لعبة دي ميستورا انتهت على تخوم كوريا

لعبة دي ميستورا انتهت على تخوم كوريا

سبتمبر 7, 2017

ناصر قنديل

– من حق قادة وفد الرياض المفاوض في جنيف أن يتهموا دي ميستورا بالخيانة، وهو الذي رعاهم وحمى خياراتهم التصعيدية، وهو الذي بارك بيان الرياض الذي اعتمدوه سقفاً للتفاوض، وهو الذي قال إنّ وفدهم يمثل الجهة الشرعية للتفاوض عن المعارضات السورية، يأتيهم اليوم ويقول فكّروا بواقعية، لقد خسرتم الحرب وعودوا بوفد موحّد وبشعارات تتناسب مع المتغيّرات وبسقف تفاوضي قابل لتحقيق تقدّم لكن من حق دي ميستورا أن يعلن نهاية اللعبة، فهذا الوفد المفاوض لم تعُد بيده أيّ ورقة قوة ليضعها دي ميستورا على الطاولة ويحميهم بها، لا وجود عسكري ذي قيمة، ولا نفوذ شعبي، ولا دعم سياسي ودبلوماسي يُعتدّ به. فاللاعبون الكبار الذين طلبوا منه رعاية هؤلاء وسقوفهم هم مَن غيّروا مواقفهم من واشنطن إلى باريس، والجغرافيا السورية تقترب من لحظة يكون الجيش السوري فيها القوة الوحيدة المسيطرة على مساحة ما بين الحدود والحدود، فماذا عساه يفعل، إلا ما تستطيعه الماشطة مع الوجه العكش؟

– أوهام جماعة الرياض كانت مبنيّة على فرضية قوامها أنّ بمستطاع الأميركيين فعل الأكثر، وأنّ حماية سقوف مرتفعة في التفاوض مكاسب أميركية خالصة، إنْ لم يكن للفوز بحلّ سياسي مناسب لهم ولأميركا، فتعطيل حلّ سياسي غير مناسب لهم ولأميركا، فتتنعّم أميركا بالبقاء فوق بعض الجغرافيا السورية بذريعة تعطل فرص الحلّ، ويتنعّمون هم بعائدات اعتمادهم المالي والسياسي والإعلامي إلى ما شاء الله، والسؤال الذي يطرحونه، لماذا لا تستطيع واشنطن مواصلة السير في تعطيل الحلّ السياسي متذرّعة بهم، بدلاً من الضغط عليهم بواسطة دي ميستورا وسواه لقبول سقف الهزيمة؟ وهو السؤال السعودي و»الإسرائيلي» ذاته بالمناسبة!

– في المواجهة الدائرة على الساحة الدولية سلّمت واشنطن بعجزها عن مجاراة خصومها، خصوصاً روسيا والصين وإيران عن المواجهة في الميدان، لكنها وثقت كثيراً بنظام العقوبات المالية لإقامة توازن قوى عنوانه، النظام المالي بوجه المنظومة المقاتلة، وكان التفاهم على الملف النووي الإيراني نموذجاً للتسوية الممكنة بين النظام والمنظومة، ومثله تسوية للملفات العالقة، من سورية إلى أوكرانيا، وقد تمّت صياغة عناوين هذه التسويات في اتفاق جون كيري وسيرغي لافروف كوزيرين لخارجية روسيا وأميركا، في مثل هذه الأيام قبل عام، لكن القيادات العسكرية والاستخبارية الأميركية رفضت السير بالاتفاق، وبعد ممانعة لم تصمد إلا لأيام خضع الرئيس الأميركي دونالد ترامب وسار بالخيار البديل، وهو استنفاد نظام العقوبات المالي، بناء على تقدير قوامه أنّ المنظومة المقاتلة قد استنفدت هوامش تأثيرها وساحاتها.

– جاء الحضور الكوري الشمالي إلى الميدان، معلناً بقوة صارخة أنّ المنظومة المقاتلة لا تزال في البدايات، ولديها الكثير لتفعله في مواجهة التحدّي، فاستنفر النظام المالي سقف العقوبات العالي بوجهها، ولم يفلح في الردع، بل زاد منسوب التوتر وارتفع سقف التحديات بلوغاً لمكان على الأميركيين الاختيار فيه بين الرضوخ للتسويات أو الذهاب لحرب يعلمون سلفاً استعصاء واستحالة تحمّل تبعات قرارها، فظهر خيار الردع المالي بعنوان مطالبة روسيا والصين بالتعاون في حصار كوريا الشمالية بالغذاء والمحروقات وانتقال الأموال النقدية، حتى تستسلم، فكان جواب الرئيس الروسي بليغاً، تريدون منّا تعاوناً في عقوبات نحن ضحاياها إنكم تمزحون ولا شك!

– بيد واشنطن قرار وحيد هو إعلان مقاطعة البنوك الروسية والصينية، على طريقة الذهاب في لعبة الشطرنج لنقلة انتحارية كأن تضع الوزير في وضعية كش ملك وهو أمام القلعة، وأنت تعلم أنه ميّت حكماً، هذا معنى إعلان الحرب المالية، في ظلّ العجز عن مواجهة المنظومة المقاتلة، لأنّ الردّ الرادع سيكون مشروعاً ودفاعياً، وعنوانه سقوط الدولار كعملة عالمية، وانشقاق النظام المصرفي العالمي، وهونغ كونغ تنتظر الدور ومثلها جنيف، كدول صغيرة ذات مكانة مصرفية وحياد سياسي، والعودة لنظام الذهب كمكافئ عالمي للعملات، بشّرت به قمة بريكس الأخيرة ضمن السطور وما بين السطور.

– الخبراء الأميركيون يقولون لا أحد في واشنطن ينصح أو يتجرأ على النصح بلعبة شمشون «عليّ وعلى أعدائي يا رب». وقادة النظام المصرفي النافذون في صناعة القرار يرفعون البطاقة الحمراء ضدّ القرارات المجنونة، ما يعني التسليم بسقوط نظام العقوبات، وليس فقط الذهاب للتفاوض في ملف كوريا الشمالية وسلاحها النووي، بل التفاوض على الخروج الأميركي الآمن من نظام العقوبات إلى التسويات كممر إلزامي… أولى التسويات على الطاولة سورية الموحّدة بقيادة الرئيس بشار الأسد بدءاً من دير الزور وسقوط منطقة شمال الفرات كمنطقة تموضع أميركي وخصوصية كردية… تبلّغ دي ميستورا وفهم وأفهم وأبلغ من يلزم… فلا عتب.

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U.S. economy to collapse: China, Russia, Iran dumping the dollar

Imperial Folly Brings Russia and Germany Together

Source

By Pepe Escobar

August 01, 2017 “Information Clearing House” – The Empire of Whiners simply can’t get enough when it comes to huff, puff and pout as the Empire of Sanctions.

With an Orwellian 99% majority that would delight the Kim dynasty in North Korea, the “representative democracy” Capitol Hill has bulldozed its latest House/Senate sanctions package, aimed mostly at Russia, but also targeting Iran and North Korea.

The White House’s announcement — late Friday afternoon in the middle of summer — that President Trump has approved and will sign the bill was literally buried in the news cycle amidst the proverbial 24/7 Russia-gate related hysteria.

Trump will be required to justify to Congress, in writing, any initiative to ease sanctions on Russia. And Congress is entitled to launch an automatic review of any such initiative.

Translation; the death knell of any possibilityfor the White House to reset relations with Russia. Congress in fact is just ratifying the ongoing Russia demonization campaign orchestrated by the neocon and neoliberalcon deep state/War Party establishment.

Economic war has been declared against Russia for at least three years now. The difference is this latest package also declares economic war against Europe, especially Germany.

That centers on the energy front, by demonizing the implementation of the Nord Stream 2 gas pipeline and forcing the EU to buy US natural gas.

Make no mistake; the EU leadership will counterpunch. Jean-Claude Juncker, president of the European Commission (EC), put it mildly when he said, “America first cannot mean that Europe’s interests come last.”

On the Russia front, what the Empire of Sanctions faces does not even qualify as a hollow victory. Kommersant has reported that Moscow, among other actions, will retaliate by banning all American IT companies and all US agricultural products from the Russian market, as well as exporting titanium to Boeing (30% of which comes from Russia).

On the Russia-China strategic partnership front, trying to restrict Russia-EU energy deals will only allow more currency swaps between the ruble and the yuan; a key plank of the post-US dollar multipolar world.

And then there’s the possible, major game-changer; the German front.

The Fools on the Hill

Even without considering the stellar historical record of Washington not only meddling but bombing and regime-changing vast swathes of the planet — from Iraq and Libya to the current threats against Iran, Venezuela and North Korea — the Russia-gate hysteria about meddling in the 2016 US presidential election is a non-story, by now thoroughly debunked.

The heart of the matter is, once again, energy wars.

According to a Middle East-based US energy source not hostage to the Beltway consensus, “the message in these sanctions is the EU has no future unless it buys US natural gas to cut out Russia. To deny Russia the natural gas market of the EU was the goal behind the just lost war in Syria to put the Qatar-Saudi Arabia-Syria-Turkey-EU pipeline in and the opening to Iran for an Iran-Iraq-Syria-Turkey-EU pipeline. None of these plans worked.”

The source adds as evidence the 2014 oil price war against Russia, orchestrated by “the dumping of Gulf States’ surplus oil or reserve capacity on the world market. Since this has failed to bring Russia to its knees, the destruction of the Russian natural gas market in the EU has become a national priority for the United States.”

As it stands, 30% of all EU oil and natural gas imports come from Russia. In parallel, the Russia-China energy partnership is being progressively enhanced. Russia is already geared to increase oil and gas exports to China and Asia as a whole.

The leadership in Berlin is now convinced that Washington is jeopardizing Germany’s energy diversification/energy security via the  sanctions war. Russian natural gas and oil is secured by overland routes and is not dependent on the oceans, which, as the energy source stresses, “are no longer under United States control. If Russia in response to United States belligerency drops an Iron Curtain over Europe, and redirects all its natural gas and oil exports to China and Asia, Europe will be utterly dependent on largely insecure sources of natural gas and oil such as the Middle East and Africa.”

And that bring us to the “nuclear” possibility in the horizon; a Germany-Russia alignment in a Reinsurance Treaty, as first established by Bismarck. CIA-related US Think Tankland is now actively discussing the possibility.

Another US business/political source, also a practitioner of thinking outside the (Beltway) box, stresses, “this is what it’s all about. That is the true goal of Russia, and the United States has fallen into the trap. The United States has had enough of Germany and what it considers dumping of German products on the United States through rigged currency. They are now threatening Germany with sanctions, and there is nothing Germany can do with the EU on their back facing vetoes from Poland, who is giving them trouble once again. The fools in Congress are really going after Germany, and throwing Germany in the arms of Russia.”

The US as the New Carthage

A possible Germany-Russia alliance, as I’ve written before, rounds up the China/Russia/Germany entente capable of reorganizing the entire Eurasian land mass.

The Russia-China strategic partnership is extremely attractive to German business, as it smoothes access via the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI). According to the business/political source, “the US is at war with China and Russia (but not Trump, our President) and Germany is having second thoughts about being nuclear cannon fodder for the US. I have discussed this in Germany, and they are thinking of renewing the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia. No one trusts this US Congress; it is considered a lunatic asylum. Merkel may be asked to leave for the leadership of the UN, and then the treaty would be signed. It will shake the world and end any thought of the United States being a global power, which it isn’t anymore.”

The source adds, half in zest,

“we think that Brzezinski died under the pressure of the realization that this was coming and that all his hatred of Russia and his life work to destroy them was becoming utterly undone.”

So, in a sense, it’s

“welcome to the 1930s all over again and the rise of nationalism in Europe. This time Germany will not make the mistakes of 1914 and 1941 but will stand against their traditional Anglo-Saxon enemies. The United States has truly become today’s Carthage and the disorder in Congress reflects the same stupidity of Carthage facing Rome. Legislators undermined their genius Hannibal as they are undermining the greatest president of the United States since Andrew Jackson. As Sophocles wrote in ‘Antigone’, ‘God first makes mad those he wishes to destroy.’ This Congress is mad.”

This article was first published by Sputnik –

The views expressed in this article are solely those of the author and do not necessarily reflect the opinions of Information Clearing House.

See also

German minister urges ‘countermeasures’ against US for Russia sanctions 

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America Declares Economic War Against Europe

Global Research, July 31, 2017

On Friday night, July 28th, U.S. President Donald Trump said that he would sign into law the increased economic sanctions (passed by 98-2 in the Senate and 419-3 in the House) against any business that is declared to have “knowingly provided goods or services … for construction, modernisation, or repair of Russia’s energy export pipelines.” 

Russia is the largest energy-supplier to the world’s largest energy-market, which is the European Union (EU). The biggest proportion of that trade is in Europe’s main source of energy, which is gas, which is pipelined into Europe from Russia. So: those pipelines are vitally important not only to Russia’s economy but to Europe’s.

President Trump had gotten Congress to agree to limit the application of this provision only to “The President, in coordination with allies of the United States, may impose five or more of the sanctions described in section 235 with respect to a person if the President determines that the person knowingly, on or after the date of the enactment of this Act, makes an investment described in subsection (b) or sells, leases, or provides to the Russian Federation, for the construction of Russian energy export pipelines, goods, services, technology, information, or support.” 

But the new law still does include “SEC. 232. SANCTIONS WITH RESPECT TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF PIPELINES IN THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION.” That Section punishes “Goods, services, technology, information, or support described in this subsection are goods, services, technology, information, or support that could directly and significantly facilitate the maintenance or expansion of the construction, modernization, or repair of energy export pipelines by the Russian Federation.” That includes the crucial Nord Stream pipeline, which is maintained by Russian and German companies to transport gas from Russia to the EU.

U.S. firms have thus now gotten their stooges in Congress to punish European and Russian companies that will be determined by “The President, in coordination with allies of the United States,” to be working together in these ways, to get Russia’s gas to Europe’s markets.

North Stream, or Nord Stream, “has an annual capacity of 55 billion cubic metres (1.9 trillion cubic feet), but its capacity is planned to be doubled to 110 billion cubic metres (3.9 trillion cubic feet) by 2019, by laying two additional lines.[5] Due to EU restrictions on Gazprom, only 22.5 billion cubic metres (790 billion cubic feet) of its capacity is actually used.[6] The name occasionally has a wider meaning, including the feeding onshore pipeline in the Russian Federation, and further connections in Western Europe.(Wikipedia)

So, already, the U.S. oligarchs have greatly reduced the effectiveness of this enormous European and Russian investment, and this is already war by the U.S. oligarchs (and their congressional agents) against both the European Union and Russia; but, the new sanctions aim to go even further to absolutely cripple Europe and Russia.

President Trump is to be credited for having weakened this provision to such an extent that it will be virtually meaningless; but, the intention of the oligarchs who control the U.S., to force Europe to buy from them, and from their allied Saudi, UAE, Kuwaiti, and the other royal fundamentalist Sunni Arabian families, is clear.

Other highlights from this new U.S. law are well summarized in the July 28th article from Zero Hedge, “Trump Confirms He Will Sign Russia Sanctions Bill”.

The biggest concession that Trump made was to allow that this new law, “H.R.3364 – Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act”, “Codifies existing US sanctions on Russia and requires Congressional review before they are lifted.” This is an Executive-Legislative agreement (an agreement between the President and Congress), but the U.S. Constitution doesn’t include any provision allowing an Executive-Legislative agreement to violate the Constitution; and there are a number of provisions in the U.S. Constitution that H.R.3364 might be determined by courts to be violating, as regards relinquishment to Congress of certain Executive powers over the negotiation of treaties, and over the President’s powers as Commander-in-Chief. This is presuming, of course, that key judges cannot be bought-off.

When a country is being ruled by its oligarchs, anything that the nation’s Constitution says, can be viewed as little more than an impediment, not any outright ban, because the actual Constitution, in any such country, is whatever they want it to be. Just how bad the U.S. government has become, can’t yet be determined, but might become clear fairly soon.

Meanwhile, some senior journalists in Europe (such as this) are already beginning to argue that American policy toward Russia is not only draining massive funds from EU countries, but is driving a split in the EU, and also within NATO, which might break Europe apart, into the Eastern European, former Soviet countries, allied with the U.S.; versus the Western European countries, allied with Russia — driving potentially toward the termination of NATO, and of the EU, into an entirely new system of alliances: “Eastern Europe is a powder keg with several, burning lances. Twenty-eight years after the fall of the Soviet Union and the establishment of democracies, the region is sinking into a political crisis,” which has the United States backing the most far-right Eastern European countries, against Russia, but in which the Western European countries become increasingly allied with Russia.

It could happen.

It would not produce an anti-U.S. Western Europe, except to the extent that U.S. policies aim against Russia.

It would thus mean the end of the secret anti-Russia operation that U.S. President George Herbert Walker Bush initiated on the night of 24 February 1990, and that has been carried out by the U.S., EU, and NATO, uninterrupted, ever since.  

Investigative historian Eric Zuesse is the author, most recently, of  They’re Not Even Close: The Democratic vs. Republican Economic Records, 1910-2010, and of  CHRIST’S VENTRILOQUISTS: The Event that Created Christianity.

This article was originally published by Strategic Culture Foundation.

Currency War Escalation: Iran Wants Euros Instead of US Dollars for Oil Payments

Global Research, February 07, 2016
Silent Crow News 7 February 2016
US-dollar-300x188-federal-note

Washington must be getting nervous with the latest announcement from Iran’s state-owned oil company, the National Iranian Oil CO (NIOC) which declared that Iran will replace US dollars with Euros for its oil trades according to a Reuter’s news article titled ‘Exclusive: Iran wants euro payment for new and outstanding oil sales – source’. Iran wants something (well almost anything) to bypass the US dollar with other currencies because of Washington’s willingness to impose sanctions whenever it wants on the Iranian republic.

“Iran wants to recover tens of billions of dollars it is owed by India and other buyers of its oil in euros and is billing new crude sales in euros, too, looking to reduce its dependence on the U.S. dollar following last month’s sanctions relief” the report said. Watch for AIPAC’s “bought and paid for” politicians in Washington call for more sanctions on Iran because they will find something to blame the Iranian government even global warming if they can get away with it. Reuters said:

A source at state-owned National Iranian Oil Co (NIOC) told Reuters that Iran will charge in euros for its recently signed oil contracts with firms including French oil and gas major Total, Spanish refiner Cepsa and Litasco, the trading arm of Russia’s Lukoil

Iran has close ties to Russia and China political and economically and can now strategically pivot to other currencies without the threat of war by the US and of course, Israel. “In our invoices we mention a clause that buyers of our oil will have to pay in euros, considering the exchange rate versus the dollar around the time of delivery,” the NIOC source said.   It is important to note that Reuters also said that “Switching oil sales to euros makes sense as Europe is now one of Iran’s biggest trading partners”.  This brings us back to the Iraq War when the main-stream media (Judith Miller and the New York Times in particular) lied to the world about Iraq’s Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD). One of the main reasons that Washington decided to declare war on Iraq was Saddam Hussein’s decision to accept Euros in November 2000 for oil trades instead of US dollars. Remember, the Bush regime and his “Neocon” gang members also blamed the Iraqi government for the September 11th attacks, so what does Washington have up its sleeves regarding Iran’s latest announcement?

Can a new call for sanctions against Iran take center stage in congress if Iran were to test new missiles or conduct Naval exercises within their territory in the future? Many in congress including Senators John McCain and Charles Schumer would vote for new sanctions so that the Obama administration can slap on additional sanctions on top of the sanctions already in place for Iran’s recent missile tests. The latest sanctions prevent several entities and individuals linked to the Iranian missile program from using any US banking system for their transactions. So which currency does the U.S. banking system use for its transactions? US dollars and that’s exactly the point and that is why Iran wants all of its past and future payments in Euros to avoid sanctions which has caused economic hardships for the Iranian people for decades.

US hegemony in the Middle East is fueled by the power of the petrodollar. The US dollar still represents at least 60% of the world’s reserve currencies. So do the recent moves to replace the US dollar by Iran, Russia and China dethrone the world’s most used currency anytime soon? No. But the world is gradually making moves to transition away from the US dollar without causing any major disruptions in the world economy and that is what makes Washington very nervous.

The Real Reasons For the Iran Agreement. Putting More Pressure on Russia

US Iran

Obama is being praised as a man of peace for the nuclear agreement with Iran. Some are asking if Obama will take the next step and repair US-Russian relations and bring the Ukrainian imbroglio to an end?

If so he hasn’t told Assistant Secretary of State Victoria Nuland or his nominee as Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Air Force General Paul Selva, or his nominee as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Marine General Joseph Dunford, or his Secretary of the Air Force, Deborah Lee James.

The other day on Ukrainian TV Victoria Nuland declared that if Russia does not “fulfill its obligations,” by which she means to turn all of Ukraine over to Washington including Crimea, a historical Russian province, “we’re prepared to put more pressure on Russia.” During the past week both of Obama’s nominees to the top military positions told the US Senate that Russia was the main threat to the US, an “existential threat” even. With this level of war rhetoric in play, clearly Obama has no interest in reducing the tensions that Washington has created with Russia.

In my last column I wrote that the agreement with Iran does not mean much, because Washington can renew the sanctions at any time merely by making false charges against Iran. Obama knows this even if Lindsey Graham and John McCain pretend that they don’t know it.

The US and its proxies continue to murder people over a large area of the earth. Clearly Obama is not a man of peace, and neither are his European enablers and the United Nations. So what is the reason for the accommodation with Iran after many years of rabid demonization of a country for no other reason than the country insisted on its rights to nuclear energy granted by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty?

If you can free yourself from the brainwashing from the presstitute media, three BIG reasons jump out at you. One is that the neoconservatives’ perception of the threat has shifted from “Muslim terrorists” to Russia and China. Unlike Muslim terrorists, both Russia and China are constraints on Washington’s unilateralism. Since the collapse of the Soviet Union, Washington has grown accustomed to being the Uni-Power, able to exercise its will unchallenged in the world. The rise of Russian strength under Putin and Chinese strength under the new policy has destroyed Washington’s Uni-Power privilege. Washington wants the privilege back.

Washington is not in good shape, economically or militarily. According to Nobel Economist Joseph Stieglitz and Harvard University budget expert Linda Bilmes, Washington has wasted at least $6 trillion dollars in its 14-year old wars in the Middle East. Despite the extraordinary cost, Washington has been defeated, and is now faced with the Islamic State, a new entity arising out of Washington’s mistakes that is creating a new country partly out of Iraq and partly out of Syria.

Despite its gigantic hubris, Washington has figured out that the US cannot simultaneously take on Russia, China, Iran, and the Islamic State. This realization is one reason for the nuclear agreement with Iran. It removes Iran from the mix.

A second reason for the agreement is that Iran is opposed to the Islamic State and can be employed as an American proxy against the Islamic State, thus freeing Washington for conflict with Russia and China.

A third reason for Washington’s agreement with Iran is Washington’s concern with Europe’s energy dependence on Russia. This dependence is inconsistent with the EU going along with Washington’s sanctions against Russia and with NATO’s military moves against Russia. Washington wants to end this dependence and has hopes that money can bring Iran into becoming a supplier of natural gas and oil to Europe.

The explanation I have provided is realism, not cynicism. All that the agreement with Iran means is that Washington has belatedly realized that the concocted Iranian and Muslim threats are using up time, energy, and resources that Washington needs to apply to Russia and China. Moreover, there were too many threats for the American people to know which was paramount.

One of the reasons that Greece has to be destroyed is to block the entry of Russian natural gas into Europe from the Russian pipeline into Turkey.

Washington has US troops in Ukraine training the Ukrainian military how to subdue the break-away provinces, and the stooge Ukrainian government has taken no steps to comply with the Minsk Agreement. Clearly Washington intends that peace is not in the cards in Ukrainian-Russian relations.

At some point Russia will have to accept defeat or else stop contributing to its own defeat. On more than one occasion when the Russian break-away provinces had the Ukrainian military totally defeated, the Russian government intervened and prevented the collapse of the Ukrainian military. For its consideration, Russia has been rewarded with more demonization and with US aid to the Ukrainian military. When hostilities resume, which they will, Russia and the break-away Russian provinces will find themselves in a worsened position.

The Russian government cannot pursue peace when Washington is pursuing War.

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Skipping Victory Day in Moscow West Unwillingly Made Russia and China Get Much Closer

Dmitry MININ | 20.05.2015 | 10:46

The news that Western leaders skipped the Victory Day celebrations in Moscow on May 9 hit the radar screen. Chinese leader Xi Jinping was at the top of the guest list. Did they pull a boner? It has become the most frequently asked question in the United States and Europe. 

Claire de Morsier of French Le Temps wrote that ignoring the Moscow festivities was tactless and even dangerous. 

According to her, the attempts to humiliate Russia only strengthen anti-Western and nationalist feelings in the country. In its comments on the presence of Chinese President Xi Jinping at the military parade Newsweekwrote that it was the event «some analysts have described as a “Nixon Goes to China” moment in reverse». Benny Avni of the New York Post  wrote, «…our Western European allies, who stayed away from the parade. Chinese President Xi Jinping, however, did not. He was seated quite comfortably right next to Putin. Xi waxed poetically about the historical Russian-Chinese alliance since fighting together in WWII.» To sum things up he added, «Politicians periodically talk of a «new American century.» Let’s hope the 21st won’t turn into the Sino-Russian century instead».

There is ground for coming to this kind of conclusions. The West does its best to confirm the fact. Educated people in the West have heard at least something about the role of the Soviet Union. But they know nothing about the China’s contribution into the Second World War. Americans and Europeans are dead sure that the United States fully shouldered the burden of war against Japan. In reality the Soviet Union was the country that bore the brunt of war effort against the countries of «axis» in Europe. The contribution of China and the USSR was decisive in the effort to achieve victory in Asia. The striving for historic veracity is one of the things that unite Russia and China. 

There is no doubt Russian President Vladimir Putin will be the main guest at the Victory Day celebrations to be staged in Beijing on September 3. Western leaders are expected to be there too. Putin will pay tribute to great contribution of Chinese people into the victory. 

The Second Sino-Japanese War was fought primarily between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan from 1937 to 1941. There had been smaller scale combat actions before the full-blown war started. In 1931, Japan invaded Manchuria. Leaving the prejudices spread among Europeans aside, it would be logical to backtrack the events to those dates instead of Hitler’s attack against Poland. By that time Japan had joined the Anti-Comintern Pact along with Germany and Italy and stepped on the path of struggle for global dominance.

The previous military expeditions of Italy in Africa had no relation to the activities of the «axis» alliance. They were rather part of traditional colonial policy implemented by Italy. Unlike China, Africa was not considered to be a major theater of future war. In 1937 it became clear that the world conflict was inevitable. It really matters. 

This approach makes possible to see the events followed after the Japan’s intervention against China in different light. Those days diplomatic activities mainly boiled down to seeking allies, neutralizing potential enemies and forming coalitions. The war had already been started before the Munich collusion of 1938 and the non-aggression pact concluded between the Soviet Union and Germany in the August of 1939. Those events should be viewed through this prism. When Germany and Poland divvied up Czechoslovakia they committed an act of outright aggression to become belligerent states. It was logical to surmise that Poland would do the same when Germany attacked the Soviet Union. That’s why the Soviet-German non-aggression pact did not unleash the war but rather prevented the formation of more powerful coalitions in the east and the west. The three million strong Polish military armed with German weapons could make a serious contribution into making the German Wehrmacht even stronger. 

Munich-style collusion took place in the Far East too. China was fighting Japan alone since 1937 to 1941. Anglo-American allies were engaged in appeasement efforts actually satisfying the appetites of aggressor at the expense of others. They joined the war only when Japan attacked them. Today Washington and London want to belittle this fact. They are not ready to admit that the Second World War began in 1937 when Japan attacked China. Rana Mitter is a British historian who specializes in the history of republican China. He is Professor of the History and Politics of Modern China at the Institute for Chinese Studies at Oxford University and a Fellow of St. Cross College. In 2013 he wrote the book called China’s War with Japan, 1937-1945: The Struggle for Survival about the Second Sino-Japanese War. According to him, politicians hid the historic facts that people have a right to know. Over one million and a half of Japanese soldiers lost lives in China since 1931 till 1945. It accounts for 70% of all Japanese casualties in WWII. 64% of Japan’s ground forces were concentrated in China. 

Professor Atsushi Koketsu, the vice president of Japan’s Yamaguchi University and a distinguished historian, made calculations that enabled him conclude that Japan sent more troops to fight in China than to confront the United States. Besides, the war against China lasted three times longer than the war against America. Japan spent more money to fund its war effort in China in comparison with what it had to allocate for the hostilities against the United States. The puppet regimes of Manchukuo and other quasi-states lost 1, 18 million soldiers in the war against China. By the end of war Chinese forces took prisoner 1, 28 million Japanese soldiers and 1, 46 million servicemen of puppet states’ armies. The Kuomintang military was 3, 6 million strong. The China People’s Liberation Army had a strength over one million. From the point of view of the scale of operations the Sino-Japanese war could be compared only with the battles that took place at the Eastern Front in Europe where the Soviet Union confronted the Wehrmacht. 

According to Japanese archives, the strong resistance offered by China made Tokyo review its plans to occupy Australia and India, as well as join the German forces in the Persian Gulf making Great Britain and the United States face the consequences. China paid dearly for victory. According to the results of thorough research, the Chinese people lost 35 million of their compatriots during World War II. The cost of war exceeded $560 billion. The Japanese military deployed in China were often as brutal as Germans in Europe. The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking or Rape of Nanjing, was an episode of mass murder and mass rape by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (then spelled Nanking), the capital of the Republic of China. Soldiers of the Imperial Army murdered 200,000 Chinese civilians and disarmed combatants, and perpetrated widespread rape and looting. 

General Kenji Doihara, a leading intelligence officer, was behind the plans of the country’s destabilization and disintegration of the traditional structure of the Chinese society in order to diminish reaction to the Japanese plans using highly unconventional methods. He became the mastermind of the Manchurian drug trade. The General wanted to turn China into the largest opium producer and consumer to deprive the population of will to resist. It brings to mind the events of the XIX century – the Anglo-French opium monopoly in China. After the end of World War II, Doihara was prosecuted for war crimes in the International Military Tribunal for the Far East (the Tokyo Trials or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal was convened in 1946 to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for war crimes). Opium dens appeared everywhere. They had posters informing people that they were was under Japanese control. Chinese opium growers had perks. They were freed from land taxes and military service. Normally they got certificates of honor and were appointed village headmen. According to official data, every third citizen of Manchukuo was an opium addict. The revenue from drug business was used to fund the war effort. That’s how Japan planned to find «the final solution» to the China’s problem. Today it brings to mind the situation in Afghanistan, the country that has become the main source of drug trafficking threatening Russia and China. 

Russia and China have an experience of being comrades in arms. Together they shed blood fighting the one million strong Kwantung Army – the most capable and well-armed Japanese force deployed in the northern part of China at the Soviet border. The place of deployment happened to be a strategic trap. On the one hand, the Army could not launch an offensive against the Soviet Union because of the risk to be attacked by Chinese forces in the rear. On the other hand, the Kwantung Army could not advance deep into the Chinese territory leaving behind the powerful Red Army force deployed to the Far East. This historic experience should not be forgotten. There is a lesson to draw. As the old Chinese stratagem says, «Make friends to avoid war and keep the enemy wondering!» 

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