The destruction of the idols: Syria’s patrimony at risk from extremists

The country’s wealth of archaeological treasures is under threat both from iconoclastic Islamic fundamentalists and looters operating amid the lawlessness of war

The country’s wealth of archaeological treasures is under threat both from iconoclastic Islamic fundamentalists and looters operating amid the lawlessness of war
Feb 11, 2014, The Independent
Islamic fundamentalists in Syria have started to destroy archaeological treasures such as Byzantine mosaics and Greek and Roman statues because their portrayal of human beings is contrary to their religious beliefs. The systematic destruction of antiquities may be the worst disaster to ancient monuments since the Taliban in Afghanistan dynamited the giant statues of Buddha at Bamiyan in 2001 for similar ideological reasons.
In mid-January the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis), an al-Qa’ida-type movement controlling much of north-east Syria, blew up and destroyed a sixth-century Byzantine mosaic near the city of Raqqa on the Euphrates. The official head of antiquities for Raqqa province, who has fled to Damascus and does not want his name published, told The Independent: “It happened between 12 and 15 days ago. A Turkish businessman had come to Raqqa to try to buy the mosaic. This alerted them [Isis] to its existence and they came and blew it up. It is completely lost.”
Other sites destroyed by Islamic fundamentalists include the reliefs carved at the Shash Hamdan, a Roman cemetery in Aleppo province. Also in the Aleppo countryside, statues carved out of the sides of a valley at al-Qatora have been deliberately targeted by gunfire and smashed into fragments.
Professor Maamoun Abdulkarim, general director of antiquities and museums at the Ministry of Culture in Damascus, says that extreme Islamic iconoclasm puts many antiquities at risk. An expert on the Roman and early Christian periods in Syria, he says: “I am sure that if the crisis continues in Syria we shall have the destruction of all the crosses from the early Christian world, mosaics with mythological figures and thousands of Greek and Roman statues.”
Of the mosaic at Raqqa, discovered in 2007, he says: “It is really important because it was undamaged and is from the Byzantine period but employs Roman techniques.”
Syria has far more surviving archaeological sites and ancient monuments than almost any country in the world. These range from the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus with its magnificent eighth-century mosaics to the Bronze Age Ebla in Idlib province in north-west Syria, which flourished in the third and second millennia BC and where 20,000 cuneiform tablets were discovered. In eastern Syria on the upper Euphrates are the remains of the Dura-Europos, a Hellenistic city called “the Pompeii of the Syrian desert” where frescoes were found in an early synagogue. Not far away, close to the border with Iraq, are the remains of Mari, which has a unique example of a third-millennium BC royal palace.
Unfortunately, many of the most famous ancient sites in Syria are now held by the fundamentalist Islamic opposition and are thereby in danger. Professor Abdulkarim says that it is not just Isis but “Jabhat al-Nusra [the official affiliate of al-Qa’ida] and the other fundamentalists who are pretty much the same”.
He emphasises at the same time that he approaches his job of trying to preserve Syria’s heritage during the civil war from a politically neutral point of view. The civil war has inflicted heavy damage, notably in Aleppo, where the minaret of the Great Umayyad Mosque was destroyed along with seven medieval souks, or markets, with over 1,000 traditional shops burnt out.
Aleppo’s Umayyad mosque: the rubble is all that remains of its minaret, which was blown up during fighting last year (Getty)
Aleppo’s Umayyad mosque: the rubble is all that remains of its minaret, which was blown up during fighting last year (Getty)
Homs Old City has suffered serious damage and is still held by the rebels, while the immense Crusader fortress of Krak des Chevaliers has been battered by government air strikes. The great church at St Simeon has been turned into a military training area and artillery range by rebels.
Syria’s museums are generally secure and moveable items have been taken elsewhere for safe-keeping. Museum staff say they saw what happened in Iraq after 2003 and moved quickly. A folk museum at Deir Atieh between Damascus and Homs was taken over, but the rebels were after old pistols and rifles on display that they intended to put to military use.
What worries Professor Abdulkarim and his staff
The most devastating and irreversible losses to Syria’s rich heritage of ancient cities and buildings are the result of looting. Much of this is local people looking for treasure, though in many cases they are obliterating the archaeological record by using bulldozers. Two looters were killed when they used a bulldozer to excavate a cave at Ebla, causing its roof to collapse.
What worries Professor Abdulkarim and his staff is that over the last year the looting has become large scale. He says that there is “a mafia from Turkey, Iraq and Lebanon hiring hundreds of people to strip sites”. Among what are known as the Dead Cities in Idlib province in northern Syria, once prosperous and then mysteriously abandoned 1,000 years ago, there are signs that thieves have brought in antiquities experts to advise them about the best places to dig, going by the orderly nature of the excavations.
Theft of antiquities is particularly bad in the far east of Syria at Mari where an armed gang  numbering 500 has taken over the site. An official report says that the looters have been focusing on “the Royal Palace, the southern gate, the public baths, Temple of Ishtar, the Temple of Dagan and the temple of the Goddess of Spring”.
Even worse is the situation at Dura-Europos where 300 people are excavating. A report by the Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums says that efforts by local communities to stop the digging here have failed and heavy machinery is being used. The report says that illegal excavations have “led to the destruction of 80 per cent of the site as perpetrators are digging holes that can reach three metres in depth”.
For some Syrians, often well-armed in war-ravaged, impoverished areas, the looting of antiquities has become a full-time job. In great stretches of the country outside state control there is total disorder with banditry and kidnapping common. Rebel commanders, even if they wanted to, are not going to give priority to protecting ancient monuments.
Professor Abdulkarim complains that he has received little international help in preventing the looting of Syria’s rich heritage. The deliberate targeting by Isis and other jihadist groups of mosaics and statues seen as profane will accelerate the speed of destruction. Antiquities that have survived invasions and wars for 5,000 years may soon be rubble.

Memo to all the Christians out there, especially the so called “Christian Zionists”

Modern genetics testing has confirmed The European and Russian Jews who claim Israel, are actually descendants of Central Asians who converted to Judaism.

“Where did this man get this wisdom and these mighty works? Is not this the carpenter’s son? Is not his mother called Mary? And are not his brothers James and Joseph and Simon and Judas? And are not all his sisters with us?” (Matthew 13.54-56).

Jesus was part of an extended family. The Bible says he had brothers and sisters. Some churches try to spin that these were only cousins, or Joseph’s from a previous marriage, but Mary, Jesus’ mother, was not an only child. At the very least, Jesus had cousins, Aunts, and Uncles. John the Baptist was Jesus’ second cousin according to Luke 1:5-38.

For the purpose of this discussion, we do not need to go into the question of whether Jesus and Mary Magdalene were married and had a family.

But the fact is that Jesus had kinfolk; blood relations, at least on his mother’s side (although the Bible provides a paternal genealogy for Jesus back to the House of David).

Those kinfolk had children. Those children had children. Those children had children. And so forth.

Modern genetics testing has demonstrated that  modern-day Palestinians have a direct genetic trail back to the biblical Israelites.

So here is the deal. Some of the people walking around Palestine, Gaza, and the West Bank are blood relatives of Jesus. Distant blood relatives, but still blood relatives. Given 2000 years, it is possible that the vast majority of present day Palestinians are remote relatives of Jesus.

Israel is killing them.

And YOU are paying for it, which means you share the guilt. YOU are paying for the weapons used to kill the modern day family of Jesus. The moment you sign that 1040 form, you sign a confession, admitting before all the world that you are an accessory  in the murder.

Think you are going to get into heaven after an insult like that?

Using methods similar to those police have developed to solve crimes, British scientists, assisted by Israeli archeologists, have re-created what they believe is the most accurate image (above) of what the historical Jesus looked like.

A Gazan child killed during Israel’s attack.

The Charlatanism of Palestine-Denial



Vacy Vlazna

Here we go again. On Israel and the US losing their UNESCO voting rights, ‘Israel’s ambassador to UNESCO, Nimrod Barkan, ‘said in an interview that his country supports the U.S. decision [to suspend contributions], “objecting to the politicization of UNESCO, or any international organization, with the accession of a non-existing country like Palestine.” (AP  8-11-13)

Palestine-denial, next to straight out violent ethnic-cleansing, is Israel’s sinister stratagem to wipe Palestinians off the face of their own ancestral land in order to lay a fictitious claim to the whole of historic Palestine.

Like the boy who cried ‘wolf’, Israel’s frenetic cries of ‘delegitimisation’ or’ anti-semitism’ at criticism of its illegal occupation and apartheid policies, is falling on the skeptical ears of the decent masses fed up with Israel’s double standards of delegitimising Palestine and dehumanising Palestinians as non-people.

In between the years spanning Golda Meir’s  “There were no such things as the Palestinians… They did not exist.” (June 15, 1969) to the regurgitation by US Presidential nominee candidate, Newt Gingrich, Sheldon Adelson’s ventriloquist dummy, “Remember, there was no Palestine as a state — (it was) part of the Ottoman Empire. I think we have an invented Palestinian people who are in fact Arabs” (10 12- 11) and up to Barkan’s present absurdity, are torrents of similar Zionist gibberish in the media.

Just as the English people evolved over millennia through the assimilation of indigenous folk and conquering colonisers and migrants, ie Picts, Celts, Britons, Romans, Angles, Saxons and Normans, so too modern Palestinians descended from sundry peoples; Canaanites, Edomites, Eremites, Moabites, Assyrians,  Egyptians, Philistines, Hebrews,  Greeks, Romans, Arabs, Europeans,Turks.

In fact the nation of England didn’t manifest from multiple kingdoms until the 10th century CE and English identity only began to develop after the Norman conquests in the 12th century. At that time Palestine was part of the Arab Caliphate that took over from 600 years of Roman rule in 634 and held Palestine until 1516  three times longer than the sum of historic Jewish control sans the fictitious monarchies of Saul, David and Solomon:

 “There is no evidence of a United Monarchy no evidence of a capital in Jerusalem or of any coherent, unified political force that dominated western Palestine, let alone an empire of the size the legends describe. We do not have evidence for the existence of kings named Saul, David or Solomon; nor do we have evidence for any temple at Jerusalem in this early period. What we do know of Israel and Judah of the tenth century does not allow us to interpret this lack of evidence as a gap in our knowledge and information about the past, a result merely of the accidental nature of archeology. There is neither room nor context, no artifact or archive that points to such historical realities in Palestine’s tenth century. One cannot speak historically of a state without a population. Nor can one speak of a capital without a town. Stories are not enough.” The Bible in History: How Writers Create a Past, Thomas L Thompson

Thus the Israeli claim to Palestine on historic grounds has much less validity than a claim by modern Italians or Greeks on Palestine, or say Italians or Danes on England or Germans on France or the Syrians on Spain. In his book, ‘The Invention of the Land of Israel’, Israeli historian Prof. Shlomo Sand ‘argues that for 2,000 years the Jews did not constitute a people and that only religion, belief and culture united them.’(Haaretz 24-5-13)

To alchemise the myth that Palestine is the birth of the Jewish people into ‘reality’, Israel fused two elements, the Bible and archeology. As the Hebrew Bible is the basis of  Christianity, which itself is a pillar of western civilisation, Biblical archeology then becomes the focul and front for a fabricated and dominant Zionist history, a ‘master story’ totally obscuring the rich heritage of Palestinian history. In short, Palestine-denial;

“ Appropriations of the past as part of the politics of the present… could be illustrated  for most parts of the globe. One further example which is of particular interest to this study, is the way in which archeology and biblical history have become of such importance to the modern state of Israel. It is this combination which has been such a powerful factor in silencing Palestinian history.” ( p.16 The Invention of Ancient Israel: the silencing of Palestinian history, Keith W Whitelam)

The findings of Biblical archeology have gone unquestioned until recently with the advent  of The Copenhagen School which challenged the Bible’s literal value as history.

These scholars agree that the heroic biblical accounts of David and Solomon were written between the  5th and 3rd centuries BC; hundreds of years after  the so-called Iron Age united monarchy. Much the same as Homer’s heroic Iliad and Odyssey were written 400 years after its  Bronze age setting. Nevertheless, the state of Israel has invested heavily in the David myth for its false historic claim to Jerusalem as its capital because it was the city of David.

Indeed, archaeology has become a state apparatus for the ethnic cleansing of Palestinians in the Zionist fairyland aka the City of David Archaeological Park located in the Palestinian village of Silwan in East Jerusalem,


Miko Peled

‘De-Arabizing the history of Palestine is another crucial element of the ethnic cleansing. 1500 years of Arab and Muslim rule and culture in Palestine are trivialized, evidence of its existence is being destroyed and all this is done to make the absurd connection between the ancient Hebrew civilization and today’s Israel. The most glaring example of this today is in Silwan, (Wadi Hilwe) a town adjacent to the Old City of Jerusalem with some 50,000 residents.  Israel is expelling families from Silwan and destroying their homes because it claims that king David built a city there some 3000 years ago. Thousands of families will be made homeless so that Israel can build a park to commemorate a king that may or may not have lived 3000 years ago. Not a shred of historical evidence exists that can prove King David ever lived yet Palestinian men, women, children and the elderly along with their schools and mosques, churches and ancient cemeteries and any evidence of their existence must be destroyed and then denied so that Zionist claims to exclusive rights to the land may be substantiated.— Miko Peled, Israeli dissident.

Furthermore Prof. Ze’ev Herzog  at Tel Aviv University in Deconstructing the walls of Jericho debunks a historic Exodus myth, “This is what archaeologists have learned from their excavations in the Land of Israel: the Israelites were never in Egypt, did not wander in the desert, did not conquer the land in a military campaign and did not pass it on to the 12 tribes of Israel.” The emergence from the desert and creating a unified state where the desert blooms and the brave pioneering Jews prosper lies at the core of Israeli identity and echoed here by President Shimon Peres;

“I remember how it all began. The whole state of Israel is a millimeter of the whole Middle East. A statistical error, barren and disappointing land, swamps in the north, desert in the south, two lakes, one dead and an overrated river. No natural resource apart from malaria. There was nothing here. And we now have the best agriculture in the world? This is a miracle: a land built by people” (Maariv, 14 -4-2013).

The old ‘there was nothing here’ strikes agin! Peres knows this is charlatanry. Palestinian agriculture and trade was booming when the Zionist colonists arrived and was vibrant, booming, and plenteous for centuries.

Guy Le Strange, in 1890, translated in his fascinating book, Palestine Under the Moslems; From AD650 to 1500, the works of 20 medieval Muslim geographers including the famous  Jerusalemite, Al Mukaddasi and Ibn Battuta;

“Filasîn is watered by the rains and the dew. Its trees and its ploughed lands do not need artificial irrigation; and it is only in Nâbulus that you find the running waters applied to this purpose. Filastîn is the most fertile of the Syrian provinces.

“From Palestine come olives, dried figs, raisins, the carobfruit, stuffs of mixed silk and cotton, soap and kerchiefs. “ From Jerusalem come cheeses, cotton, the celebrated raisins of the species known as ’Ainûnî and Dûrî, excellent apples, bananas—which same is a fruit in the form of a cucumber, but when the skin is peeled off, the interior is not unlike the water-melon, only finer flavoured and more luscious—also pine nuts of the kind called ‘ Kuraish-bite’ and their equal is not found elscwhere; further, mirrors, lamp-jars, and needles. “ From Jericho is brought excellent indigo. “ From Sughar and Baisân come both indigo and dates, also the treacle called Dibs. “

“Unequalled is this land of Syria for its dried figs, its common olive-oil, its white bread, and the Ramlah veils; also for the quinces, the pine-nuts called ‘ Kuraish-bite,’ the ’Ainûnî and Duri raisins, the Theriack-antidote, the herb of mint, and the rosaries of Jerusalem. And further, know that within the province of Palestine may be found gathered together six-and-thirty products that are not found thus united in any other land. Of these the first seven are found in Palestine alone; the following seven are very rare in other countries; and the remaining two-and-twenty, though only found thus gathered together in this province, are, for the most part, found one and another, singly, in other lands. Now the first seven are the pine-nuts, called ‘ Kuraish-bite,’ the quince or Cydonian-apple, the ’Ainûnî and the Duri raisins, the Kâfûrî plum, the fig called As Sabâ’i, and the fig of Damascus. The next seven are the Colocasia or water lily, the sycamore, the carob or St. John’s bread (locust-tree), the lotus-fruit or jujube, the artichoke, the sugar-cane, and the Syrian apple. And the remaining twentytwo are the fresh dates and olives, the shaddock, the indigo and juniper, the orange, the mandrake, the Nabk fruit, the nut, the almond, the asparagus, the banana, the sumach, the cabbage, the truffle, the lupin, and the early prune, called At Tarî; also snow, buffalo-milk, the honey-comb, the ‘Âsimî grape, and the Tamri—or date-fig. Further, there is the preserve called Kubbait; you find, in truth, the like of it in name elsewhere, but of a dififerent flavour. The lettuce also, which everywhere else, except only at Ahwâz (in Persia), is counted as a common vegetable, is here in Palestine a choice dish.

What is intriguing in these Muslim chronicles is their acknowledgement of the Jewish and Christian narratives, “In the middle of the Lake of Tiberias is a projecting rock, which they say is the tomb of Solomon, the son of David. Now, the sinking together of the waters of the Lake of Tiberias will be a sign of the coming of the Antichrist, called Ad Dajjâl.” and according to Sand, “it was not until the arrival of the armies of Islam in the early seventh century that Jews were finally allowed to freely enter and reside in their ancient holy city.”

So unlike Israel’s perpetual denial that Palestine ever existed as a nation that disregards the definition of ‘nation’ includes both the legal entity of nation as state and also nation as ‘a community of people who share a common language, culture, ethnicity, descent, or history inhabiting a particular country or territory.’ For example in Australia there are over 200 Indigenous nations and over 500 in America.

There are countless historic references to Palestine to counter Israeli denial such as:

1150 BC: “Peleset transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t referring to the people and land of the Philistines during Egypt’s Twentieth Dynasty.

800 BC:  The Assyrians referred to region as Palashtu

5th Century BC: ”The first known occurrence of the Greek word Palaistine is in the Histories of Herodotus, written near the mid-fifth century B.C. Palaistine Syria, or simply Palaistine, is applied to what may be identified as the southern part of Syria, comprising the region between Phoenicia and Egypt.”

306 -337 CE: Of the Roman Emperor Constantine, Eusebius the Palestinian writes in his Vita Constantini:

In this manner, then, the emperor executed in Palestine the noble works I have above described: and indeed in every province he raised new churches on a far more imposing scale than those which had existed before his time. Chapter xlvii book III

and includes a letter from Constantine to “”Victor Constantinus, Maximus Augustus, to Macarius, and the rest of the bishops in Palestine “ LII

Arab Caliphate 650-1500: “the early division of Syria into five Junds. These corresponded very nearly with the old Roman and Byzantine provinces, such as the Arabs found in existence at the time of the conquest, and which are described in the Code of Theodosius, a work that dates from the fifth century A.D. Palæstina Prima, with Cæsarea for its capital, comprising Judsea and Samaria, became the Arab Jund of Filastîn, with Ramlah for capital. Palæstina Secunda, with Scythopolis (Beth Shean, Baisân) for its capital, comprising the two Galûees and the western part of Persea, became the Jund of Al Urdunn (the Jordan), with Tiberias for the new capital. Palæstina Tertia, or Salutaris, including Idumsea and Arabia Petraea, was absorbed partly into the Damascus Jund, and partly was counted in Filastîn. ( le Strange)

“ The population of Palestine consists of Arabs of the tribes of Lakhm, Judhâm, ’Âmilah, Kindah, Kais ( le Strange)

The discovery of the 7th Century Standing  Caliph Coins of Aylah-Filastin

Circa 1603:  Shakespeare’s Othello, Act4 Sc.3 ll38-9

EMILIA: I know a lady in Venice would have walked barefoot

to Palestine for a touch of his nether lip.

1896: Even the father of Zionism, Theodor Herzl, recognised Palestine within the Ottoman  Empire,”If His Majesty the Sultan were to give us Palestine, we could in return undertake to regulate the whole finances of Turkey.” (The Jewish State,)

1915-8: The Australian War memorial and the official Australian Light Horse website recognise the WW1 Sinai and PALESTINE campaigns.

1927: “the Currency Board put into circulation a new currency which in 1928 became the sole legal currency. This was the Palestine pound, equivalent in value to the pound sterling and divided into 1,000 mils. The notes in current circulation in Palestine are £P ½, 1, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500. There are also silver coins of 50 and 100 mils and bronze and nickel coins of 5, 10 and 20 mils.”

February 1927: ultra Zionist David Ben Gurion said

“The right which the Arabs in Palestine have is one due to the inhabitants of any country . . . because they live here, and not because they are Arabs . . . The Arab inhabitants of Palestine should enjoy all the rights of citizens and all political rights, not only as individuals, but as a national community, just like the Jews.”

The same Ben Gurion who, according to Prof. Ilan Pappe, was the “architect of ethnic cleansing” during the 1948 Nakba (Catastrophe) when, 500 Palestinian villages were destroyed by Zionist militias and 750,000 Palestinians were forced to leave their ancestral land while thousands of innocents were murdered.

Israel has compelled the criminalisation of Holocaust denial in Europe and elsewhere even though it has enacted domestic laws criminalising Nakba commemoration. The flaccid reaction of world governments to Israel’s galling double standards is as ethically contemptible as Israel’s effrontery to expunge an oppressed people and their lineal land.


About the Author

Dr. Vacy Vlazna is Coordinator of Justice for Palestine Matters. She was Human Rights Advisor to the GAM team in the second round of the Acheh peace talks, Helsinki, February 2005 then withdrew on principle. Vacy was coordinator of the East Timor Justice Lobby as well as serving in East Timor with UNAMET and UNTAET from 1999-2001. 

Archeology and Quran suggest human affiliation to one race

The discovery of a fossilized skull suggest human affiliation to one race

السبت ,19/10/2013

يشير اكتشاف جمجمة متحجرة عائدة إلى 8 .1 مليون سنة على الأرجح إلى أن أجداد الإنسان القدماء كانوا ينتمون إلى جنس واحد حسب بحث جديد يأتي ليغذي الجدل القائم في أوساط علماء الإحاثة حول تاريخ التطور البشري .
وخلافا للأحفوريات الأخرى المعروفة بنوع “اومو”، فإن هذه الجمجمة  المحفوظة بوضع جيد وعثر عليها في دمانيسي في جورجيا تتضمن قحفاً صغيراً ووجهاً طويلاً وأسناناً كبيرة كما أوضح الباحثون مشددين على أن الأمر يتعلق بأقدم جد للإنسان يكتشف خارج القارة الإفريقية .
والسلالات المختلفة التي يستند إليها علم الأحياء الإحاثي مثل الإنسان الماهر وإنسان بحيرة رودولف  والإنسان المنتصب لا تختلف بحسب معدي هذه الدراسة عن بعضها بعضاً إلا بالشكل .
الفك العائد إلى جمجمة دمانيسي عثر عليه قبل خمس سنوات من بقية الجمجمة  وهي الأكبر التي يعثر عليها  في موقع دمانيسي الذي لم تنته الحفريات فيه مما يدفع الباحثين إلى الاعتقاد بأنها عائدة الى ذكر .
في هذا الموقع عثر الباحثون أيضاً على أربع جماجم عائدة لقردة عليا (فصيلة تضم البشر والشمبانزيه والغوريلا) أخرى، فضلا عن حيوانات ونبتات مختلفة متحجرة  وبعض الأدوات الحجرية .
وعثر على كل هذه البقايا في مكان احد وهو أمر غير مسبوق . وهي عائدة إلى الفترة الزمنية نفسها  الأمر الذي سمح بمقارنة الملامح الجسدية لأجداد عدة للإنسان العصري عاشوا في الفترة نفسها .
وأوضح دافيد لردكيباندزه، مدير المتحف الجورجي الوطني في تبيليسي، في مؤتمر صحفي أن الجمجمة محفوظة بوضع استثنائي الأمر الذي يسمح بدراسة جوانب كانت لا تزال مجهولة للمرة الأولى عند عدة أشخاص .
وقال كريستوف زوليكووفر، من معهد الاناسة في زيوريخ بسويسرا، أحد معدي الدراسة حول هذا الاكتشاف التي نشرت في مجلة “ساينس” الأمريكية: “لو عثر على القحف ووجه الجمجمة بشكل منفصل في أماكن مختلفة في إفريقيا لكانا نسبا إلى أجناس مختلفة لأن الجمجمة هي الوحيدة التي تكتشف حتى الآن وتتضمن هذه الملامح” .
وإلى جانب حجم الدماغ الصغير وهو تقريباً ثلث دماغ الإنسان المعاصر، تتمتع الجمجمة المكتشفة بوجه طويل ناتئ  وفك قوي مع أسنان طويلة وقوس حاجب سميك .
ومع ملامحها الجسدية المختلفة قورنت أحفوريات دمانيسني في ما بينها ومع أحفوريات أخرى عثر عليها في إفريقيا وتعود إلى 4 .2 مليون سنة وأخرى عثر عليها في آسيا او وأوروبا تعود إلى 8 .1 و2 .1 مليون سنة طبقاً لعلماء الإحاثة .
وأوضح زوليكوفر أن “الفروق في الشكل  بين نماذج دمانيسي لا تتجاوز تلك الموجودة بين الشعوب الحديثة في جنسنا البشري أو في صفوف الشمبانزي” .
وأضاف: “بما أننا نستنتج وجود نوع ومجموعة من الاختلافات المتشابهة في احفوريات القردة العليا الافريقية فيمكن القول ان ثمة جنساً واحداً كان موجوداً في تلك الفترات في إفريقيا . وبما ان البقابا المكتشفة في دمانيسيي تشبه كثيرا تلك التي عثر عليها في إفريقيا يمكننا القول انها تنتمي الى  الجنس نفسه” .
وتتناقض هذه الاستنتاجات مع أبحاث أخرى خصوصا تلك التي نشرت في أغسطس/آب 2012 في مجلة “نيتشر” البريطانية .

 آدم – نشأة الكلام الإنساني Adam Race – the emergence of human speech

Nothing Of A Sheikh


The Sheikh al Aseer has nothing of a Sheikh , in truth he is a hired mercenary who has hired other mercenaries and is connected to embassies and is paid by Qatar and his goal is to create a chaotic situation by targeting the army and calling for disarming the Resistance which is what Israel seeks and wants and the UN had issued a resolution regarding this matter . The unfortunate mercenary Sheikh wants to ignite sectarian and religious hatred and has -on many instances- cut the sea road preventing people from going back and forth to their villages . The influence of the mercenary Sheikh has spread to the neighboring Palestinian camp where other mercenaries have been recruited too and supplied with weapons and ordered to coordinate with al Aseer .And, because the thug sheikh wants to fill his pockets with Qatari oil money, the Lebanese have to suffer insecurity , instability , chaos and you name it. . Today , out of nowhere, al Aseer attacked an army check point in the vicinity of Saida killing 10 Lebanese soldiers -among them number of officers -and injuring many others. Now, the army has taken the initiative and is chasing the criminal and his mercenary thugs from place to place . While the Lebanese people do not want their army exposed nor sacrificed especially in these days where official exams are taking place and students are sitting for their Brevet exam among them the children of al ‘Aseer himself, they hope the security to be restored as early as possible ,there is very little possibility that al Asseer scheme will succeed , weren’t it for the cover provided him by number of Lebanese officials he would have been underlock. by now . Let us hope we rill get rid of this delinquent soon.

Rinaldo Francesca interviews Gilad Atzmon Part 5

DateSunday, October 28, 2012 at 9:26AM AuthorGilad Atzmon

We spoke about the myth of Jewish histroy, Israeli archeology and the attempt to manufacture a past, identity vs. Identification, Yoav Shamir, ADL, the holocaust and ethics.

The Wandering Who? A Study Of Jewish Identity Politics, Jewish political interest and Jewish hegemony within the Palestinian Solidarity Movement…
The book can be ordered on or

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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

The Invention of Ancient Israel, the Silencing of Palestinian History Roy Bard



Sheffield PSC last night hosted a talk by Professor Keith Whitelam, author of The Invention of Ancient Israel, the Silencing of Palestinian History and Palestine, the Bible and the Imperial Imagination.
Keith Whitelam’s book has caused some controversy in academic circles, as explained by Simon Targett

Like other sceptics, Whitelam, a soft-spoken Quaker with a Lincolnshire lilt, contends that ancient Israel is an invention of modern scholarship. He believes that the picture of a thriving Iron Age Jewish kingdom headed by David and Solomon is “a fiction”. Unlike other sceptics, he goes one key step further, contending that the scholarly debate has been driven by a dominant “biblical discourse” fuelled by a tankful of “unspoken and unacknowledged” assumptions. The main effect, he says, has been “the silencing of Palestinian history”.
According to Whitelam, the history of Palestine has been distorted by the deference shown to the Hebrew Bible. All the great biblical scholars – from the earliest explorers like Edward Robinson through mid-century biblical specialists like the German Albrecht Alt and the American William Albright, to modern scholars like Israel Finkelstein – have been diverted by the search for ancient Israel, and particularly the Davidic empire. This search, he maintains, has sometimes been underpinned by more controversial political assumptions, which have a bearing on the fraught contemporary politics of the Near East.

The audio provides an interesting introductions to the ideas that Professor Whitelam explores in his book, along with some up to date commentary.

In case you missed it:
Jerusalem does not belong to Jewish-Israelis: “The Bible Came From Arabia”,
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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

The Bible Unearthed (The Documentary)

Two days ago I got the following article from Dr. Ashraf Ezzat,

The Bible Unearthed (The Documentary)

Dr. Ashraf looks so excited with  Prof. Israel Finkelstein & Neil Silberman, asserting that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed,

“Dozens of digs in Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon have changed experts’ understanding of ancient Israel and its neighbours- as well as their vision of the Bible’s greatest tales” In other words instead of digging somewhere else, the A masterful archaeological and biblical investigation, lead atheist the digs as a real evidence that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed, that David and Solomon were not great kings but obscure chieftains and that the Exodus never happened” wrote Heather Campbell

“I think the genius and power lie with the scientists and scholars who have painstakingly put together what really happened, based on real evidence, even though it goes against what they have been told is holy and authoritative. This book is a testament to what the human mind can discover when it does not delude itself.”

In his article, Deconstructing the walls of Jericho” published by Ha’ Friday, October 29, 1999, Ze’ev Herzog asserted that:

“Following 70 years of intensive excavations in the Land of Israel, archaeologists have found out: The patriarchs’ acts are legendary, the Israelites did not sojourn in Egypt or make an exodus, they did not conquer the land. Neither is there any mention of the empire of David and Solomon, nor of the source of belief in the God of Israel. These facts have been known for years, but Israel is a stubborn people and nobody wants to hear about it.”

“The Bible Came From Arabia”
As a born-Muslim, who embraced Islam in his late fourties after extensive reading, and realized the very thin line seperating Islam (Quran) and the relative human understaing and the history of Islam (muslims), I accept archaeological facts, but at the same time I reject using it as an ideoligical tool to “Assert”:
  • That “Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed”, Kaaba, in Mecca is the evidence that Irahim and Ismael existed.
  • that “David and Solomon were not great kings but obscure chieftains”. This conclusion is political designed to justfy, the Israeli failure to find a single archaeological evidence to support Jewish claims in Palestine, So David and Solomon were not great kings, they were Tribe cheifs living in TENT, and therefore, the conquest of Palestine is judstified.  
  • That the men wrote the Bible, (Consequently Quran was written by Mohamad PUH).

We Muslims believe that the Bible is the world of God, Quran tells us that it was rewitten by men.

“2.79 . Therefore woe be unto those who write the Scripture with their hands anthem say , “This is from Allah , ” that they may purchase a small gain therewith . Woe unto them for that their hands have written , and woe unto them for that they earn thereby .”

فويل للذين يكتبون الكتاب بأيديهم ثم يقولون هذا من عند الله ليشتروا به ثمناً قليلاً فويل لهم مما كتبت أيديهم وويل لهم مما يكسبون “79″)

One year ago, I commented on Juan Cole’s article titled: Ten Reasons East Jerusalem does not belong to Jewish-Israelis, adding that Palestine from River to see does not belong to Jewish Israelis.

Moreover, the prominent Israeli archeologist Israel Finkelstein and the American historian Neil Asher Silberman, should have heard about the Lebanon’s historian Kamal Salibi and his book “The Bible Came From Arabia”
In his book Kamal Salibi solved the problem of the “Two of archaeology’s leading scholars Prof. Israel Finkelstein and Neil Silberman,” and the conflict within the the Bible as a religious and historical work. Salibi claimed that Asir near Yemen was the original Israel and the original Judah. And the Jordan was not a river, but the escarpment between the highlands of Asir and the coastal plain below.

Research and analysis of the Old Testament place names, corroborated by contemporary Pharaonic and Mesopotamian sources, Kamal Salibi locates the ancient land of Israel, not in Palestine, but in the Najran province of what is now Saudi Arabia. According to Salibi, The Promised Land was Asir

More here and here

So, the wo of archaeology’s leading scholars were looking on the wrong place, and their conclusions are nothing but political assumptions.

Israel Finkelstein

The Bible Unearthed (The Documentary)

January 28, 2012

“Prof. Israel Finkelstein & Neil Silberman, Two of archaeology’s leading scholars shed new light on how the Bible came into existence. They assert, for example, that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed, that David and Solomon were not great kings but obscure chieftains and that the Exodus never happened.”

For the first time, the true history of ancient Israel as revealed through recent archaeological discoveries-and a controversial new take on when, why and how the Bible was written. In the past three decades, archaeologists have made great strides in recovering the lost world of the Old Testament. Dozens of digs in Egypt, Israel, Jordan and Lebanon have changed experts’ understanding of ancient Israel and its neighbours- as well as their vision of the Bible’s greatest tales.
Yet until now, the public has remained almost entirely unaware of these discoveries which help separate legend from historical truth. Here, at last, two of archaeology’s leading scholars shed new light on how the Bible came into existence. They assert, for example, that Abraham, Isaac and Jacob never existed, that David and Solomon were not great kings but obscure chieftains and that the Exodus never happened.
They offer instead a new historical truth: the Bible was created by the people of the small, southern nation of Judah in a heroic last-ditch attempt to keep their faith alive after the demise of the larger, wealthier nation of Israel to the north. It is in this truth, not in the myths of the past, that the real value of the Bible is evident.

The Bible is both a religious and historical work, but how much is myth and how much is history? When and why was the Old Testament written, and by whom? What do contemporary archaeologists know about the Patriarchs? The Exodus? The Conquest of Canaan? Kings David and Solomon? Where do the people of Israel originally come from? Why were the historical accounts of the Bible written down?
A masterful archaeological and biblical investigation, The Bible Unearthed visits digs in Egypt, Jordan and Israel – including Megiddo, the cradle of biblical archeology, where 7,000 years of history have been excavated.
This far-ranging exploration of biblical history also makes use of archival footage of previous archaeological excavations, maps, biblical illustrations and computer animation, revealing ancient architecture, cuneiform tablets and other rare artifacts.
Based on the best-selling book (The Bible Unearthed) by prominent Israeli archeologist Israel Finkelstein & coauthored by American historian Neil Asher Silberman, this enthralling documentary features interviews with archaeological specialists and biblical scholars from all over the world, including experts from the Louvre, the Museum of Cairo, the Museum of Jerusalem, and the British Museum.
The Bible Unearthed does something which has never been done before: it reveals a still-unraveling revolution of what we know of the society, the history, and the men who wrote the Bible.

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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

The ‘Wailing Wall’ is not Jewish

American archaeologist and author, Professor Dr. Ernest L. Martin (1932-2002) had conducted archaeology work in East jerusalem. In his controversial book ‘The Temples that Jerusalem Forgot’, published in 1999 – Dr. Martin claimed that Muslim sacred places, Al-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of Rock are not built on top of the Temple Mount ruins.

Several other historians in the past had made similar conclusion that the 45-acre landmass known as Haram al-Sharif to the Muslim world since 638 CE – is in fact a Roman fortress built by King Herold and the Jewish holy Wailing Wall (the Western Wall) had never been part of the second Temple of Solomon destroyed in 70 CE.

British archaeologist Kathleen Kenyon discovered in 1962 that the entire City of David in the past had been only that little rock ridge on the western bank of the Kidron Valley. In early 1970s, Professor Benjamin Mazar, former President of Hebrew University too, confirmed that Haram al-Sharif was indeed a Roman fortress.

According to Dr. Martin, the two Hebrew Temples in fact were built a fourth of mile south over Gihon Spring. Martin identifies the Haram al-Sharif as the remaining Fort Antonia, which Herold named after Mark Anthony. Martin shows how Haram al-Sharif was comparable in size and water supply to other Roman fortresses built to guard Roman occupied cities. Martin quotes Bible (2 Sam 6:17, 1 Kg 1:38-39, Ps 46: 3, 4; 87:1-2, 7) to prove his theory.

The 1st century Roman Jewish historian, Flavius Josephus in book ‘The War of Jews’ had quoted Jewish rebel commader at Masada in 73 CE, saying: “Where is this city that was believed to have God himself inhabiting therein? It is now demolished to the very foundations, and hath nothing left but that monument of it preserved, I mean the camp of those that hath destroyed it, which still dwells upon its ruins”.

The lunatic Zionist Jews and Christians are calling for the demolition of Muslims’ third most sacred sanctuary, Al-Aqsa Mosque, so that the Zionist regime can build the so-called ‘promised’ third Jewish Temple, which will hasten the second-coming of Jesus. The radical Jewish ‘Temple Mount Faithful’ group leader, Gershon Solomon is sharing bed with anti-Muslim evangelist Pat Robinson.

Professor George Wesley Buchanan, a United Methodist minister, has written a research article entitled Misunderstanding about Temple Mount, published by the Washington Report (August 2011).
“In biblical times the Haram was not a sacred place. Instead it was the place that Orthodox Jews considered defiled and the most despised place in the world. Within these walls were found no remnants of any of the earlier temples but rather an image of Mars, the Roman god of war,” wrote Buchnan.
“After two violent wars with Rome, the City of David was so completely destroyed that it could not be recognized as a city. The Roman emperor Hadrian decreed that it would be used as an area where the Upper City could dump trash and garbage. It continued in that condition for hundreds of years,” wrote Buchanan. In Muslim Arab army which took control of Jerusalem in 638 CE – did see that place being used as city garbage dump.

“It is not likely that a fourth temple (3rd Temple being Al-Aqsa Mosque) will ever be constructed, either in the City of David or in the Haram. Israel already has diverted the water formerly used for sacrifices away from the former temple area and is making the City of David into a park. Orthodox Jews would oppose having a temple in Herod’s hated fortress. Jews had no interest in the Haram until after the Crusades, when they misunderstood that it was the Temple Mount. If the temple were ever built, it would have to be placed somewhere in the Upper City or a suburb of Jerusalem—not in its former site or in the old Roman Fortress,” wrote Dr. Buchanan.

“Because innocent Evangelical Christians in America, under the guidance of Pat Robertson, Jerry Falwell and John Hagee, have not been informed of these facts, they have thought there was some biblical or religious reason why it was necessary to destroy Islam’s third most sacred building in the world, together with the Dome of Rock. It is my hope that, once Christians learn of this mistake, they will stop following Mars and Phineas (Num 25; Ps 106:30-31) and work as zealously for peace, following the teachings of Abraham, the 8th century prophets (Mica 6:8), Jesus, and Paul, as they once worked to promote war in the Middle East. This would make a tremendous difference to Jerusalem – and to the world, concludes Dr. Buchanan.

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Top Israeli archaeologists contest Jewish ties to Jerusalem

 [ 08/08/2011 – 05:43 PM ]

OCCUPIED JERUSALEM, (PIC)– Top Israeli archaeologist Israel Finkelstein has denied the existence of Jewish roots in the city of Jerusalem, contrary to Israel’s claims that have prompted continued Judaization of the city.

Finkelstein, a professor at Tel Aviv University, said Jewish archaeologists have failed to unearth historic sites to support some of the stories in the Torah. Among those stories are the Jewish Exodus, the forty-year wandering in the Sinai desert, and Joshua’s victory over the Canaanites.

He also said there was no archaeological evidence that concludes that the alleged Temple of Solomon ever existed.

For his part, Professor of Archaeology at Tel Aviv University Raphael Greenberg said that the Israelis should have found something after digging for six weeks in the City of David in East Jerusalem’s Silwan district, but have found nothing in two years of continuous excavations.

Prof. Yoni Mihrazi, an independent archaeologist who has worked with the International Atomic Energy Agency, agreed with Finkelstein’s findings, saying that top settler organization Elad had not stumbled upon even a banner saying “welcome to the city of David”, given that claims were made to have been relying on sacred texts to guide them in their work.

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Bible Vs. Archaeology

Still no proof !!!

any archaeologist will tell you
 that this is a Roman-wall

and not Hebraic nor Jewish nor Israeli
not even Canaanite nor Phoenician !!

“is the science of what we firmly  discover 
and not the science of what we were told (or wished) that it happened.

This is a phrase said to me by my professor of Archaeology
42 years ago , Emir Maurice Chehab
may God bless his memory !!!!

42 years later I have not seen any proof
that Abraham came from Iraq nor that he lived in Palestine.
also 42 years later I have not seen any physical-proof
that Jews left Egypt to go to Palestine to run away from the Pharaoh
when Palestine was also , and at the same time ,
anyhow ruled by that same Pharaoh.

I have been waiting for 42 years
while history has been waiting 4000 years !!!

still no proof !!!

Raja Chemayel

in memory of the late Emir Maurice Chehab

My Bible and the Holy Koran
do mention Abraham and Moses
therefore I consider both prophets as ” Missing-persons “
temporally until phisical-evidence will become availiable.

Posted by Tlaxcala at 10:34 PM

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PASSOVER: Remembering The Holocaust of Ancient Israelites

The Exodus from Egypt, a story refuted
by historians and archeologists.
April 22, 2011 posted by Dr. Ashraf Ezzat

“Even With archeology aside and relying only on your sane mind you would still reach the same conclusion; the exodus never happened”

Dr. Ashraf Ezzat

History is passed over at the Jewish Passover

What is Passover?

Passover, or Pesach in Hebrew, is an eight-day spring holiday that celebrates the Israelites’ exodus from Egypt.

What is the Exodus?

It is the story of the departure of the Israelites from ancient Egypt described in the Hebrew Bible.
The Hebrew Bible is the pride and joy of every Jew. It is the book of Yahweh, their chosen God, as they are his chosen people.

In Judaism, all the tales of kings and prophets, of conquests and defeats, of captivity and Diaspora and of a united kingdom and some holy temple, it all depended on this ancient story of enslavement and suffering of the ancient Israelites in Egypt under an allegedly ruthless and heathen Egyptian king, or what the Hebrew Bible mistakenly called Pharaoh.

But strange enough, and according to historians of the ancient Near East, Egypt was no land of the heathens, On the contrary, it was exactly in Egypt where the human conscience dawned on earth. The ancient Egyptian civilization which sprouted along the banks of the river Nile, had been mostly of religious and ethical legacy that heavily influenced the way religion had evolved on earth.

This story of exodus is the corner stone of the Israelites’ narrative throughout history; it is their favorite ancient melodrama upon which they claimed divine rights to the land of ancient Canaan.

They simply stripped the fertile portion of the land from its indigenous Canaanites and proclaimed it theirs by Yahweh’s decree. This has gloomy echoes of the present day story of the land grip and the ethnic cleansing of the descendants of Canaanites, the Palestinians, by the modern Jews, the Israelis.

Following the WWII, the modern Jews used, or rather exploited, the story of the calamity of the mass killing and the concentration camps as a non- negotiable pretext to displace the Palestinians and take their land to be their new Zionist state declared by a biased UN decree.

Likewise, the ancient Israelites embarked on their imaginary narrative of an ancient kingdom after they had successfully fled out of the horrors and years of alleged torture and persecution in ancient Egypt.

Two million Israelites exited Egypt without
leaving any archeological trace

Ancient holocaust

In a way, the Exodus after years of unbearable suffering and humiliation on the hands of the Egyptian empire seemed as if it was the Holocaust of the ancient Israelites but with sparing the ovens’ part.

But while we have historical evidence of the holocaust, which the Zionist media managed to augment dramatically, the suffering of the Israelites in ancient Egypt and the exodus stand refuted and totally unsubstantiated as far as history is concerned.

A century of research by renowned archaeologists and Egyptologists has found no evidence, what so ever, which can be directly related to the Exodus narrative of an Egyptian captivity and the escape and travels, for 40 years, through the wilderness of Sinai.

Even more, throughout the entire and long span of the ancient Egyptian kingdom (3100-332 BC) there had been absolutely no mention or any evidence of Egyptians mistreating or isolating foreigners in certain ghettoes. On the contrary Egypt was the world trade center of the ancient times with its markets and trade routes replete with foreigners from the Far East, the Mediterranean coast and the African horn in the south.
According to Exodus 12:37-38, the Israelites numbered “about six hundred thousand men on foot, besides women and children,” plus many non-Israelites and livestock. Numbers 1:46 gives a more precise total of 603,550. The 600,000, plus wives, children, the elderly, and the “mixed multitude” of non-Israelites would have numbered some 2 million people.

A crowd of that multitude couldn’t have passed through the peninsula of Sinai at the eastern Egyptian borders uncommented upon or without leaving an archeological trace. But that what we have on hand, as modern archeologists- including Israelis– have declared after failing to find any shred of historical evidence of the exodus or the encampment for 40 years in Sinai. They found not a piece of broken pottery or a small bone or even a left behind vessel, absolutely nothing.

And while history is unable to recall any memories of the Exodus and archeology refutes it ever happened in the first place, the Hebrew Bible laden with historical anachronisms remains the only source of information behind this imaginary mega-event.

Even With archeology aside and relying only on your sane mind you would still reach the same conclusion; the exodus never happened.

Zombie revenge

Playing back the catastrophic scenes of the unbelievable ten plagues that hit Egypt by the avenging god of the israelites, you would wonder how such a horrendous scale of devastation could have taken place without being mentioned in the scrolls of ancient Egypt, which apart from all ancient world civilizations, is recognized for its meticulous documentation of its history and state affairs.

Egyptian scribes with their inscriptions on the temples and papyri kept a fairly accurate record of the chronicles of ancient Egypt.
But never a reference to such alleged Exodus had been mentioned in the Egyptian records.

Not even once, the Exodus or the ancient Israelites were mentioned in the Egyptian documents while the Exodus is referred to around 150 times in the Bible with pharaoh mentioned alone around 20 times.
What does that tell us?

May be the Israelites were so insignificant and unessential the Egyptians never noticed their existence or bothered to. As a matter of fact, and according to modern archeology, the Israelites were a bunch of herders at the eastern borders of the kingdom with the Egyptians referring to them as the filthy and impure Asians for they were known for their unhygienic outlook and practices and by their notorious reputation as plunderers.
According to the zombie revenge type of Yahweh, the river Nile turned into blood, the land of Egypt had been menacingly fraught with the perils of flocks of frogs, lice, flies, locusts and wild animals and under the abrupt and total shutdown of daylight the first-born of all humans and animals were mercilessly killed by the passing over angel of death.

And amidst that horror and disaster the Israelites were busy looting Egyptian treasures while their god was joyfully watching. They had to leave Egypt in a hurry before the pharaoh and his army could catch them and impede their majestic exit.

Egyptian empire at the time of the Exodus.
Egyptian empire at the time of the Exodus.

The exodus from and into Egypt

And now to the funny part of this exodus story.
Due to the Hebrew scribes’ lack of geographical knowledge concerning the borders of the Egyptian empire and its sovereignty at the time, and lacking any GPS satellite technology, it somehow slipped their attention that going out of Sinai and entering Canaan did not necessarily mean exiting Egypt, as Canaan was just another Egyptian territory with fortified Egyptian garrisons and check points everywhere.

Reviewing that horror stories of the Passover you can’t help but to wonder how ancient Egypt – in the absence of anything like the UN relief efforts in our modern times- ever managed to escape total annihilation and collapse.
If those natural disasters ever stroke the land of the Nile simultaneously and in that extreme manner that had been depicted in the Hebrew bible, ancient Egypt would have been wiped off the map permanently or at least collapsed as an economical, military and political power.

Historians are inclined to place the exodus at the middle 15 century BC, but curiously enough, Egypt at that time- the new kingdom time- was at its pinnacle of strength and prosperity. During that period of time, ancient Egypt with great kings like Thutmose III, Akhenaten and Tutankhamun reigned over an empire reaching eastward to the borders of Iran and Syria and southward to the sources of the Blue Nile in Sudan.

Simply, Egypt was the super power of the ancient world at that time and for centuries to follow.

To cut a long story short, and according to archeologists and geologists; the Passover environmental disasters along with the presence of those hundreds of thousands afflicted Israelites is nothing but a myth that runs counter to the archeological truth, environmental geology facts and chronicles of ancient Egypt.
And if history stands skeptical about this tale of the Exodus from ancient Egypt, what does that say about the rest of the ancient Israelites’ narrative that happened to depend primarily on this story and regard it as self-evident and totally axiomatic.

After thousands of years, the exodus memory had transformed, for modern Jews, into matzah snacks and gathering around the Seder meal while telling the story of the exodus to the children so that it would grow up with them to be retold again to their children.

And this is how historical authority is being systematically undermined every passing year at the Passover. And this is why the Jews are absolutely the best storytellers ever.

For more articles by Dr. Ashraf Ezzat visit his website

Related articles:

– DR. ASHRAF EZZAT: The Egyptian Torah

The exodus from Egyptology

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Israel appropriating historical sites for colonial ends

18 April 2011
Orthodox Jews walk past Israel’s wall near Rachel’s Tomb in the occupied West Bank. (Inbal Rose/MaanImages)

Moves by the Israeli government and settler movement to appropriate historical sites undermine Palestinian cultural rights and highlight how Israel exploits archaeological claims for colonial ends.

Last spring, Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu declared the Ibrahimi Mosque/Tomb of the Patriarchs in Hebron and the Bilal Mosque/Rachel’s Tomb outside Bethlehem to be “Israeli national heritage sites.” As The Electronic Intifada has reported since, the State of Israel seems to have two approaches to Palestine’s ancient sites. If, like the sites Netanyahu claimed or the remains at Sebastia, they fit into Israeli narratives about the Jewish history of the region, they are appropriated, renovated and incorporated into “archaeological parks.” If, like excavated finds and important buildings in Gaza, they highlight ancient Philistine or more recent Islamic periods of history, they can be bombed along with Gaza’s residents, or simply allowed to decay as vital conservation chemicals are excluded by the blockade. As an American-accented tour guide, overheard in Jerusalem’s Haram al-Sharif in October 2010, put it: “Having worked on two or three archaeological digs here [in Jerusalem], I can tell you that if anything is between 200 and 500 years old, it just gets tossed. It’s nothing.”
It’s against this setting that in October 2010, while researching a guidebook to Palestine, I found myself increasingly confused about a number of historical sites scattered around the occupied West Bank. None of them had the religious and historical importance of the Ibrahimi Mosque or Rachel’s Tomb, but they had their own place in Palestinian history and architecture. They were places mentioned in Palestinian tourism publications such as the locally-published Alternative Tourism Group travel guide Palestine and The Palestinians, the official Palestinian Authority Ministry of Tourism website, Jericho Municipality’s tourist listings or the “Places to Visit” section of the PA’s diplomatic mission to Japan website. This implied that they were recognized by Palestinian sources as being part of the country’s heritage. But the information about them was hazy, as if their existence was being acknowledged but at the same time they weren’t being incorporated into the itineraries of the growing Palestinian cultural tourism industry. Palestinian tour organizers I spoke to dismissed my inquiries, saying only that “I’ve never been there” or “we don’t take groups there.” There was, I soon found, a very good reason for this.
The first site that mystified me is a cluster of remains south of Jerusalem, close to the recently-expanded highway that runs through the occupied West Bank desert toward Jericho and the Jordan River. This comprises three buildings (or groups of buildings), only one of which was visible from the main road. This is an Ottoman caravanserai (most of the building is 16th century, although it may have older Mamluk elements), where merchants and their baggage-trains once took refuge for the night on the bandit-ridden road. It’s known as the Khan al-Ahmar or, in the way that many buildings in Palestine pick up Biblical names, as the Inn of the Good Samaritan, a reference to one of Jesus’ parables.

The other two buildings in the cluster are the monasteries of St. Euthymius and St. Martyrius, both founded in the fifth century. Along with other cells, monasteries and lavras (groups of isolated hermits’ dwellings) of the Desert Fathers, these are some of the most ancient Christian monasteries in existence and immensely important to Palestine’s historical, architectural and religious heritage. In the 2008 edition of The Holy Land: An Oxford Archaeological Guide From Earliest Times to 1700, Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, Professor of New Testament at the Ecole Biblique et Archeologique Francaise, Jerusalem refers to the Monastery of St. Euthymius as a “forlorn ruin surrounded by graceless factories.” The factories Murphy-O’Connor mentions are those of Mishor Adumim, the industrial section of the sprawling and illegal settlement of Maale Adumim, which is a key part of Israel’s division of the occupied West Bank into unviable bantustans. Assuming that Murphy-O’Connor, researching the 2008 edition of his guide, saw it “forlorn” and abandoned in perhaps 2007, St. Euthymius’ monastery was not to remain a “ruin” for much longer.

Maale Adumim is apparently, like some of the Etzion Bloc settlements (which are increasingly selling themselves as wine tourism destinations), seeking to add heritage tourism to its economic activities. In 2009 an invitation to the opening of a “mosaic museum” at the Inn of the Good Samaritan was circulated around Israeli ministries and media. “On Behalf of the Head of the Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories,” it offered a range of activities at the 4 June launch, including tours by “Civil Administration’s Staff Officer of Archeology and Antiquities.” Tellingly, descriptions of the attractions on offer emphasized Second Temple-era and Byzantine Christian remains, but made no mention of the Ottoman and possibly earlier Islamic buildings of the caravanserai which is the core of the Khan al-Ahmar site. If there was ever any doubt on the subject, Israeli archaeology was exposed as being entirely complicit with the occupation, sidelining Palestine’s Islamic heritage, appropriating its Christian sites (and in doing so also sidelining Palestine’s own historic Christian communities) and highlighting its Jewish remains above those of the main other cultures which have enriched this land.

The website of the Maale Adumim settlement offered an insight into the activities at the three sites over the last couple of years. It declared that “The Municipality of Maale Adumim is developing the Good Samaritan’s Inn and the hills surrounding it as a tourist complex, aiming to meet the demand for modern tourism services without losing the site’s unique ancient nature” (“The Good Samaritan Inn”). The site details plans for “restoration of the existing building to accommodate incoming groups, including a praying and religious studies section. Development will include a motel and restaurant modeled in an authentic ‘khan’ style.” In the future, a 150-room “ecological hotel” will be built on the cliffs overlooking the site.
By February 2011, the final pieces fell into place when the website of the Israel Nature and Parks Authority (INPA) declared “New Sites’ Opening – The Inn of The Good Samaritan and more.” The INPA runs nature reserves and archaeological parks in both Israel and the occupied West Bank, including the one at Sebastia, which was previously reported on by The Electronic Intifada. According to the website, the Inn of The Good Samaritan, and the Euthymius and Martyrius monasteries are due to open to the public in July 2011. In addition, the mosaic museum and archaeological remains at these sites will also be opened to tourists. The entrance fees for the sites will pour into Israeli state coffers and, as they are situated within a settlement and will very possibly be run by settler staff, Palestinians will most likely be denied even the privilege of paying the 21 shekel ($6 US) ticket price to the Israeli occupation authorities to visit their own heritage.

A second example lies in the green, intricately curving hills of the central West Bank. On the road between Ramallah and Nablus, near the village of Luban al-Sharqiya and the small town of Sinjel, is Khirbet Seilun, or Tel Shilo. The layers of habitation deposits at the tel (an archaeological term referring to a hill made up of centuries of building remains) show that people have lived there since at least the Canaanite Bronze Age, and there are significant Roman, Byzantine and Islamic remains. Khirbet Seilun is regarded as sacred by some Jews because is has been identified by some historians as the Biblical Shiloh, where the Ark of the Covenant was kept for a period on its travels north from Mount Sinai. Excavations in the early 1980s uncovered remains from the Canaanite and Israelite periods, but nothing resembling the Tabernacle, the building which may have housed the Ark at Shiloh. More recent archaeological digs have been controversial because they have uncovered a spectacular Byzantine mosaic which some settlers want to move so they can continue searching for the Israelite sacred remains they believe lie beneath the three Byzantine churches and two small mosques on the site.

Unlike the Khan al-Ahmar and monasteries of St. Euthymius and St. Martyrius, a visitor center at Tel Shilo is already functioning. Rather than being managed by the INPA, the Tel Shilo site is run by the extremist settlers of Shiloh who, journalists and human rights groups report have been responsible for innumerable attacks, including shootings and arson, against neighboring Palestinian villages and olive farmers. The Shiloh settlement was founded in the 1970s by the Gush Emunim terrorist group, which exploded car bombs against the mayors of several Palestinian cities in 1980, seriously injuring Bassam Shakaa, then mayor of Nablus (see “Shiloh: An Obstacle to Peace,” Time, 13 February 1978 and Nur Masalha, Imperial Israel and the Palestinians, 2000, p 123). Shiloh and the archaeological remains it has appropriated are now marketed as a destination for pilgrimages and religious tourism but, perhaps unsurprisingly given the beliefs of the settlers here, some non-Jewish tourists report being turned away.
Controversy over the archaeological heritage of Khirbet Seilun looks set to escalate. Last month, The Jewish Press reported that the Israeli government had authorized large-scale new excavations at the site. The aims of the excavations were explicitly said by the paper to be “to showcase the life and times of ancient Israel,” which suggests that the archaeologists carrying them out have specific intentions as to what they will find – or not find (“New archaeological effort seeks to unearth Mishkan’s secrets,” 23 March 2011). The article did not name the director of the new excavations, but previous digs at Khirbet Seilun have been led by Rachel Ehrlich, a hard-line settler who, in a profile on one Christian Zionist website, was described as being “determined to put the site [of Shiloh] on the map [as] the place where the people of Israel first entered the land, where religious life for the Jewish people was centered for the 369 years the Tabernacle stood there” (“Uncovering our Past, Christian Friends of Israel Communities).

Tzofia Dorot, the manager of the Shiloh visitor center, made some telling comments to The Jewish Press about the importance to settler public relations of Israel’s appropriation of heritage sites. She claimed that Shiloh has been “seeing more and more local and foreign visitors” and that three companies with proposals for a “major visitor center” had visited the settlement. This activity occurred in spite of the skepticism from archaeologists about whether Dorot’s “headline-making discoveries” were really likely to be made.
Tzofia Dorot’s comments to The Jewish Press illustrate why the expropriation of Palestinian heritage sites – whether by the State of Israel or by settler groups acting as its proxies – has a significance well beyond the loss of individual buildings or artifacts. In the eyes of settlers and their supporters, in Israel and beyond, stealing Palestinian archaeological and architectural heritage isn’t just about attracting tourists with open wallets. It’s about asserting settler claims to the land, by emphasizing Jewish history over and above that of the peoples and faiths who came before and after them in Palestine. It is also about presenting the Jewish people as the legitimate custodians of Palestine’s Christian heritage, diverting attention from Israeli oppression of the world’s oldest and longest-lived Christian communities and reinforcing misconceptions about the Palestinian struggle as a religious rather than anti-colonial movement. As Dorot sees it, the international “effort to discredit and delegitimize our connection to the Land of Israel is gathering steam.” Thus, showing settler archaeology to gullible tourists, she believes, will be vital in countering “the international community’s clamoring for Israel to make concessions.”

Meanwhile, Palestinian heritage organizations such as PACE and Riwaq are increasingly using models of community participation to raise awareness of the value of archaeological remains and the importance of protecting them (Ghattas J. Sayej, “Palestinian archaeology: knowledge, awareness and cultural heritage, Present Pasts, Vol 2, 2010). In Jerusalem, the Centre for Jerusalem Studies and Emek Shaveh are fighting official and settler expropriation of cultural and historical sites. But defending Palestine’s cultural heritage from the Israeli state and settlers is still low on the priority list.
Archaeologists, including Hamdan Taha, director-general of the PA’s Department of Antiquities and Cultural Heritage, have voiced their concerns. And in March 2010 Algeria, Egypt, Kuwait, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Syria and Tunisia submitted a provisional agenda item on Netanyahu’s claims at the Haram al-Khalil and Rachel’s Tomb to the UNESCO executive board meeting, noting that “much of the settlement enterprise is concentrated around archaeological areas where Israel makes claims of exclusive heritage, including the settlements of Shilo, Bet El and Kiryat Arba” (see UNESCO Executive Board, Hundred and eighty-fourth session, Item 37 of the provisional agenda, 19 March 2010 [PDF]). After initial failure to reach an agreement, UNESCO declared that it “regretted” Israel’s inclusion of the Haram al-Khalil and Bilal ibn Rahmeh Mosque on a list of its heritage sites and urged it to remove it; it also “regretted” Israel’s “unilateral actions” regarding historical sites in Jerusalem; no mention was made of Tel Shilo (see UNESCO Executive Board, Hundred and eighty-fifth session, Decisions adopted by the executive board, 19 November 2010 [PDF]). But much greater international recognition of and opposition to Israel’s cultural colonialism is needed, if Palestine’s heritage is to be preserved, both for its cultural significance and economic potential.
Sarah Irving is a freelance writer. She worked with the International Solidarity Movement in the occupied West Bank in 2001-02 and with Olive Co-op, promoting fair trade Palestinian products and solidarity visits, in 2004-06. She now writes full-time on a range of issues, including Palestine. Her first book, Gaza: Beneath the Bombs, co-authored with Sharyn Lock, was published in January 2010. She is currently working on a new edition of the Bradt Guide to Palestine and a biography of Leila Khaled.

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian

They Invented a Religion to Steal a Land from Its Owners


I fully agree with Jihad el-Khazen, Historians and Archeolist failed to find a single evidence supporting the Jewish Claims in Palestine. They failed to apply the the Old Testament history on Palestine’s Geography. We have to distinc between the ancient Hebrews “sons of Israel” and the “Khazar Jews” and “Judaism”.

“Historian Kamal Salibi claims, his book “The Bible Came From Arabia”, that Asir near Yemen was the original Israel and the original Judah. And the Jordan was not a river, but the escarpment between the highlands of Asir and the coastal plain below.”

“Research and analysis of the Old Testament place names, corroborated by contemporary Pharaonic and Mesopotamian sources, Kamal Salibi locates the ancient land of Israel, not in Palestine, but in the Najran province of what is now Saudi Arabia.
On this basis, he draws a distinction between the ancient Hebrews “sons of Israel” and the “Jews” and “Judaism”.
Thus, while the ancient Hebrews became extinct through their assimilation into other peoples, the religion founded by the Hebrew prophets continued to flourish and spread among other peoples who had no connection with the original Hebrews of the Old Testament.
The Implication, of course, is that the Jews of today are not descendants from the Old Testament tribes and, consequently, that they have no clain to the “Promised Land”, whether it is located in Palestine or elsware.
The Bible tells us in Genesis 21:21 that Ishmail, the son of prophet Abraham and the father of the Arabs, settled in “Paran”. This is where he would live and die and this is where he raised all his children. It is a well established fact among the Arabs that their father Ishmail was the founder of the city of Mecca, as well as the one who, with the help of prophet Abraham, built the holy house of God, the Ka’aba, in that city.”

Uprooted Palestinian

*********************************They Invented a Religion to Steal a Land from Its Owners

Posted: January 3, 2011 by crescentandcross in Uncategorized

Jihad el-Khazen

 I previously proposed in this column the idea that Muslim scholars should attempt to differentiate between the prophets mentioned in the Holy Quran and the prophets of the Jews who are mentioned in the Torah, since any history student in any major Western university (but not an Arab university) will learn that Jewish history is only an amalgamation of biblical myths about prophets, kings and kingdoms that never existed.
In the simplest possible terms, the Israelis have been looking for their “traces” in Palestine for the last 62 years without finding anything so far, to the extent that Israeli archaeologists have stopped looking in Jerusalem. Moshe Dayan, an amateur archaeologist himself, looked for 13 years in the Sinai for the traces of his “ancestors”, but found nothing whatsoever related to Moses or the Wandering Years.
I am well aware of the sensitivity of this subject, and it is for this reason that I only propose an idea and let the Muslim scholars – and I mean Muslim archaeologists and historians and not theologians – to confirm or deny what I and my son studied, in an American and a British university respectively.
Israel’s advocates are so insolent, meanwhile, or obscene, that they actually forge and falsify a modern history that we have lived and seen ourselves. It is thus no wonder that they invented a religion to steal a land from its owners.
Recently, I followed four episodes on a U.S. Likudnik website which relied on a French Likudnik website as its source, and which concluded that the child Muhammad al-Durrah was not shot dead by Israeli soldiers while in his father’s lap in Gaza in 2000 and that the footage that the French television and the world media carried, showing the child and his father, was not true.
I suffice myself with the above on that subject, and move on with the Israeli peace advocate Uri Avnery, and his article published on August 16, 2009, which was inspired by a dispute between Palestinian residents of Acre and the Jews there, following a decision by the government to remove all Arab names and keep the (fabricated and falsified) Jewish names which are to be written in Hebrew. Thus, for example, Jerusalem became Urshalim. In Acre, the Jewish-dominated municipality threatened to destroy the monument of the Muslim diver Issa al Awwam who fought with Salah al-Din…But then if Muhammad al-Durrah did not exist in 2000, then why would they acknowledge Issa al-Awwam who lived 800 years before him?

Avnery cites the Book of Joshua in the Bible, describing it as being ‘genocidal’, which is true, since the book mentions that the Lord told Joshua to kill “both man and woman, young and old”. But despite the events of the Book of Joshua, Avnery says that Acre remained a Phoenician city like the rest of the coast of Palestine.

The writer wonders who came to the land of Canaan first, and replies that the Arabs had conquered the land which they called Jund Filistin (military district Palestine) in 635 A.D, and that they ruled it since then without interruption except during the Crusader period. On the other hand, the Zionist version claims that the land belonged to the kingdoms of Judea and Israel, although the coast was Phoenician. Avnery carries on by saying that despite all the unrelenting efforts over a hundred years, no archaeological evidence has been found that there ever was an exodus from Egypt, a conquest of Canaan by the Children of Israel, or a kingdom of David and Solomon.

The article after that speaks of the “legends” of the Torah about Abraham in Iraq and the exodus from Egypt, the Conquest of Canaan, King David, and the other legends of the Bible, “which are taught as actual history”, and then the destruction of the Temple and the “exile” of the Jews and their persecution.

Uri Avnery is neither an Arab nor a Muslim. He is an Israeli who served in the Israeli army before becoming a prominent peace activist, and is also a researcher and an authority on the history of the entire region.

I do not ask the Arabs and the Muslims to approve of anything I said above, but only to ask their scholars to study the subject and then enlighten us all.

If they fail to do so, we might find ourselves reading a history where Muhammad al-Durrah was not killed, where Jesus committed suicide (I cannot even insinuate at what the Talmud says about the Virgin Mary), and where Muslims attacked the Jews in Palestine in 1948 to uproot them from their own country. A history where there were and there are no Palestinians (recall what Golda Meir and other ultra-Zionists said), where Egypt attacked the Negev in 1956 instead of Israel attacking Sinai, where Arab armies attacked Israel in 1967 and so Israel had to respond in self-defense (I swore that I read this in their writings as I read that the United Nations is ‘Muslim’), where Hezbollah invaded Israel in the summer of 2006, and where Hamas attempted to invade Ashkelon two years later. We might also read that Israel did not kill 1500 Palestinian minors in this decade alone, compared to 135 Israeli minors, that B’Tselem’s figures are false and that it is infiltrated or that B’Tselem lies like all peace activists around the world, including Jews, and maybe even that this article itself does not exist except in the readers’ imaginations.


River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian

Posted by uprooted Palestinian at 1:29:00 AM

Gaza’s archaeological treasures under threat

Vias South Lebanon

MEMO – Palestine is rich in ancient relics and important archaeological artefacts; some pre-date the Christian era, others go back as far as the Stone Age. But as with everything else, the Israeli-led siege has left these precious historical relics at the mercy of the Zionist occupational forces. In recent months there has been an increase in the number of attempted thefts of important antiquities from the Gaza Strip and attempts to smuggle the valuable items across the border.

Palestinian police recently detained a group of thieves trying to smuggle ancient relics out of Gaza; the items have now been placed in museums. The protection and sensitive excavation of these relics has been hampered by the illegal siege of Gaza which has prevented the government from developing local archaeological and excavation expertise. Israeli forces have also prevented international scientists and archaeologists from entering the Gaza Strip for any length of time adequate enough to carry out their research.

According to an official from the Museums and Antiquities Department in the Ministry of Tourism, the Ministry is trying to take control of all archaeological sites. “There have been a number of restoration projects and excavations of these important sites which have produced important new findings,” the spokesman added, “especially from the Stone Age and the Byzantine and Canaanite eras.” The Palestinians of today are believed to be descendents of the Canaanites.

Posted by Jnoubiyeh at 9:29 PM

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian

On Top Ten Reasons East Jerusalem does not belong to Jewish-Israelis


Comment By Uprooted Palestinian:

I would add /say Palestine from River to see does not belong to Jewish Israelis. Historians and Archeolist failed to find a single evidence supporting the Jewish Claims in Palestine. They failed to apply the the Old Testament history on Palestine’s Geography. We have to distinc between the ancient Hebrews “sons of Israel” and the “Khazar Jews” and “Judaism”.

“Historian Kamal Salibi claims, his book “The Bible Came From Arabia”, that Asir near Yemen was the original Israel and the original Judah. And the Jordan was not a river, but the escarpment between the highlands of Asir and the coastal plain below.”

“Research and analysis of the Old Testament place names, corroborated by contemporary Pharaonic and Mesopotamian sources, Kamal Salibi locates the ancient land of Israel, not in Palestine, but in the Najran province of what is now Saudi Arabia.

On this basis, he draws a distinction between the ancient Hebrews “sons of Israel” and the “Jews” and “Judaism”.

Thus, while the ancient Hebrews became extinct through their assimilation into other peoples, the religion founded by the Hebrew prophets continued to flourish and spread among other peoples who had no connection with the original Hebrews of the Old Testament.

The Implication, of course, is that the Jews of today are not descendants from the Old Testament tribes and, consequently, that they have no clain to the “Promised Land”, whether it is located in Palestine or elsware.

The Bible tells us in Genesis 21:21 that Ishmail, the son of prophet Abraham and the father of the Arabs, settled in “Paran”. This is where he would live and die and this is where he raised all his children. It is a well established fact among the Arabs that their father Ishmail was the founder of the city of Mecca, as well as the one who, with the help of prophet Abraham, built the holy house of God, the Ka’aba, in that city.”

And check this

The Promised Land was Asir According to Kamal Salibi

and also the land of the towers of Babel?

Historian Kamal Salibi claims that Asir near Yemen was the original Israel and the original Judah. And that the Jordan was not a river, but the escarpment between the highlands of Asir and the coastal plain below.

After looking through a gazetteer of Arabia given to him as a gift, Kamal Salibi was struck by the number of biblical place names found in the province of Asir. To satisfy his curiosity he correlated the names of places to the distances travelled according various Old Testament books of the Bible, and found that there was a close correspondence in the distances between all places in Asir and those in the Old Testament, not the discrepancies found between such places in Palestine.


His research led to the publishing of his first book on Asir, The Bible Came From Arabia and to some scholarly resistance but mostly to his ideas being completely ignored by the academic world.

In looking at the photograph in the background, I am struck for the first time how appropriate the story of the Tower of Babel is for this area — an area whose domestic architecture has always involved the use of towers.

Also, the presence of the large Yemenite Jewish community nearby, and the closeness of the Kingdom of Sheba both lend more credence to Salibi’s theories.

Moreover, when one remembers that Jerusalem in Palestinian Israel is often referred to as “the daughter of Jerusalem”, one feels there may indeed be an original Jerusalem here in Asir.

Unfortunately, to date there has been little archeological research in Asir, though the state is replete with ruins. How fascinating it would be if the Promised Land did turn out to be Asir.

Salibi’s book The Bible Came From Arabia is out of print, but his second book, Secrets of the Bible People, is still available. They make interesting reading — although, personally, I would be more interested in some credible scholastic criticism of his theories; there has been little to date.”

“Another exciting attempt to deconstruct the historical roots of Zionist mythology is Kamal Salibi’s The Bible Came from Arabia (1985). Through a minute analysis of Old Testament place names, corroborated by contemporary Pharaonic and Mesopotamian sources, the author locates the ancient land of Israel, not in Palestine, but in the Najran province of what is now Saudi Arabia. On this basis, he draws a distinction between the ancient Hebrews — the “sons of Israel” — and the “Jews” and “Judaism”. Thus, while the ancient Hebrews became extinct through their assimilation into other peoples, the religion founded by the Hebrew prophets continued to flourish and spread among other peoples who had no connection with the original Hebrews of the Old Testament. The implication, of course, is that the Jews today are not descendants from the Old Testament tribes and, consequently, that they have no claim to the “promised land”, whether it is located in Palestine or elsewhere.


Top Ten Reasons East Jerusalem does not belong to Jewish-Israelis

by Juan Cole

Informed Comment

Israeli Prime Minister Binyamin Netanyahu told the American Israel Public Affairs Council on Monday that “Jerusalem is not a settlement.” He continued that the historical connection between the Jewish people and the land of Israel cannot be denied. He added that neither could the historical connection between the Jewish people and Jerusalem. He insisted, “The Jewish people were building Jerusalem 3,000 years ago and the Jewish people are building Jerusalem today.” He said, “Jerusalem is not a settlement. It is our capital.” He told his applauding audience of 7500 that he was simply following the policies of all Israeli governments since the 1967 conquest of Jerusalem in the Six Day War.

Netanyahu mixed together Romantic-nationalist cliches with a series of historically false assertions. But even more important was everything he left out of the history, and his citation of his warped and inaccurate history instead of considering laws, rights or common human decency toward others not of his ethnic group.

So here are the reasons that Netanyahu is profoundly wrong, and East Jerusalem does not belong to him.

1. In international law, East Jerusalem is occupied territory, as are the parts of the West Bank that Israel unilaterally annexed to its district of Jerusalem. The Fourth Geneva Convention of 1949 and the Hague Regulations of 1907 forbid occupying powers to alter the lifeways of civilians who are occupied, and forbid the settling of people from the occupiers’ country in the occupied territory. Israel’s expulsion of Palestinians from their homes in East Jerusalem, its usurpation of Palestinian property there, and its settling of Israelis on Palestinian land are all gross violations of international law. Israeli claims that they are not occupying Palestinians because the Palestinians have no state are cruel and tautological. Israeli claims that they are building on empty territory are laughable. My back yard is empty, but that does not give Netanyahu the right to put up an apartment complex on it.

2. Israeli governments have not in fact been united or consistent about what to do with East Jerusalem and the West Bank, contrary to what Netanyahu says. The Galili Plan for settlements in the West Bank was adopted only in 1973. Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin gave undertakings as part of the Oslo Peace Process to withdraw from Palestinian territory and grant Palestinians a state, promises for which he was assassinated by the Israeli far right (elements of which are now supporting Netanyahu’s government). As late as 2000, then Prime Minister Ehud Barak claims that he gave oral assurances that Palestinians could have almost all of the West Bank and could have some arrangement by which East Jerusalem could be its capital. Netanyahu tried to give the impression that far rightwing Likud policy on East Jerusalem and the West Bank has been shared by all previous Israeli governments, but this is simply not true.

3. Romantic nationalism imagines a “people” as eternal and as having an eternal connection with a specific piece of land. This way of thinking is fantastic and mythological. Peoples are formed and change and sometimes cease to be, though they might have descendants who abandoned that religion or ethnicity or language. Human beings have moved all around and are not directly tied to any territory in an exclusive way, since many groups have lived on most pieces of land. Jerusalem was not founded by Jews, i.e. adherents of the Jewish religion. It was founded between 3000 BCE and 2600 BCE by a West Semitic people or possibly the Canaanites, the common ancestors of Palestinians, Lebanese, many Syrians and Jordanians, and many Jews. But when it was founded Jews did not exist.

4. Jerusalem was founded in honor of the ancient god Shalem. It does not mean City of Peace but rather ‘built-up place of Shalem.”

5. The “Jewish people” were not building Jerusalem 3000 years ago, i.e. 1000 BCE. First of all, it is not clear when exactly Judaism as a religion centered on the worship of the one God took firm form. It appears to have been a late development since no evidence of worship of anything but ordinary Canaanite deities has been found in archeological sites through 1000 BCE. There was no invasion of geographical Palestine from Egypt by former slaves in the 1200s BCE. The pyramids had been built much earlier and had not used slave labor. The chronicle of the events of the reign of Ramses II on the wall in Luxor does not know about any major slave revolts or flights by same into the Sinai peninsula. Egyptian sources never heard of Moses or the 12 plagues & etc. Jews and Judaism emerged from a certain social class of Canaanites over a period of centuries inside Palestine.

6. Jerusalem not only was not being built by the likely then non-existent “Jewish people” in 1000 BCE, but Jerusalem probably was not even inhabited at that point in history. Jerusalem appears to have been abandoned between 1000 BCE and 900 BCE, the traditional dates for the united kingdom under David and Solomon. So Jerusalem was not ‘the city of David,’ since there was no city when he is said to have lived. No sign of magnificent palaces or great states has been found in the archeology of this period, and the Assyrian tablets, which recorded even minor events throughout the Middle East, such as the actions of Arab queens, don’t know about any great kingdom of David and Solomon in geographical Palestine.

7. Since archeology does not show the existence of a Jewish kingdom or kingdoms in the so-called First Temple Period, it is not clear when exactly the Jewish people would have ruled Jerusalem except for the Hasmonean Kingdom. The Assyrians conquered Jerusalem in 722. The Babylonians took it in 597 and ruled it until they were themselves conquered in 539 BCE by the Achaemenids of ancient Iran, who ruled Jerusalem until Alexander the Great took the Levant in the 330s BCE. Alexander’s descendants, the Ptolemies ruled Jerusalem until 198 when Alexander’s other descendants, the Seleucids, took the city. With the Maccabean Revolt in 168 BCE, the Jewish Hasmonean kingdom did rule Jerusalem until 37 BCE, though Antigonus II Mattathias, the last Hasmonean, only took over Jerusalem with the help of the Parthian dynasty in 40 BCE. Herod ruled 37 BCE until the Romans conquered what they called Palestine in 6 CE (CE= ‘Common Era’ or what Christians call AD). The Romans and then the Eastern Roman Empire of Byzantium ruled Jerusalem from 6 CE until 614 CE when the Iranian Sasanian Empire Conquered it, ruling until 629 CE when the Byzantines took it back.

The Muslims conquered Jerusalem in 638 and ruled it until 1099 when the Crusaders conquered it. The Crusaders killed or expelled Jews and Muslims from the city. The Muslims under Saladin took it back in 1187 CE and allowed Jews to return, and Muslims ruled it until the end of World War I, or altogether for about 1192 years.

Adherents of Judaism did not found Jerusalem. It existed for perhaps 2700 years before anything we might recognize as Judaism arose. Jewish rule may have been no longer than 170 years or so, i.e., the kingdom of the Hasmoneans.

8. Therefore if historical building of Jerusalem and historical connection with Jerusalem establishes sovereignty over it as Netanyahu claims, here are the groups that have the greatest claim to the city:

A. The Muslims, who ruled it and built it over 1191 years.

B. The Egyptians, who ruled it as a vassal state for several hundred years in the second millennium BCE.

C. The Italians, who ruled it about 444 years until the fall of the Roman Empire in 450 CE.

D. The Iranians, who ruled it for 205 years under the Achaemenids, for three years under the Parthians (insofar as the last Hasmonean was actually their vassal), and for 15 years under the Sasanids.

E. The Greeks, who ruled it for over 160 years if we count the Ptolemys and Seleucids as Greek. If we count them as Egyptians and Syrians, that would increase the Egyptian claim and introduce a Syrian one.

F. The successor states to the Byzantines, which could be either Greece or Turkey, who ruled it 188 years, though if we consider the heir to be Greece and add in the time the Hellenistic Greek dynasties ruled it, that would give Greece nearly 350 years as ruler of Jerusalem.

G. There is an Iraqi claim to Jerusalem based on the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests, as well as perhaps the rule of the Ayyubids (Saladin’s dynasty), who were Kurds from Iraq.

9. Of course, Jews are historically connected to Jerusalem by the Temple, whenever that connection is dated to. But that link mostly was pursued when Jews were not in political control of the city, under Iranian, Greek and Roman rule. It cannot therefore be deployed to make a demand for political control of the whole city.

10. The Jews of Jerusalem and the rest of Palestine did not for the most part leave after the failure of the Bar Kochba revolt against the Romans in 136 CE. They continued to live there and to farm in Palestine under Roman rule and then Byzantine. They gradually converted to Christianity. After 638 CE all but 10 percent gradually converted to Islam. The present-day Palestinians are the descendants of the ancient Jews and have every right to live where their ancestors have lived for centuries.

PS: The sources are in the hyperlinks, especially the Thompson edited volume. See also Shlomo Sands recent book.

End/ (Not Continued)
posted by Juan Cole @ 3/23/2010 02:01:00 AM

Democracy (Talmud) in action? Israel’s total Judaization plan continues

Sunday, March 21

Israeli decision to re-open a synagogue in Jerusalem al-Quds, close to al-Aqsa Mosque Compound, has irked Palestinians as Israel deploys hundreds of police to the city.
As the re-opening of the synagogue is scheduled for Monday, Israel has deployed hundreds of police around the Old City of Jerusalem al-Quds amid fears of fresh unrest.

Israeli police spokesman Mickey Rosenfeld said police were prepared to prevent disturbances for the next 24 hours after, as he says, they “have received clear indications that Palestinians are intending to cause disturbances and riots” there.

As a precautionary measure, Israel has barred Arab men under the age of 50 from entering the al-Aqsa Mosque Compound, Islam’s third holiest site after Mecca and Medina in Saudi Arabia.

Israel also maintained a closure that barred virtually all West Bank Palestinians from entering Israel.

Israel has imposed restrictions since March 5 when police encountered Palestinian protesters at the mosque after weekly prayers.

“The Israeli action to establish a temple in Jerusalem (al-Quds) is a continuation also of the cycle of the total Judaization of the city,” Mohammed Shtayyeh, Palestinian minister of public works and housing, said on Sunday.

As reported recently, ruins in northern Israel long thought to be of an ‘ancient synagogue’ have now been identified by archeologists as the remains of a 7th century palace built by Arab caliphs.

Archeologists mistakenly identified the palace as a synagogue in the 1950s because of a carving of a menorah — a seven-branched candelabrum — on a stone.

However, the latest excavations in the site have confirmed it as a palace where the Umayyad rulers would spend the winter season. The Umayyads were the first Muslim dynasty and ruled from 661 to 750 CE

River to Sea
 Uprooted Palestinian

Zionists, Go Home!


Zionists, carry the star of David, that had never been David’s, and go home. Leave the palestinians be, and the few Jews who lived peacefully with their Arabs brothers; Christians and Muslims. Thanks to documented history and archeology, your ugly mask has been removed, the veil torn, and the façade behind which you’re hiding has become transparant.

Russian archaeologists find Khazarian Jews Homeland’s long-lost captial in southern Russia; a breakthrough for research on the ancient Jewish state.”This is a hugely important discovery,” expedition organiser Dmitry Vasilyev told AFP by telephone from Astrakhan State University after returning from excavations near the village of Samosdelka, just north of the Caspian Sea, “We can now shed light on one of the most intriguing mysteries of that period – how the Khazars actually lived. We know very little about the Khazars – about their traditions, their funerary rites, their culture…Within the fortress, we have found huts similar to yurts, which are characteristics of Khazar cities…. The fortress had a triangular shape and was made with bricks. It’s another argument that this was no ordinary city”. He also added that Archaeologists have been excavating in the area if Samosdelka for the past nine years but have only now collected enough material evidence to back their thesis, including the remains of an ancient brick fortress.

WHY Evangelists and khazars hate this video? Part I KHAZARS

Why Evangelists and khazars hate this video ? LIARS part II

Why Evangelists and khazars hate this video? EGYPT Part III

The city was the capital of the Khazars; a semi-nomadic Turkic peoples, who adopted Judaism as a state religion, from between the8th and the 10th centuries, when it was captured and sacked by the rulers of ancient Russia. At its height, the Khazar state and its tributaries controlled much of what is now southern Russia, western Kazakhstan, eastern Ukraine, Azerbaijan and large parts of Russia’s North Caucasus region.

The capital is referred to as Itil in Arab chronicles but Vasilyev said the word may actually have been used to refer to the Volga River on which the city was founded or to the surrounding river delta region.Around 10 university archaeologists and some 50 students took part in excavations in the region this summer, which are partly financed by the Jewish University in Moscow and the Russian Jewish Congress.

Posted by Aadel M Al-Mahdy at 7:49 PM 0 comments
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