
                 Prince Edward Island     3,000,000.
        *Includes Yukon Territory


                                  -49-

          The principal industries ranked according to gross value of
 products (1932) are:
           Pulp and Paper                 $123,415,492.
           Central Electrical Stations     117,532,081.
           Non-ferrous metal smelting      100,561,297.
           Slaughtering and meat packing    92,366,137.
           Flour and food mills             83,322,099.
           Butter and Cheese                80,395,887.
           Petroleum Products               70,268,265.
           Bread and other bakery product   51,244,162.
           Cotton yarn and cloth            51,197,628.
           Printing and publishing          50,811,968.
           Clothing factory, women's        44,535,823.
           Automobiles.                     42,885,643.
           Rubber goods.                    41,511,556.
           Hosiery and knitted goods        40,997,210.
           Sawmills.                        39,438,057.
      (2) Munitions.
          (a) Aircraft.
              There are at present six firms manufacturing aircraft as
 follows:
                Canadian-Vickers...............Montreal, Que.
                De Haviland....................Toronto, Ont.
                Curtis Reid....................Cartierville, Que.
                Fairchild......................Longueuil, Que.
                Boeing.........................Vancouver, B.C.
                Ottawa Car Mfg. Co.............Ottawa, Que.
              Aero engine factories have been established by:
                Armstrong-Siddeley Motors Co. at Ottawa, Que.
                Aero Engines of Canada at Montreal, Que.
                Canadian Pratt-Whitney Aircraft Co. at Longueuil, Que.
          (b) Miscellaneous.
                During the World War Canada demonstrated her ability to
 divert her peace time industries to the production of munitions, when she
 manufactured and exported large quantities of shells, fuses, cartridge
 cases, explosives, gun forgings, machine guns and small arms ammunition.
 This production could not be obtained in case of war with Blue but some
 munitions could be produced if her factories were free to operate and raw
 materials were available.  The government arsenal at Lindsey, Ont., is
 equipped to produce small arms ammunition and the arsenal at Quebec manu-
 factures some small arms and artillery ammunition.
   e. Commerce.
   _
      Analysis of Canada's industry and resources indicate that she has a
 sufficiency or surplus of certain raw materials but a deficiency of others.
 The more important of these materials are as follows:
      (1) Sufficiency or surplus;
          Arsenic, asbestos, cadmium, cobalt, copper, feldspar, fish oil,
 fluospar, foodstuffs, furs, gold, graphite, gypsum, lead, leather, magnesium,
 mica, nickel, silver, talc, wood and zinc.
      (2) Deficiency;
          Aluminium, antimony, bauxite, barytes, camphor, chromite, coal,
 cotton, flax, hemp, iron, jute, kaolin, manganese, mercury, nitrates,
 phosphate, petroleum, opium, quinine, rubber, silk, sugar, sulphur, tea,
 tin, tobacco and wool.


                                  -50-

   7. Combat Estimate.
   a. All matters pertaining to the defense of Canada are under a Department
   _
 of National Defense (Act of Jan. 9, 1923) with a minister of National De-
 fense at the head.  A Defense Council has been constituted to advise the
 Minister.
   b. The Navy has an authorized complement of 104 officers and 812 men, a
   _
 large majority serving under 7 year enlistments.  In addition certain spec-
 ialists are loaned from the British Royal Navy.  The Reserve consists of
 from 70 to 113 officers and from 430 to 1026 men recruited from sea-faring
 personnel.
      The ships of the Royal Canadian Navy are:

 Built    Class     Displacement  Name          Location     Status   Armament
 1931  Destroyer     1337 tons    Saguenay    Halifax, N.S. In comm.  4-4.7"
 1931     "          1337  "      Skenna      Esquimalt,B.C. "   "    4-4.7"
 1919     "           905  "      Champlain   Halifax, N.S.  "   "    3-4"
 1919     "           905  "      Vancouver   Esquimalt,B.C. "   "    3-4"
 1918  Mine Sweeper   360  "      Armentieres Esquimalt,B.C. "   "
 1918   "     "       360  "      Festubert   Halifax, N.S.  " reserve
 1918   "     "       360  "      Ypres       Halifax, N.S.  "   "

   c. Army.
   _
      (1) Personnel: Estimated Strength (by G-2):
                            Organized Forces.
                            ________________
                                          Active        Reserve     Total
                                          ______        _______     _____
 Permanent Active Militia                   403                      403
      Officers                              403                      403
      Men                                  3300                    3,300
 Non Permanent Active Militia
      Officers                                           6,911     6,911
      Men                                               44,962    44,962

 Reserves, Non-active
      Officers                                          10,000    10,000
      Men                                               30,000    30,000
                                                     __________________
   Total Organized                        3,703         91,873    95,576 *
 Note: The Canada Year Book, 1935, pp 1114, gives permanent and non-permanent
 active militia 1934:
      Permanent Officers and men---------    3,760
      Non-permanent officers and men-----  135,184
                                           _________
                                   Total   138,941
      The latest information concerning the distribution of the active militia
 is shown on the accompanying map. (Incl. G)
      (2) It is probable that the Non-permanent Active Militia can be brought
 to a strength of 60,000 at M plus 15 and to full strength of 126,000 in M
 plus 30 days.  (Note: This estimate is approximately twice that of G-2,
 First Army.) New troops will begin to appear in 180 days at the rate of
 50,000 monthly.
   d. Air Service.
   _
      The Royal Canadian Air Force operates under a directorate in the office
 of the Chief of Staff of the Army.
           Strength (Dec. 1, 1934)
                Active:
                  Officers          117
                  Men               664
                Reserve:
                  Officers           38
                  Men               236
                                  _____
                          Total   1,055


                                   -51-

      The equipment consists of some 84 combat planes with probably 20 on
 order. (G-2 estimate)  The Armaments Year Book, League of Nations, gives
 a total of 166 planes of all kinds and the Statesman Year Book, 1935 gives
 189 planes of all kinds.  It is probable that about one squadron of pursuit
 and one squadron of observation could be organized for immediate service.
   e. Comment.
   _
      The location of Canada's industry and population along a narrow extent
 front facing the northern United States border and her relatively weak
 military and naval forces, widely dispersed, will necessitate a defensive
 role until Red forces are landed.  The promptness and effectiveness of
 British aid must depend upon suitable debarkation points on Canada's east
 coast.  The West Coast does not favor overseas operations unless Red controls
 the Pacific, and even then is too remote from critical Blue areas.
   f. Red Reinforcements.
   _
      Various estimates have been made of the size, composition, and time of
 placing Red reinforcements in Canada.  In any such estimate, the time factor
 is of prime importance but depends on an unknown quantity, viz, "the period
 of strained relations."
      The following estimate is considered conservative:
                    Probable Enemy Forces in Canada
                    _______________________________
                                   Empire
 Days after       Crimson      (Less Crimson)                 Total
   M Day      men      Div.     Men        Div.        Men         Divisions
    15      25,000      5       ---        ---       25,000            5
    30      50,000      5       ---        ---       50,000            5
    60      50,000      5       126,000*    8       176,000           13
    90      50,000      5       203,000    13       253,000           13
   120      50,000      5       238,000    16       288,000           21
   150      50,000      5       255,000    16       305,000           21
   180      90,000      6       255,000    16       345,000           22
 *Under certain conditions this force might be landed in Canada by 30 M.

                                Air Forces.
                                __________
      Red has available at once 48 squadrons of 10 to 12 planes each.  The
 following forces can probably be landed in Canada as indicated.
                       10 M         13 squadrons.
                       30 M         30 squadrons.
                       60 M         41 squadrons.
                       90 M         56 squadrons.
                      120 M         74 squadrons.
   f. Conclusion.
   _
      Crimson cannot successfully defend her territory against the United
 States (Blue).  She will probably concentrate on the defense of Halifax
 and the Montreal-Quebec line in order to hold bases of operation for Red.
 Important secondary efforts will be made to defend her industrial area and
 critical points on her transcontinental railroad lines.

   8. Areas of Strategic Importance.
      Analysis of the above data and discussion indicates certain areas which
 would become of considerable military importance in the event of war with
 Red; namely,
   a. The Halifax Monkton St. John area, sometimes called the Martime
   _
      Province area.
   b. The Montreal Quebec area, sometimes called the St. Lawrence Area.
   _


                                   -52-

   c. The Great Lakes Area.
   _
      (1) Niagara River Area.
      (2) Sarnia-Windsor Area.
      (3) Sault Ste. Marie Area.
      (4) Sudbury Area.
   d. Winnipeg Area.
   _
      (1) Winnipeg City and vicinity.
      (2) Churchill, Manitoba Area.
   e. Vancouver-Victoria Area.
   _
      (1) Ports of Vancouver and Victoria, area.
      (2) Prince Rupert area.
   f. The reasons why these various areas are strategically important may be
   _
 briefly summarized as follows:
      (1) Halifax Monkton St. John Area. (Maritime Province)
          The port of Halifax is the key point in the area, for while the
 port of St. John affords excellent facilities for an overseas expedition,
 it is so close to the United States border that uninterrupted use by Red
 cannot be expected.  At Monkton, the peninsula connecting Nova Scotia and
 the mainland narrows to 14 miles.  With Halifax in possession of Crimson,
 this area affords the best defensive position to prevent any advance west-
 ward by Red.
          (a). Control of Halifax by Blue would:
               1. Deny Red the only ice free port on the east coast and the
               _
 only ports, other than the St. Lawrence River ports, suitable as an overseas
 base.
               2. Deny Red a prepared naval base on the east coast, from which
               _
 to operate against Blue naval forces or commercial shipping.
               3. Disrupt transoceanic submarine cable service between Crimson
               _
 and Red (except from Newfoundland) and between Crimson and the West Indies.
               4. Deny Red the use of certain air bases from which to operate
               _
 against northeastern United States.
          (b) The control of Halifax by Blue, renders the Port of St. John
 and the Monkton area of secondary importance. Failing to secure Halifax
                                               _______
 control of the Monkton area by Blue would:
 ___________________________
               1. Deny Red the use of St. John Harbor.
               _
               2. Cut the lines of communication between the port of Halifax
               _
 and St. John and the remainder of Canada.
               3. Place Blue directly across the only line of advance (by
               _
 Red) from Halifax, on the shortest possible defensive line.
               4. Deny Red the use of certain air bases from which to operate
               _
 against northeastern United States.
               5. Give Blue the use of various small air fields at Monkton
               _
 and St. John.
      (2) Montreal - Quebec Area (St. Lawrence River Area).
          The ports of Montreal and Quebec, while ice bound about four months
 of the year, still afford the best overseas base both as to facilities and
 location.  In addition the area is of great commercial importance in that
 it controls all lines of communication, by land, sea and wire between in-
 dustrial and agricultural centers of Canada and the eastern seaboard.  While
 Montreal has the larger and more commodius harbor and terminal facilities,
 Quebec, due to its physical location, is the key point of the area.
         Control of this area by Blue would:
         (a) Deny the use of all good St. Lawrence River ports to Red.
         (b) Cut all Canada, west of Quebec, viz. industrial, and agricult-
 ural centers from the eastern seaboard.


                                   -53-

          (c) Deny Red and Crimson and make available to Blue, the principal
 air bases in eastern Canada.
          (d) Deny Crimson coal and iron from Nova Scotia and Newfoundland as
 well as all imports via the Atlantic.
      (3) The Great Lakes Area.
          This area comprises several critical points:
          (a) Niagara River crossings and Welland Canal.
          (b) The waters connecting Lake Huron and Lake Erie.
          (c) The great industrial area of Canada - that part of Ontario lying
 between Lake Huron and Lakes Erie and Ontario.
          (d) The waters connecting Lake Superior and Lake Huron, including
 the Soo Locks.
          (e) The Sudbury nickel-copper mines.
      Control of the Great Lakes waterway is vital to Blue, for the transporta-
 tion of iron ore, coal and grain and such control will necessitate occupation
 of a bridgehead covering the narrow boundary waters at and near the Soo
 Locks and in the Detroit Area.  The bridges over the Niagara River and the
 Welland Canal, connecting Lake Erie and Lake Ontario are of importance to
 Blue for occupation of the Important industrial area of the Niagara-Ontario
 peninsula.  The Welland Canal would become of importance as a line of communi-
 cation if Blue seized the peninsula.  While control of that area is of
 importance in crippling Crimson industry, it is probably of greater importance
 in denying the enemy Crimson and Red, a most convenient base for operations
 against highly industrialized areas in the United States.
      (4) Winnipeg Area.
          Winnipeg is the nerve center of the transcontinental railroad
 system.  Control by Blue will effectively separate eastern and western
 Canada and block transportation on men, grain, coal, meat and oil to the
 east.  The completion of the Canadian National Railroad to Churchill
 Manitoba on Hudson Bay and the development of the port at Churchill provide
 an alternate route to Europe via Moosonee, Ont., and the Tem. and Ont.
 Ry. to northeast Ontario.  While the water route through Hudson Bay is only
 open about four months of the year, and the ports are supplied by single
 track railroads, a considerable amount of traffic could be developed in an
 emergency.
      (5) Vancouver - Victoria Area.
          As pointed out above, the ports in this area are of secondary im-
 portance only under the conditions, which may reasonable be assumed.  How-
 ever, the area has certain military importance, due to the naval base at
 Esquimalt, and is a possible outlet for the Canadian plan provinces and
 western Canada.  Its control by Blue would deny the enemy any base or outlet
 on the West Coast; simplify the problem of protecting our shipping in the
 Puget Sound area; and interrupt cable communication with the far east.
          While Prince Rupert, B.C. has an excellent harbor and terminal
 facilities with good rail connections leading east, naval blockade of this
 port would be readily possible, once the Vancouver - Victoria area was in
 Blue control.

   9. Routes of Approach to the Areas of Strategic Importance.
   a. Halifax - Monkton - St. John Area (Maritime Provinces) (Incls. D & H).
   _
      Three possible routes of approach are considered, viz:
      (1) Via water from Boston or New York to Halifax or vicinity.
      (2) Via water from Boston or New York to ports in Western Nova Scotia
 and thence overland to Halifax.


                                   -54-

      (3) From Eastern Maine, via St. John and/or Fredericton to Monkton -
 Amherst - Truro to Halifax.
   b. Discussion of Routes of Approach to the Halifax - Monkton  - St. John
   _
 (Maritime Province) Area.
      (1) The distance by water from Boston to Halifax is 370 miles and from
 New York 600 miles, or in time about 30 or 50 hours respectively.  The
 Port of Halifax is fortified and would undoubtedly be mined.  A frontal
 attack would require a large force and would involve undesirable delays.
 Other developed ports of Nova Scotia on the Atlantic are too distant from
       _________
 Halifax and involve a long advance after a landing is effected and this
 advance would be over difficult terrain.
          A number of undeveloped bays along the east shore offer favorable
 conditions for landing operations and of these, St. Margarets Bay, the near-
 est, being some 16 miles by road west of Halifax, appears satisfactory.
 Deep water, with a minimum depth of 7 fathoms extends nearly to the head of
 the Bay, not far from Hubley and French Village, which are on an improved
 road and on the railroad from Yarmouth to Halifax.  The bay is protected
 from all winds and seas, except those from the south and is of sufficient
 size to harbor any fleet required for the expedition.  Tidal range is the
 same as at Halifax, 6 to 6 1/2 feet.  There are numerous small but adequate
 boat and barge landings on the west, north and east shore of the bay, from
 whence improved roads lead to the main highway.
          The highway Hubbard - French Village - Hubley - Halifax is 18
 feet wide, of macadam, with east grades and with concrete bridges capable
 of carrying heavy artillery and tanks.  The railroad is single track,
 standard gauge and parallels the road.  It has rather heavy grades and is
 of light construction.
          Rocky wooded hills rise rather steeply to a height of 200 to 400
 feet all around St. Margarets Bay, but the roads are within the 50 foot
 contour and the terrain between the roads and the water is greatly rolling.
 The main highway French Village - Halifax, runs through low rocky hills
 and movement off the roads by wheeled vehicles would be practically im-
 possible.
      (2) The ports on the western shore of Nova Scotia off the Bay of Fundy
 are subjected to extremely high tides - 20 to 25 feet, and generally afford
 only limited terminal facilities and have depths generally inadequate for
 docking transports.  Tidal currents are strong.  From Windsor, on the Avon
 River, to Halifax, there is one improved road and a branch of the Canadian
 Northern Railroad.  The distance is about 50 miles, with high ground and good
 defensive positions in the center of the island.  As a route of approach to
 Halifax it is considered inferior to the route from St. Margarets Bay.
      (3) The All Land Route via Eastern Maine.
          This route involves an advance from the Maine border of approximately
 320 miles over difficult terrain.  The St. Johns River, rising near the border
 of northern Maine, flows south just east of the Maine - New Brunswick border
 to Woodstock, thence generally southeast through Fredericton to St. John.  It
 is navigable from the mouth to the falls some distance above Woodstock, N.B.
 The average tidal range at St. John is 20 1/2 feet, decreasing up stream.  The
 river is crossed by a highway and a railroad bridge at Fredericton, each
 nearly 1/2 mile long.  Two other bridges, a cantilever railroad bridge and a
 suspension bridge span the river about one mile above the city of St. John.
 There are numerous ferries operating alone the river.  It is apparent that
 the St. John River is a serious obstacle to any advance overland from
 Maine.  While the St. John could be bridged, such operations would
 result in considerable delay.


                                  -55-

          The railroad and road nets available are shown on Inclosures B,
 C and D.  They are reasonably adequate for a force of the size probably
 required for this operation.
      (4) Conclusion.
          If Halifax is to be captured without the use of large forces and
 expenditure of considerable time and effort, it must be accomplished promptly
 before Red reinforcements can be landed or Crimson organize for its defense.
 Any advance overland from Maine would eliminate all elements of surprise and
 make the capture extremely difficult - a major operation.
          An overseas expedition is one of the most uncertain of military
 operations, and with the Red fleet on guard in the North Atlantic, with
 Red's immediate military objective the retention of a base in eastern
 Canada for future operations against Blue, a joint operation against Halifax
 must be promptly and perfectly executed to assure any hope of success.  This
 route is considered the best but existing conditions at the time, may make
 this route impracticable, and the all land route necessary.
   c. The St. Lawrence Area. (Quebec - Montreal)
   _
      The only practicable routes of advance for Blue, into this area, are
 from northern New York, New Hampshire and Vermont and from northwest Maine.
 (See map) (Incl. K)
      (1) Rivers.
          (a) The St. Lawrence River flanks the left side of all routes of
 approach to Quebec.  From Montreal to Three Rivers it flows through an
 alluvial plain, with the south bank 25 to 75 feet above the river.  Below
 Three Rivers the banks increase steadily in height to Quebec, where they are
 140 to 175 feet high. The normal rise and fall of the river above the tidewater
 is 10 feet but this maybe doubled by ice jams.  Tidal range reaches a
 maximum of 18 feet at Quebec, and practically disappears at Richelieu Rapids
 40 miles above Quebec. The river above Quebec is obstructed by ice from
 November to April but ice breakers can get through.  The river from Quebec
 to Montreal, generally about 1/2 to 2 miles wide (except at Lake St. Peter)
 is navigable on a 30' draft to Montreal.  The distance from Quebec to Mon-
 treal is 160 miles.
              In the area south of the St. Lawrence, between Quebec and Mon-
 treal, are several rivers of importance which will naturally influence any
 plans for an advance on Quebec, viz:
                          Richelieu River
                          St. Francis River
                          Nicolet River
                          Becancour River
                          Chaudiere River
                          Etchemin River
              Other streams will create obstacles of lesser importance.
          (b) The Richelieu River flows north from Lake Champlain to enter
 the St. Lawrence about 35 miles north of Montreal.  It is navigable on a
 6 1/2 foot draft throughout its length.
          (c) The St. Francis River rises in St. Francis Lake some 50 miles
 northwest of Jackman, Maine.  It flows southwest to Lennoxville, Quebec,
 where it turns sharply northwest to flow into the St. Lawrence (Lake St.
 Peter).  Headwaters are controlled.  The regulated flow is some 3000 feet
 per second or more, with an average fall of 6.6 feet per mile. It is not
 fordable below Sherbrooke.


                            -56-

          (d) The Nicolet River rises in Nicolet Lake, 8 miles west of Lake
 Alymer, and flows generally northwest to empty into the St. Lawrence at the
 east end of Lake St. Peter.  The average low water flow is about 2000 feet
 per second. Banks in the upper reaches - hilly wooded terrain - are steep
 and from 200 to 500 feet higher.  The average fall is about 21 feet per mile
 but there are a number of dams.  From Arthabaska to Lake St. Peter the stream
 flows through a flat open country, with banks 25 feet high or less, except
 for a gorge starting about 4 miles north of St. Clothilda and ending 3 miles
 from Lake St. Peter.  The river is not a serious obstacle but there are many
 swampy areas between it and the Becancour River.
          (e) The Becancour River rises about 5 miles northwest of Lake St.
 Francis and flows north, then southwest, then northwest to enter the St.
 Lawrence a few miles below Three Rivers, Que.  The lower reaches of the
 river, below the vicinity of Lyster, Que, flows through generally flat country
 of gentle slope.  The stream averages 300 to 400 feet wide and is fordable
 at few places.  From Maddington Falls to within 3 miles of the St. Lawrence
 the river flows through a narrow gorge 100 to 250 feet below the surrounding
 flat country.  The river is not a serious obstacle to an advance on Quebec,
 by reason of the general direction of flow in its lower reaches and the
 characteristics of the country.
          (f) The Chaudierre River rises in Lake Megantic, about 45 miles
 west of Jackman, Maine and flows generally north into the St. Lawrence, op-
 posite Quebec.  From Lake Megantic to Hersey Mills, it flows swiftly between
 steep banks in a narrow valley.  The adjacent terrain is rugged and heavily
 timbered.  From St. George to Valley Junction the valley widens materially
 and the country is less rugged.  Below Valley Junction the river flows through
 gentle undulating country between relatively low banks.  The Chaudiere is a
 strong swift stream with an average discharge of over 4000 feet per second.
 The width varies from 200 feet at St. George to 400 feet or more in the lower
 reaches.  From St. Maxine to the St. Lawrence it is 600 to 1500 feet wide.
 This river must be considered a serious obstacle.
          (g) The Etchemin River rises in Lake Atchemin and flows northwest
 into the Chaudiere.  It is 200 to 300 feet wide in the lower reaches, with
 banks generally high and steep.  It forms a considerable obstacle.
      (2) Terrain.
          The southerly portion of the area bordering on the United States,
 east of the Richelieu River, is hilly verging on mountainous (up to 3000').
 The Notre Dame Mountains extend the Green Mountains of Vermont in the form
 of a series of ridges, gradually decreasing in elevation from Lake Champlain
 northeast to the meridian of Quebec, thence northeast parallel to the St.
 Lawrence.  From the St. Lawrence the terrain rises smoothly and gradually
 toward the southeast to the foothills of the Notre Dame Mountains.  On the
 line Montreal Sherbrooke a serious of eight hills (wooded) rise sharply
 to heights varying from 800 to 1500 feet or more above the surrounding
 country.
          In general the hills of the Quebec theatre are wooded, those below
 the 500 foot contour and east of the Becancour River sparsely, while west
 of the river there are densely forested areas at intervals.
      (3) Roads.
          The main roads to Montreal lead north from Plattsburgh, New York and
 Burlington, Vermont.  Quebec may be reached via routes No. 1 and 5, through
 Sherbrooke, Que; via route No. 3 along the south bank of the St. Lawrence;
 or via Montreal and the north bank of the St. Lawrence.  The latter is the
 longest route and undoubtedly the most difficult.  Another route is available
 from Jackman, Maine, via route No. 23 through Valley Junction.  The road
 net available is shown on inclosure No. "D" and "K."


                                   -57-

      (4) Railroads.
          The railroads available are shown on inclosures "B" and "C."  They
 are entirely adequate for any probable movement against this area.
      (5) Discussion of routes.
          (a) Northern New York - Vermont to Montreal
               Roads: No. 9 from Plattsburgh to St. Lambert and South Mon-
 treal.  Distance 69.2 miles, all paved.
                      No. 7 from Burlington, Vt., via St. John, Que. to
 St. Lambert or South Montreal.  Distance 94.2 miles, all paved.  There is
 a bridge across the Richelieu River at St. Johns.  There are two highway
 bridges across the St. Lawrence at Montreal.
              Railroads: Delaware and Hudson - Albany to Montreal.
                         New York Central - Malone to Montreal.
                         Rutland and C.P. - Burlington to Montreal.
                         Central Vermont and C.N. Montpelier to Montreal.
              Comments: The terrain is favorable and no physical barrier
 to the advance as far as the St. Lawrence, except the crossing of the Rich-
 elieu River, for a force moving from Vermont.  An advance on Quebec from
 Montreal is possible, but offers the longest route, with many rivers per-
 pendicular to the line of advance (down the St. Lawrence) which offer
 excellent defensive positions.
          (b) Northern Vermont and New Hampshire to Quebec.
                Physical features: The Richelieu River on the west and the
 Chaudiere and Etchemin Rivers on the east tend to delimit the zone of advance.
              Roads:
                No. 5 - Newport, Vt. to Sherbrook then No. 7 to Valley
 Junction to the highway bridge on the St. Lawrence and to Quebec, or via
 No. 23 from Scott Junction to Levis, Que and the ferry to Quebec.  Distance
 212.5 miles from Newport, Vt.  All improved road, mostly gravel.  Some of
 the road through the hilly country is paved.  No. 5 from Sherbrooke via
 Victoriaville is an alternate route.
                No. 23, Jackman, Maine - Valley Junction - Levis.  This dis-
 tance is 109 miles.  The road is improved and about 50% paved.  It is the
 shortest route.  It crosses the Chauderie and Etchemin Rivers. There are
 numerous alternate routes and connecting roads.
                Railroads:
                   Canadian Pacific - Newport to Quebec.
                   Canadian Pacific - Jackman via Megantic to Quebec.
                   Canadian National - Portland, Me., via Sherbrooke to Quebec.
                Comments:
                   While the terrain in this sector is hilly verging on the
 mountainous, with several defiles and river crossings, it offers the short-
 est and best route of advance on Quebec.

    d. The Great Lakes Area.
    _
        This area must be considered under the following subdivisions, as the
 routes of approach vary, and approach must be made from all of these direc-
 tions.
            The Buffalo - Niagara River Area.
            The Port Huron - Detroit Area.
            The Sault St. Marie or Soo Locks - Sudbury Area.
       (1) The Buffalo - Niagara River Area.
             Bridges cross the Niagara River at Buffalo (Peace Bridge);
 at Niagara Falls (suspension Bridge) and the (lower Arch Bridge) and at
 Lewiston, New York. "      "   "


                                -58-

           Roads: The road net approaching the Niagara River from the
 United States and leading across the river into southern Ontario and through
 Hamilton to Toronto and Montreal, is one of the best along the inter-
 national boundary and is entirely adequate for any probably movement.
           Railroads: The Canadian Pacific and the Canadian National rail-
 roads have a network of railways connecting Buffalo with Toronto and points
 east.  Branch lines lead to all important parts of the Niagara peninsula.
           Comment: The crossings over the Niagara River should be promptly
 secured to assure a line of advance into the Niagara Peninsula of Ontario.

      (2) The Detroit - Port Huron Area.
           This area has much the same characteristics as the Buffalo
 Niagara River Area but beyond securing the crossings over the boundary
 waters, sufficient area to cover the Great Lakes water routes against
 Crimson interference is essential.
           Crossings:
              Ambassador Bridge - Detroit - Windsor.
              Two tunnels (one railroad) Detroit - Windsor.
              Numerous ferries.
           Railroads and roads: There is an excellent railroad and road net
 available for any advance eastward from Detroit and Port Huron.
           Comment: The Ontario Peninsula is of great industrial importance
 to Canada and a military area of great strategic value, as a base for air
 or land operations against the industrialized areas between Chicago and
 Buffalo.  Any Blue operations should advance via Buffalo - Niagara Falls and
 Port Huron - Detroit simultaneously.

      (3) Sault Ste. Marie - Sudbury Area.
           The best route of approach to the Sudbury area, about 200 miles
 east of the Soo, is obviously via Sault St. Marie, along the north shore
 of North Channel.  An operation along this route, automatically covers the
 Soo.  The Canadian Pacific railroad and one good gravel road leads east
 from the Soo.  These provide ample facilities for supply of the probable
 force required.  The southern flank of this line is protected by North
 Sound and the north flank by rough heavily wooded terrain entirely devoid
 of roads or other communications suitable for the movement of armed forces.

      (4) Winnipeg Area.
            The main route from the United States to Winnipeg is north
 from Grand Forks and Crookston through Emerson.  A main road follows the
 west bank of the Red River, from Emerson into Winnipeg.  A good hard sur-
 face road from Grand Forks and one from Crookston furnishes a suitable
 road net south of the border.  There are several secondary roads on both
 sides of the border to supplement the hard surface roads.
            The Canadian Pacific has two main lines extending north from
 the border, one leading from Fargo through Gretna along the west bank of
 the Red River, and one from Thief River Falls, through Emerson along the
 east bank of the Red River.  The Canadian Northern has a line from Grand
 Forks through Emerson Junction to Winnipeg on the west bank of the Red
 River and another line connecting with Duluth and extending through
 Warroad to Winnipeg.
            The best and only practicable route of approach is obviously
 north from Grand Forks and Crookston.  The terrain is flat and open and
 offers no natural obstacles to an advance.


                                     -59-

            Churchill, on Hudson Bay, has rail connection by the Canadian
 National system at Hudson Bay Junction about 325 miles northwest of Winni-
 peg.  The best and only route of approach to cut this line is along the
 railroad from Winnipeg.

      (5) The Vancouver Area (Vancouver - Victoria) (See Incl. E & L) (Omitted)
            The best practicable route to Vancouver is via Route 99 through
 Bellingham, a distance of 55 miles and over a paved highway, through wooded
 and farming country.  A secondary and longer route lies about 15 miles fur-
 ther to the east running through Sumas to strike the highways running east
 from Vancouver at the meridian of Mission City.
             The Grand Trunk Railroad extending from Vancouver to Seattle fur-
 nishes a satisfactory rail service.
             Victoria and Esquimalt, on the island of Vancouver can be reached
 by water only.  Ferry service is maintained between Vancouver and Nanaimo on
 the east shore of the island, some 50 miles north of Victoria and between
 Vancouver, Burlingham and Port Angeles and Victoria.  The best route of ap-
 proach is by water from Port Angeles, Washington.

  IV. Conclusions:
      ___________
   a That the critical areas of Canada are:
   _
          (1) The Halifax-Monkton-St.John Area (The Maritime Provinces).
          (2) The St.Lawrence Area (Quebec and Montreal).
          (3) The Great Lakes Area.
          (4) The Winnipeg Area.
          (5) The Vancouver Area (Vancouver and Victoria).

    b. That the best routes of approach to these areas are:
    _
    To  (1) By joint operations by sea from Boston.
        (2) From Northern New Hampshire-Vermont area.
        (3) (a) From Sault St. Marie and the Soo Locks Area.
            (b) From Port Huron - Detroit Area.
        and (c) From the Buffalo-Niagara Falls Area.
        (4) From Grand Forks-Crookston through Emerson.
        (5) Along Puget Sound through Everett and Bellingham, supported
               by an attack by water in Puget Sound.

    V. Recommendations.
       _______________
          None.

   VI. Concurrences.
       ____________
          The committee concurs in the foregoing conclusions.

                                       CHARLES H. JONES
                                       Major, Infantry,
                                    Subcommittee Chairman.

The original source of this article is Global Research

 

Tulsi Gabbard: “The DNC and Corporate Media Are Rigging the Election Again”

10 October 2019

Introductory note

Tulsi Gabbard has identified the nature of the electoral fraud committed by the Democratic National Committee in the 2016 primaries.

The 2016 Democratic Primary election was rigged by the DNC and their partners in the corporate media against Bernie Sanders.

In this 2020 election, the DNC and corporate media are rigging the election again, but this time against the American people in the early voting states of Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Nevada. ( See video and transcript below)

DNC chair Debbie Wasserman Schultz and Hillary Clinton conspired in 2015-16 with a view to undermining Bernie Sanders candidacy in the primaries in favor of Clinton.

There is ample evidence of rigging in 2016. Ironically this was confirmed by The Democratic Party’s DNC chair Donna Brazile who took over upon the resignation of  Wasserman Schultz:

I had promised Bernie when I took the helm of the Democratic National Committee after the convention that I would get to the bottom of whether Hillary Clinton’s team had rigged the nomination process, as a cache of emails stolen by Russian hackers and posted online had suggested. I’d had my suspicions from the moment I walked in the door of the DNC a month or so earlier, based on the leaked emails. (Donna Brazile, Politico, November 2, 2017, emphasis added)

These fraudulent actions including the rigging of the primaries conducted by the DNC of the Democratic Party were instrumental  in triggering Bernie Sanders loosing the primaries in favor of Hillary Clinton.

If he had won the Democratic Party nomination, would he have won the November 8, 2016 presidential elections against Donald Trump?

Without the DNC riggings of the nomination  process, Bernie Sanders could have become President of the United States.

Déjà Vu: What will be the outcome of the 2019-2020 primaries?

Michel Chossudovsky, Global Research, October 11, 2019

***

I am giving serious consideration to boycotting the next debate and I want to tell you why:

There are so many of you who I’ve met in Iowa and New Hampshire who have expressed to me how frustrated you are that the DNC and corporate media are essentially trying to usurp your role as voters in choosing who our Democratic nominee will be.

I share your concerns, and I’m sure that all our supporters throughout the country do as well.

The 2016 Democratic Primary election was rigged by the DNC and their partners in the corporate media against Bernie Sanders.

In this 2020 election, the DNC and corporate media are rigging the election again, but this time against the American people in the early voting states of Iowa, New Hampshire, South Carolina, and Nevada.

They are attempting to replace the roles of voters in the early states, using polling and other arbitrary methods which are not transparent or democratic, and holding so-called debates which are not debates at all but rather commercialized reality television meant to entertain, not inform or enlighten

In short, the DNC and corporate media are trying to hijack the entire election process.

In order to bring attention to this serious threat to our democracy, and ensure your voice is heard, I am giving serious consideration to boycotting the next debate on October 15th. I will announce my decision within the next few days.

With my deepest, and warmest aloha, thank you all again for your support.

*

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9/11: the deep state false flag that keeps on condoning Western terrorism at home and around the world

September 20, 2019

9/11: the deep state false flag that keeps on condoning Western terrorism at home and around the world

By: Jeff J. Brown for The Saker Blog

11 September 2019

Crosslinked with:

https://youtu.be/8k6jjP1Ez0E

https://soundcloud.com/44-days/911-the-deep-state-false-flag-that-keeps-on-condoning-western-terrorism-at-home-and-around-the-world

A tall building in a city Description automatically generated

Pictured above: In 2010, I saw this 23-second clip of the 52-story World Trade Center 7 collapsing and was gob smacked. As a certified science teacher with a good knowledge of physics, I could tell it was brought down by controlled demolition, with thermite cuts seen and heard on the face of the building, during its six-second freefall – saying to myself, “What the fugg?”. Unlike Harry Potter, you can’t suspend universal laws of physics. It was the beginning of my long and painful journey into the dark, evil heart of Western empire. As much as the bitter truth hurts, I’ve never looked back.

Many people would rather die than think; in fact, most do. – Bertrand Russell

In Book #2 of The China TrilogyChina Rising, I completely destroyed the official story about what happened on September 11, 2001. I am a certified science teacher and understand physics well. In 2010, after seeing the above clip of the 52-story WTC 7 coming down in free fall by controlled demolition, it was like becoming an actor in a Sherlock Holmes murder thriller. When one alibi is destroyed, the whole caper eventually gets exposed to the white light of truth. Unfortunately in this case, the culprits have not been brought to justice – yet.

After years of research and thousands of hours of investigation, I discovered just how evil and psychopathic Western elites really are, in their lust for power, property, capital and resources. To those ends, they pummel world citizens into fearful sheeple, with an endless cascade of false flag “terrorism” and “mass shootings”. No one wants to admit the bitter truth, but I refuse to live the rest of my life as a brainwashed, heavily-in-debt, super-consuming, useful idiot. We only get one chance on this planet and since 2010, my head has been held high.

The West’s neocons had been howling for years for a new Pearl Harbor (Project for the New American Century – PNAC) to shock the people into accepting global warfare on resource rich countries across Asia, from North Korea in the East to Libya in the West. Remember full spectrum dominance and George W. Bush’s grotesque “Axis of Evil”? With 9/11, these elite perps got the cowed public’s carte blanche to massacre, starve and sanction countless millions, destroy and occupy countries of their choosing, in order to steal the locals’ resources, plunder public treasuries for trillions of dollars and euros, via inflated “security” and corrupt arms contracts. A quick look at today’s headlines and world map shows just how lethal 9/11 was and is for millions of dark-skinned, mostly Muslim innocents around the world.

George Orwell wrote that the fascism of empire overseas always comes back to the home countries, to keep the natives just as oppressed as the colonies. It’s the only way the capitalist class can keep on robbing the citizens blind, as they are slowly driven into poverty and despair. Thus, 9/11 gave the elites the perceived mandate to shred civil and legal rights across Eurangloland. Using 9/11 as a wrecking ball, the Patriot Act and successive National Defense Authorization Acts (NDAA) have suborned Western constitutions into hollow charades. Your governments can detain you, search you and your property, seize your property, torture, disappear and kill you, with the stroke of a pen and without a shred of evidence. You are just getting a taste of Western, dystopian, police state destitution and government orchestrated propaganda, fear and loathing. It is going to get much, much worse. Hats off to author Suzanne Collins for her Hunger Games books. Art imitating life. That’s exactly where Euranglolanders are heading. Welcome to Panem, bay-bee.

Cui bono 9/11? Not you, that’s for sure. If you still cling to the absurd conspiracy theory that a gaggle of amateur Arabs with box cutters shut down the U.S.’s entire North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), you are in the dwindling minority. Latest polls show that a majority of Americans think their government is hiding the truth about 9/11. Well, DUH!

Alea iacta est. The die is cast and unfortunately, much damage has already been done, both at home and abroad. But with eyes wide open, we can all hope for an eventual Nuremburg-style crimes-against-humanity court to seek necessary justice and cloture, then we can work towards a more noble future for all of humankind.

Quit being a dupe and a patsy. The truth shall set you free. With dignity and awareness, you can hold your head high.

Jeff J. Brown is the author of The China Trilogy (https://chinarising.puntopress.com/2018/06/30/praise-for-the-china-trilogy-the-votes-are-in-it-r-o-c-k-s-what-are-you-waiting-for/), blogs and podcasts at www.chinarising.puntopress.com. His forthcoming book, Faster than a Speeding Bullet – the Chinese People’s Unstoppable Socialist Dream for Global Leadership into the 22nd Century, will be released in December, 2020.

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Israeli Apartheid Made Official: Annexation is the New Reality in Palestine

Annexing Palestinian land has officially moved from the right-wing fringe of Israeli politics to a centrist talking point and campaign promise.

September 17th, 2019

Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu is moving quickly to alter the political reality in Palestine, and facing little or no resistance.

On September 10, Netanyahu declared his intentions to annex swathes of Palestinian land adjacent to the Jordan River, an area that covers 2,400 square kilometers, or nearly a third of the Occupied West Bank. That region, which extends from Bisan in the north to Jericho in the south, is considered to be Palestine’s food basket, as it accounts for an estimated 60 percent of vegetables that are produced in the West Bank.

A Palestinian shepherd herds his flock near the Israeli settlement of Tomer in the Jordan Valley, April 2, 2017. Oded Balilty | AP

While Israel has already colonized nearly 88 percent of the entire Palestinian Ghoor (or Jordan Valley), dividing it between illegal agricultural settlements and military zones, it was always assumed that the militarily occupied region will be included within the border of a future Palestinian state.

Netanyahu’s announcement has been linked to Israel’s general elections of September 17. The Israeli leader is desperate, as he is facing “unprecedented alliances” that are all closing in to unseat him from his political throne. But this cannot be all. Not even power-hungry Netanyahu would alter the political and territorial landscape of Israel and Palestine indefinitely in exchange for a few votes.

Indeed, talks of annexation have been afoot for years and have long preceded the September elections or the previous ones in April.

A sense of euphoria has been felt among Israel’s rightwing officials since the advent of Donald Trump to the White House. The excitement was not directly linked to Trump but to his Middle East team, like-minded pro-Israel US officials whose support for Israel is predicated on more than personal interests, but religious and ideological beliefs as well.

White House senior adviser, Jared Kushner, selected his team very carefully: Jason Greenblatt as special envoy for Middle East peace, David Friedman as United States Ambassador to Israel, and layers of other second-tier officials whose mission was never aimed at resolving conflict or brokering peace, but supervising a process in which Israel finalizes its colonization of Palestine unhindered.

Kushner’s master stroke is epitomized in the way he presented his objectives as part of a political process, later named “Deal of the Century”.

In all fairness, Kushner’s team hardly labored, or even pretended to be, peacemakers, especially as they oversaw the US recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and of the occupied Golan Heights as Israeli territories. Indeed, none of these officials tried to hide their true motives. Just examine statements made by the just-resigned Greenblatt where he refused to name illegal Jewish settlements as such, but as “neighborhoods and cities”; and Friedman’s outright support for the annexation of parts of the Occupied West Bank, and much more.

The US political discourse seemed in complete alignment with that of Israel’s right-wing parties. When right-wing extremist politicians, the likes of Naftali Bennett and Ayelet Shaked, began floating the idea of annexing most or all of the Occupied West Bank, they no longer sounded like marginal and opportunistic voices vying for attention. They were at the center of Israeli politics, knowing full well that Washington no longer had a problem with Israel’s unilateral action.

It could be argued, then, that Netanyahu was merely catching up, as the center of gravity within his right-wing coalition was slipping away to younger, more daring politicians. In fact, Israel, as a whole, was changing. With the Labor Party becoming almost entirely irrelevant, the Center’s political ideology moved further to the right, simply because supporting an independent Palestinian state in Israel has become a form of political suicide.

Therefore, Netanyahu’s call for the annexation of Palestinian land east of the Jordan River must not be understood in isolation and only within the limited context of the Israeli elections. Israel is now set to annex large parts of the West Bank that it deems strategic. This is most likely to include all illegal settlement blocks and the Jordan Valley as well.

Israel Palestine Jordan Valley

An activist is surrounded by Israeli soldiers during a protest against Jewish settlements in the Jordan Valley, Nov. 17, 2016. Majdi Mohammed | AP

In fact, Netanyahu said on September 11 that he was ready to annex the Jordan Valley region even before the election date, but was blocked by the Attorney General’s office. Netanyahu would not have taken such a decision if it represented a political risk or if it faced pushback from Washington. It is, then, sadly, a matter of time.

Suspiciously absent in all of this are the Palestinian Authority (PA), the Arab League, the European Union and, of course, the United Nations and its many outlets and courts. Aside from a few shy statements – like that of the spokesperson of the UN, Stéphane Dujarric, decrying that “unilateral actions are not helpful in the peace process” – Israeli leaders are facing little or no hindrance whatsoever as they finalize their complete colonization of all Palestinian land.

Unable to stage any kind of meaningful resistance against Israel, the Palestinian leadership is so pathetically insisting on utilizing old terminologies. The official Palestinian response to Netanyahu’s annexation pledge, as communicated by Prime Minister Mohammed Shtayyeh, came only to underscore the PA’s political bankruptcy.

“Netanyahu is the chief destroyer of the peace process,” Shtayyeh said, warning that annexing parts of the West Bank would have negative consequences.

For his part, the PA leader Mahmoud Abbas resorted, once more, to empty threats. Abbas said in a statement, “All agreements and their resulting obligations would end if the Israeli side annexes the Jordan Valley, the northern Dead Sea, and any part of the Palestinian territories occupied in 1967.”

Neither Abbas nor Shtayyeh seem troubled by the fact that a “peace process” does not exist, and that Israel has already violated all agreements.

While the PA is desperately hanging on to any reason to justify its continued existence, Netanyahu, with the full support of Washington, is moving forward in annexing the West Bank, thus making apartheid an official and undisputed reality.

The Palestinian leadership must understand that the nature of the conflict is now changing. Conventional methods and empty statements will not slow down the Israeli push for annexation nor Tel Aviv’s determination to expand its apartheid to all of Palestine. If Palestinians continue to ignore this reality altogether, Israel will continue to single-handedly shape the destiny of Palestine and its people.

Feature photo | Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu speaks during a press conference in Tel Aviv, Israel, Sept. 10, 2019 where he vowed to begin annexing West Bank settlements if he wins national elections. Oded Balilty | AP. Editing by MintPress News

Ramzy Baroud is a journalist, author and editor of The Palestine Chronicle. His last book is ‘The Last Earth: A Palestinian Story’, and his forthcoming book is ‘These Chains Will Be Broken: Palestinian Stories of Struggle and Defiance in Israeli Prisons’. Baroud has a Ph.D. in Palestine Studies from the University of Exeter and is a non-resident research fellow at the Center for Islam and Global Affairs (CIGA) at Zaim University in Istanbul. Visit: www.ramzybaroud.net.

The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect MintPress News editorial policy.

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