The quote, on our home page introduction to this post, ‘He who laughs…’ is from Brecht’s poem To Posterity. See whole poem at foot. The article from Haaretz is followed by an interview with Prof. Zeev Sternhell by Al Monitor.
Naftali Bennett, L, trying to get a laugh out of Yaakov Litzman, Health Minister and leader of the Agudat Yisrael [Hasidic] faction in United Torah Judaism. Photo from Yeshiva World, עודד קרני via Media Resource Group.
Naftali Bennett and his people have joined up with God and His commandments, and together they fight the Enlightenment and its abominations.
B. Michael, Haaretz premium
September 21, 2016
Last week, Education Minister Naftali Bennett said he prefers Jewish studies over science in order “to return and be a spiritual power and export spiritual knowledge to the entire world …. That’s how we’ll return to being a light unto the nations. For out of Zion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.”
When the laughter died down, the embarrassment began. Bennett, the most enthusiastic exponent of Judaism in its most inferior form, is the leader of a party that has made the essence of Judaism uninspiring and Jewish tastelessness the essence. And now he’s the one who wants to teach the world with his party’s spiritual good. How embarrassing.
But when the laughter and the embarrassment stopped, there was no choice but to admit it: Bennett can relax. He and his ilk have already made a unique contribution to the cognitive world; they have made a novel addition to political science: religious fascism, something that had never been seen before.
Fascism, in the clear definition of Prof. Zeev Sternhell, is an ideology, not a form of regime, that views the nation, not the individual, as the almost organic, almost living über-entity. The nation is like a tree, and the people are but the leaves with meagre rights.
To glorify and preserve the supremacy of the nation, fascism requires a war against enlightenment, liberal democracy, individual rights and universal humanism. After all, these abominations put the individual in the centre, and in doing so impair the supremacy of the national collective.
In fascism, democracy isn’t a structure of values but only an “aerobic” legislative technique, and culture is only meant to strengthen the nation’s spirit. As a result, these things must be enlisted to impose fascism, and/or to be emasculated by it. Racism, violence, thuggery and all the other dictatorial delights are just side effects of the implementation of the fascist ideology. And that’s it. That’s the Torah.
Those with sharp eyes certainly have noticed that one entity is missing: God. The Creator. The imaginary comrade in the heavens. Fascism has no God; not German, Italian or Spanish fascism. Fascism has always been secular because it thinks only about the nation, not God.
And then came the hardalim – the nationalist ultra-Orthodox types – with Bennett as their prophet (or at least his son). Fascism – with all its principles and ideology – has joined God and His commandments. This matchmaking was very successful. The theological pretexts have joined with the fascist ideology, and together they better fight the Enlightenment and its abominations.
Equality? God forbid. What’s-his-name in heaven chose us only. Individual freedom? Religious freedom? Freedom of conscience? Freedom of movement? What’s-his-name doesn’t allow it. Freedom of expression? Just a bit. For now. Until further notice. After all, excessive freedom of expression could damage the people’s faith in what’s-his-name, blessed be he.
Fraternity? Only between you and your neighbour, who’s like you, a member of the chosen people. “Brotherhood of nations?” God forbid; that’s for the atheists and communists. There’s no room for brotherhood between those who “go to the polls in droves” and those who have been chosen.
Democracy? Eroding steadily. Its fingers are used time and again for self-emasculation. Culture? It’s becoming more and more ridiculous; fear, sycophancy, superficiality and vanity control it.
Progressiveness? It has become a dirty word. Rule of law? It’s subordinated more and more to divine law. And nationalism, dark and evil in its own way, has returned, even though it’s ostensibly forbidden to Jews after the failed Bar Kochba revolt of the second century.
In short, fascism in all its [word or words missing] and minutiae, and all in the name of God. And everything under the supervision of the rabbis and all for the glory of the one holy nation, which continues to insist on being called democratic.
It’s truly a unique invention, and it deserves its own name. Maybe “theocism,” maybe “religiousism.” It’s without a doubt Bennett’s Judaism’s unique contribution to the world. And we will achieve his vision.
Talking to Al-Monitor, professor Zeev Sternhell warns that the values of democracy and liberalism, on which the State of Israel was founded, are being eroded by the nationalistic approach of the Israeli right.
Maj. Gen. Yair Golan, deputy chief of staff of the Israel Defence Forces, spoke about trends in Israeli society reminiscent of the dark European era between the world wars at a May 4 event marking Holocaust Remembrance Day, the start of an emotional and special period in which Israelis remember the Holocaust, honour their war dead (May 11) and celebrate their independence (May 12). Almost at the same time, the prime minister of Israel once again pointed to the antisemitic phenomena in the world and the Middle East, saying they remind him of the dark era that preceded the 1930s in Europe.
Nonetheless, historic analogies are not a matter for generals, nor the jurisdiction of politicians. To examine whether Israel 2016 is reminiscent of the 1930s in Europe, or whether the association is indeed unfounded, Al-Monitor sought the help of professor Zeev Sternhell, the former head of the political science department at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. It is hard to find a greater authority to referee the stormy debate sparked by Golan.
Fascism is the central theme in Sternhell’s personal and professional biography. Sternhell’s Polish family was murdered by the Nazis. He lived in hiding until being taken to France on a train full of children by the Red Cross. In 1951, at the age of 16, he immigrated to Israel, alone. He served as an officer in all the wars from the 1956 campaign in the Sinai Peninsula to the first Lebanon War in 1982. In 2008, he was injured by an explosive device placed at the entrance to his home by a radical right-wing activist.
Sternhell’s book “The Birth of Fascist Ideology” has been translated into seven languages. In awarding him the 2008 Israel Prize in Political Science, the judges said his studies had brought about significant change in the scientific community, in the concept of ideological movements in general, and radical ones in particular. “The things he says, even when their tone is critical, stem from a deep commitment to the state and society in Israel,” the judges added. The panel’s words may have been a veiled reference to his comments 18 years earlier to the now defunct Davar newspaper: “Only someone willing to crush [the West Bank settlement of] Ofra with tanks will be able to stop the fascist flood threatening to drown Israeli democracy.” In April, Sternhell was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In the interview, Sternhell presents to Israeli society an apocalyptic forecast such as canceling elections in Israel. History teaches us that often what seems today as an apocalypse later becomes the reality.
“Golan was right in every word he uttered,” Sternhell said at the outset of our conversation. “At the start of the previous century, antisemitism served as xenophobia. Today, hatred of the other serves the same role for the radical Jewish right in Israel. Fascism started developing as an extreme manifestation of violating the universal and ethical values of enlightenment and its political expression: liberalism, democracy and human rights. In the view of the radical Israeli right — the HaBayit HaYehudi party, the radical wing of the Likud, [Yisrael Beitenu Chair Avigdor] Lieberman and his people — adherence to enlightened values is childish. Therefore, hating the Arabs and abusing foreigners and refugees is permissible.
“The right sees liberal democracy as a danger to the people and the state and that’s why it strives to undermine it. For them nationalism is natural, whereas citizenry is artificial and that’s why it can be revoked. That is what Vichy France did in the 1940s when it adopted race laws and revoked the equal civil standing of the Jews, even of those whose grandfathers were born in France and fought in its wars.”
The full text of the interview follows.
Al-Monitor: Are we on the verge of fascism or perhaps we’re already there?
Sternhell: It’s a gradual process. We have yet to cross the red line, but we are dangerously close. We are at the height of an erosion process of the liberal values on which our society is based. Those who regard liberal values as a danger to the nation, the homeland and the Jewish state are the ones currently in power. They are striving to delegitimize the left and anyone who does not hold the view that conquering the land and settling it through the use of force are the fundamental foundations of Zionism. That’s why universal values and universal rights are enemies of the state, in their view.
What is the significance of this process?
For people like [Education Minister] Naftali Bennett and [Justice Minister] Ayelet Shaked [both of HaBayit HaYehudi], democracy is the rule of the majority. The next step is rule of the Jewish majority, since Arabs do not belong to the Jewish nation but rather to an artificial body known as “a community of citizens” who has no right to determine existential issues. After that, elections can be done away with altogether because we are in a constant state of emergency. The Israeli right operates by frightening those who don’t think like it does. Look what Minister Yuval Steinitz [reportedly] said — that if the comments of the deputy chief of staff had been made by a colonel, he would have been discharged from the army.
Those who deny the enlightenment of the past 250 years object to the notion that at any time and in any place, by virtue of his very being, man is a cognitive creature; that’s why he is a free creature equal to all other human beings. Already in the second half of the 18th century there were those who claimed that the only true rights were historic rights. The Jewish [political] right claims that our ownership of the land is defined in unique historic terms and that’s why the Palestinians do not have democratic rights.
Were you surprised by the findings of the Israel Hayom newspaper poll indicating that 59% of young Israelis [only Jews] identify with the right?
This is a natural outcome of the demographic growth of the various Orthodox groups and the chauvinist education provided by the school system. I’m surprised the figure of those identifying with the right isn’t higher — given the general climate in Israel, the naturalness of the colonial situation, the unquestioning trampling of Palestinian rights and the placing of the army at the beck and call of the settlers.
Given the positions adopted by the Labor Party and its possible decision to join the right-wing government, is there any future for the Israeli left?
Since [the right came to power in] 1977, the left wing of the Labou Party — the conformist left — has been following in the footsteps of the right in order not to be “cut off from the people.” The drift to the right is becoming more pronounced. The establishment left — which is more centre than left — is not scared by the occupation and the settlements and it also thinks there’s no solution to the conflict. In terms of an overall national strategy, the Labour Party is close to Netanyahu and will not have any trouble joining his government. This will lead to a moral collapse and also hasten the demise of the left.
Without domestic pressure, can foreign pressure stop the occupation and the flourishing nationalistic trends that support it?
Heavy international pressure can have a welcome effect on negotiations with the Palestinians and on preventing the disaster of a binational state, but not on stopping the destructive trends within Israeli society. This can only be done by Israeli society itself.
Do the growing power of the right throughout Europe and Republican presidential candidate Donald Trump’s rise signal that fascism is moving centre stage?
There is no methodological reason to assume that fascism and Nazism belong to the era between the two world wars and were buried forever in 1945. These phenomena are part of Western culture and could resurface, especially in times of crisis. The neoliberal economy and globalization hurt salaried workers in the West and the waves of immigration are threatening the unique culture of European society. Trump proves once again that anything can happen anywhere, and everyone is capable of everything.
The central ideological structures of fascism are evident to anyone wishing to see them. In the previous century, fascist movements expressed their positions openly and forcefully. Today, those who challenge core liberal values and strive to eliminate them obfuscate their positions. That’s why we must deduce one thing from another and activate our imagination to identify the threats.