برنامج اسرار الصراع تقديم الراحل أنيس النقاش

Congress May Have to Act to Punish Saudi Arabia

Congress May Have to Act to Punish Saudi Arabia

By David M. Wight, Washington Post

While President Biden enjoyed widespread praise for releasing an intelligence report concluding that Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman ordered the murder of Washington Post journalist Jamal Khashoggi, he also received criticism for not sanctioning Mohammed. On March 1, Rep. Tom Malinowski [D-N.J.] introduced a bill denying the prince entry into the United States and conditioning any future US arms sales to Saudi Arabia upon the White House certifying that the kingdom was no longer intimidating its critics in the United States.

That fits with a recent trend: Both Biden and members of Congress have vocally supported curbing arms sales to Saudi Arabia, in part because of the killing of Khashoggi. Their willingness to follow through, however, will face the same challenges that confronted, and ultimately torpedoed, President Jimmy Carter’s resolve to reduce arms sales to the Saudis. In fact, several key developments in US-Saudi relations transformed Carter and members of Congress from advocates of arms-sales restrictions to promoters of expanding sales.

From the 1940s through the 1960s, the United States, Saudi Arabia’s primary arms provider, limited the size and scope of the weapons it sold to the Saudis so as to conserve its limited budget and restrain potential arms races in the Middle East.

During the 1970s, however, oil prices skyrocketed, and Saudi Arabia, at that point the largest oil exporter in the world, enjoyed a windfall. Suddenly, the kingdom had unparalleled influence over the global oil market and enormous revenue with which to buy imports, including weapons. Conversely, the United States experienced rapidly rising energy import costs and fuel shortages. These problems compounded when Saudi Arabia led an Arab oil embargo against the United States in retaliation for its massive arms resupply to “Israel” during the 1973 Arab-“Israeli” War.

The administrations of Richard Nixon and Gerald Ford worked strenuously to repair Washington’s tattered alliance with the Saudi monarchy and obtain its help in restraining oil prices, in large part by offering the sale of advanced US weapons. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger offered Saudi King Faisal the US government’s “cooperation in the military field … to strengthen our friendship on a long-term basis.” Faisal and his successors responded positively, ending the Arab oil embargo in 1974 and subduing demands within the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries for even higher oil prices. In exchange, US arms and military construction sales to Saudi Arabia soared from $300 million in 1972 to $7.1 billion in 1976.

Yet this provoked increasing opposition within the United States, including in Congress. An array of factors drove this opposition, including a desire to protect “Israel’s” military superiority, to curb costly arms races, to reduce the potential for war and to prevent powerful weapons technology from falling into hostile hands through theft or a coup. Accordingly, in 1974, Congress passed a law empowering itself to veto major arms sales approved by the president. In 1976, a bipartisan coalition used that new tool to compel Ford to reduce missile sales to Saudi Arabia.

That year, Carter, as a presidential candidate, declared that the rise in US arms sales to the Arab world constituted “a deviation from idealism … from a commitment to [‘Israel’]” and “a yielding to economic pressure … on the oil issue.” Once president, while seeking to preserve Saudi-US cooperation, Carter worked to steadily reduce weapons and military construction sales to Saudi Arabia. In 1977, during his first year in office, they dropped by more than two-thirds.

But Saudi leaders relentlessly pressed for more US weapons, saying they needed to defend themselves against Soviet-armed countries such as Iraq and what was then South Yemen. They especially desired to purchase advanced F-15 jet fighters. Saudi Crown Prince Fahd, for example, told the US ambassador that “the F-15 issue was a basic, crucial test of our relationship” and threatened to obtain comparable weapons from France, Britain or even the Soviet Union, countries that had ignored Carter’s entreaties for shared restraint in global arms transfers.

To preserve the Saudi-US relationship and obtain Saudi cooperation on oil and the Arab-“Israeli” ‘peace’ process, Carter shifted course and agreed to the F-15 sales in 1978. Activists and members of Congress mobilized to block the deal, however, including a young Sen. Joe Biden. Carter, along with Saudi-hired PR firms and corporations doing business in the kingdom, spent significant political and monetary capital in making the case to the American public and Congress that the sale served US interests. In a concession to Congress, Carter provided written assurance that the Saudis would not be given certain missile capabilities for their F-15s. Even then, Carter barely won — the House voted to block the sale, and the Senate fell short of a veto only by six votes after an acrimonious debate.

Two events the following year shook Saudi and US leaders. The 1979 Iranian revolution ousted the US-aligned Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and replaced him with the hostile Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini.

Iran’s massive stockpile of US-made weapons now threatened Saudi Arabia. The Soviet Union subsequently invaded Afghanistan, further inflaming the fears of Saudi royals that the Soviets aimed to encircle and conquer them. These two events generated new urgent pleas from Saudi Arabia for additional US arms.

For Carter and many members of Congress, these events made the Saudi kingdom appear even more vital to US interests. In response, they approved $10.2 billion in arms and military construction sales to Saudi Arabia to reassure its leaders of Washington’s commitment to their security. This decision ended presidential efforts to meaningfully restrain Saudi arms purchases for four decades — until now-President Biden entered office.

In the first weeks of his presidency, Biden declared an end to US support for the Saudi-led military intervention in Yemen, where the use of US weapons has inflamed anti-American sentiment and exacerbated a conflict that has killed more than 200,000 Yemenis. He likewise ordered a halt and review of last-minute arms agreements for Saudi Arabia authorized by predecessor Donald Trump. This has raised the hopes of some activists and politicians that Biden might continue to restrict arms to Saudi Arabia so long as its rulers endanger US interests and human rights. But the experience of the Carter administration cautions against assuming this is inevitable, as does Biden’s refusal to sanction Mohammed.

Some of today’s circumstances are quite different from those of the 1970s. Saudi Arabia’s influence over US oil supplies and prices is significantly less now than it was during the Carter years, lessening the pressure on Washington to satisfy arms requests. Conversely, however, the contemporary alliance between “Israel” and Saudi Arabia against Iran means pro-“Israel” lobbyists, a major force against arms sales to Saudi Arabia in the 1970s, now present, at most, a diminished hurdle.

But the basic bargain established by Nixon and Faisal, and ultimately retained by Carter, remains on the table: The United States sells arms to Saudi Arabia in exchange for Saudi cooperation on issues prioritized by Washington. Whether this arrangement persists depends on the calculations of leaders in both countries.

Saudi Arabia will continue to argue that the threat from Iran necessitates increased weapons imports and threaten to acquire arms elsewhere if US offers are not forthcoming. That would be costly for the Saudis, because their armed forces are heavily reliant on US weapons technology and training, and it would inevitably weaken the Saudi-US relationship. Yet Saudi leaders may reluctantly attempt such an undertaking if they determine Washington has abandoned the alliance or attached too many strings to it.

The Biden administration seeks to maintain the Saudi-US partnership but expects greater Saudi cooperation on human rights and US strategic concerns in exchange for more US weapons. How demanding Biden will be on these points remains to be seen. But just as for Carter, the more Biden believes vital US interests in the Middle East are threatened by Iran or another power, the more likely he is to abandon other objectives and turn to arms sales to secure the Saudi-US alliance.

Congress could prove to be a wild card: It will weigh the same issues as the White House, but historically it has shown more appetite for restricting arms sales to Saudi Arabia. This raises the possibility that it could step in if the administration proves too acquiescent.

أربعون عاماً والقدس ضيا عينيك يا مهندس العلاقات العربية الإيرانية

أربعون عاما على غياب محمد صالح الحسيني:ذكريات من زمن الشهداء الأمميين

محمد صادق الحسيني

بين النجف وبيروت ، وطهران والقدس سرُّك مسكون بآية التمكين يا ابن السجّاد علي بن الحسين عليه السلام.

اسمح لي يا ابا احمد ان ابوح ببعض اسرارك قبل ان يخطفني الزمان من بين بقية السيف من احبابك ، أو يحرّف البعض ما تبقى من صورة ناصعة لحركة “إنهم فتية آمنوا بربهم وزدناهم هدىً…”

أعرف انك الان اسعد من ذي قبل لكثرة من قدموا اليك على امتداد العقود الاربعة الماضية ، من كوادر حركة الشباب المسلم  والعقائديين ، وتنظيم الدعوة التقاة ، والفتحاويين ولجان العمل الاسلامي ، والمحرومين ، ورجال الله من المقاومة الاسلامية والحرس الثوري كادراً وقيادةً وآخرين كثر منهم من نعرف ومنهم من لم نعرف واخيراً وليس آخراً أنيسك الذي لطالما راهنت عليه وعلى جيل الوحدة  المتجدد لاحداث جبهة سرايا كما راهنت من قبل على العماد وابو حسن سلامة على اطلاق مقاومة اممية ، وحسنت مراهنتك فهاهي جبهتهم .. جبهتنا اليوم ممتدة من جزائر جبال الاطلس الى باكستان التبت وسور الصين العظيم، ليكون وطننا الاسلام وتسقط كل الحدود جميعاً الا حدود الله.

يا حفيد السجاد ومحمد فانت يوم بدأت نضالك الحركي مع الشيخ عز الدين الجزائري حفيد قائد ثورة العشرين، محوِّلاً تنظيمه من حركة اصلاحية الى حركة ثورية عاتبكَ الكثيرون ولم يكونوا يعلمون ان الخميني الكبير قادم ليعلنها ثورة عالمية تنفض الغبار عن مدرسة الاسلام و اهل البيت السياسية في الحكم لا من اجل ايران فحسب بل ومن اجل المستضعفين كل المستضعفين في العالم..!

يا ابن السجاد  يوم بدأت العمل الثوري فتىً يافعاً كنت تحلم وتعمل ليل نهار ان توحد حركة الشباب والعقائديين والدعوة الى تيار واحد والسيد موسى الخوئي ابن المرجعية شاهد وكذلك بيوتات النجف والفقيد الكبير آية الله الاصفي الذي أسّر في اذني في طهران يوماً بالقول : هل تعرف ان اخاك الحسيني كان قد نظّمني في الحركة عنده ولطالما سعى لتوحيد الجهود ولكن تسارع الاحداث وقمع الطاغية العنيف والتهجير حال دون ذلك…!

 اتذكر يا ابن السجاد يوم احتفلت بمولد النبي الاعظم في شارع الرسول جنب مرقد امير المؤمنين وقد تحدثت بالسياسة والحكم العادل حينما جاءك البعض مستنكراً فعلتك هذه متهماً إياك بانك اخطر من الشيوعيين والكفار على الحراك ، لانك تخلط الدين بالسياسة ، وحاول محاصرتك و عزلك .. لولا ان جاء الخميني الكبير وقطع نزاع القوم بدروس الحكومة الاسلامية… ومقولة “ان ديننا عين سياستنا وسياستنا عين ديننا”..!

هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد يوم انتقلت بدعوتك سريعاً من مناصرة ثورة الجزائر الى  ثورة مصر ومن ثم الى كل الوطن العربي والاسلامي الكبير ، وصارت فلسطين وفتح التي كانت فلسطين ، بوصلتك ، كيف جاءك البعض محاولاً خلط الابحاث بطرح منع تقديم المفضول على الفاضل ، فلم تأبه بحرف البوصلة، وظلت منشورات فتح والديمقراطية والشعبية تصلك الى النجف الاشرف لتوزعها على كادر الحركة والانصار بهدف كي الوعي الرجعي واستبداله بوعي ثوري متجدد حتى نصرك الخميني الكبير من جديد يوم افتى بدعم الفدائيين الفلسطينيين وفتح وياسرعرفات ابو عمار بالاسم…

وصرت تخزّن السلاح بالآبار تمهيداً لايام الله ، وتوزع حراكك نحو الشمال الذي كنت تسمي بعض خونته بالاصبع الامريكي ونحو الجنوب الذي كنت تسميه بخزان الحركة والثورة ، الثورة التي انكسرت مؤقتاً بسبب غلبة عراق بقايا رجعية العثمانيين وخبث البريطانيين ، الذين سرعان ما اصدروا حكم الاعدام فيك وحاولوا تنفيذه ، لولا ان فلسطين احتضنتك و استدعتك لاكمال الواجب والتكليف وهي التي انقذتك من اعواد مشانق الطاغية..

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد كيف انتقلت عبر عمّان المسبية الى بيروت كليمة البحر والتقيت بامام المحرومين والفقراء فكنت خير عون وسند له في السياسة كما في التثقيف الديني كما في العلاقات العامة وبقيت تتنقل بين المجلس الاعلى في الحازمية و صور المهنية ولم تغب عنك الفتح والبندقية يوم كان الدين الثوري مهجوراً …

هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد كيف اصبحت لولب اللقاءات بين اقطاب الامة ورموزها في بيروت الحوار والتقريب فتحمست لجمع  المفكر  الجزائري مالك بن نبي والامام الصدر ، و التلاقي والتعاون  بينه و  بين علماء اليمن الزيدين ابراهيم الوزير وشقيقه، ومن ثم كيف اصبحت الجسر الجامع والواصل بين الامام وابوعمار وكيفية انصهارهما في نشاط بديع  ورائع يوم كرمّوا  المعارض الايراني الكبير المفكر الراحل الدكتور علي شريعتي -الذي اغتيل مسموماً في لندن- ، في اطار مؤتمر موسع في بيروت …

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد كيف اصبح موقعك الجديد عوناً وسنداً  لكل رجال الله من ايران الذين صاروا يأتون اليك زرافات ووحداناً في بيتك في برج البراجنة ، من  مناضلي الكفاح المسلح والثورة  ضد الشاه، المكافح الاممي محمد منتظري و رجل البازار النبيل والشريف الحاج رفيق دوست  ، بيتك الذي اصبح خلية نحل للعمل على الاطاحة بنظام الشاه من جهة كما لاجل انضاج الحراك الاسلامي الجماهيري في لبنان حتى جاءك رجل التقوى والزهد والعرفان موفداً من رجال المعارضة الايرانيين المقيمين في الغرب ، اعني الدكتور مصطفى چمران الامل والتحرير الذي سرعان ما نشط  تحت عينيك وبمساعدتك في جبل عامل  ومن ثم صار علماً في الدولة الايرانية المعاصرة  ثم ارتقى شهيداً قائداً متميزاً…

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد كيف كنت اول من خاض معارك التوحيد والجمع  بين النبعة و تل الزعتر والمخيمات وابو الوليد نمر حماد وجواد ابو الشعر وصخر الاقليم وراجي النجمي وجنوب اللجان  وبقاع النبي شيت الموسوية وخضت المعارك التوعوية حتى صار البعض يأخذ عليك وعلى رفاقك بانكم تريدون “اسلام سكر غليظ فيما لبنان اسلامه سكر خفيف…!”… الى حين واجهتكم الحرب الاهلية الشيطانية المجرمة ما دفعكم لتشكيل سرايا الدفاع عن الشياح والضاحية  بوجه الانعزاليين والمرجفين  حتى اتتك الرصاصات الرجعية الصهيونية التي كادت ان تودي بك لولا رحمة ربك و هي التي بقيت في جسدك حتى يوم استشهادك لتشهد على تلك المرحلة الشديدة الحساسية من حياة لبنان ..!

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد يوم كنت اول من رفع راية الامام الخميني العظيم في بيروت ووزعت كتابه ” الحكومة الاسلامية” انت ومن معك من النفر المؤمن القليل يوم لم يكن الخميني بعد سوى رمزاً غريباً و مغيباً عن حراك الامة ، و مع ذلك كان اصرارك وثباتك حول ولايته ولاجل نجاح ثورته في ايران هو علة النجاح فكنت سفيراً و ثائراً كما مسلم بن عقيل حتى تمكنت من جمع اكبر حشد متنوع الانتماء والرؤى في تاريخ الدعم والاسناد من طلال سلمان والسيد هاني فحص وآل فرحات والعماد مغنية ورفيقه ابو حسن سلامة وقادة فصائل فلسطين ابوعمار وابوجهاد وجورج حبش  وجمع غفير من فضلاء اهل السنة ومنهم فقيد الوحدة قاضي صيدا الزين ، الى عبد الرحيم مراد وجورج حاوي ويشهد عليك في ذلك كله اخيك ورفيق دربك الشهيد الحي آية الله السيد عيسى الطباطبائي …

هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد يوم صار بيتك في طهران موئلاً وملاذاً لحركات التحرر العربية والعالمية من حركة “الهنود الحمر” الى ثوار الاندلس الى محمد البصري المغرب العربي الى كل اشكال المعارضة العراقية الى معارضة البحرين وارتيريا والفليپين تحرير مورو وكل احرار العالم الذين صرت تجمعهم بامامهم الذي كان يستقبلهم بحميمية اخوة الايمان ويدعو لهم بالتوفيق والنصر…

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد يوم كنت اول الملبين لنداء الامام في نوفل لو شاتو اولاً ، ومن ثم في طهران : “اليوم ايران وغداً فلسطين” ، فابيت الا ان تعود من طهران سريعاً رغم حلاوة النصر، الى حيث احببت ان تكون بين فقراء جبل عامل وعلى تخوم فلسطين ، رغم انك كنت من المؤسسين لحرس الثورة الذين كرموك بتولي مسؤولية علاقاتهم الخارجية وكنت السفير لمجلس قيادة الثورة الفتية الذي ارسلك لتجول البلدان شارحاً ومدافعاً عن الثورة والحكم الرشيد الجديد…

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد  يوم كنت اول الملبين من جديد لنداء امامك وامام المسلمين ان : “ألا من ناصر ينصرنا” ، يوم اشعل الباغي حربه الملعونة على شعبي ايران والعراق ، فصرت طائراً متنقلاً لتحشيد الدعم للحرس الفتي فاشتريت لهم بكفالة وضمانة الراحل ابي عمار رشاشات البريتا ومسدساتها من السوق العالمية ومن ثم تامين الكلاشينكوف والارپي جي من الراحل الوفي حافظ الاسد مع كم كبير من الاسلحة المتوسطة التي نقلت على عجل من الشام لطهران بطائرتي نقل عملاقتين دعماً للحرس الثوري وكرمى عيون الامام  …

 هل تذكر يا ابن السجاد كيف ايضا ًكنت الفدائي الذي تحمل مهمة تأمين ثم نقل صواريخ السكود من طرابلس الغرب الى طهران من فوق سماء موسكو وانت تعرف انك مطارد ومراقب ومحسود ومظلوم من قبل المرجفين ، وهم هم انفسهم الذين اخذوا عليك الربط بين الدين والسياسة في حارات وازقة امير المؤمنين ، ثم عاودوا  الظهور بحلة جديدة ليفتروا عليك بلسان ألكن غريب مريب… لا لشئ الا لعجزهم أمام إصرارك على الثبات والتخندق مع امامك عاملاً بالتكليف مهما كان الثمن عالياً وصمدت مع جماعة المنتظرين إمامهم القادم القائم بالحق ،  لتنضم الى ثلة الزاهدين بالدنيا ومحاصصاتها ومناصبها وكل زخرفها ، ولانك رفضت السفارة والوزارة والحراسة وقلت ان حارس العمر الاجل، وقلت ان من يمتنع من شد الرحال الى القدس ليحررها تأتيه تل ابيب بجيش احتلال او مرتزقة صهاينة، فقد عاجلتك مجموعة مجندة من الموساد بلباس يشبه داعش والنصرة اليوم لتغتالك غيلة وغدراً يوم الخامس من مارس/ آذار العام ١٩٨١ وانت خارج من اجتماع تنسيقي على طريق فلسطين في سفارة الجمهورية الاسلامية، فتصبح شهيد القدس وايران والعراق وسورية ولبنان وتتبناك حركة امل المجاهدة والثورة الفلسطينية والحركة الوطنية اللبنانية وكان ان وصفوك يومها بمهندس العلاقات العربية الايرانية ، ونعاك الحرس الثوري رسمياً والقيادة القومية السورية وكل المعارضة العراقية الاسلامية وقادة ايران من امامها الذي توجك بخط يده شهيداً سعيداً ورئيس جمهوريتها وقائد حرسها ورئيس وزرائها الشهيد رجائي الذين استقبلوك بحرس الشرف رسمياً في مطار مهرباد ثم ابّنوك عشر سنين متتالية…

أنت ارتحلت بدمك يا أبا احمد، مفتتحاً عصر الاستشهاديين الاممين القادة فكنت لابد اسعدهم ولا تزال …

 ولكن لم يمض وقت طويل حتى بدأ المهاجرون والانصار من مدرسة الامام ، يتقاطرون الى حيث ارتقيت، الواحد بعد الاخر بعد ان اكملوا دربك ، مرتحلين في دمهم وهم على طريق القدس من الحرس الثوري او الحشد الشعبي  الى رجال الله في لبنان وهاهم انصار الله يزينون قوافل الشهداء،  والباقي على الطريق فمنهم من قضى نحبه ومنهم من ينتظر…

حان لك الان ان تنام  قرير العين يا ابا احمد بعد ان اثمر جهدك وجهادك مضاعفاً  فها هي الامة اليوم كلها تتوحد على العهد … بعد ان توحد الدم العراقي بالدم الايراني بالدم السوري بالدم اللبناني بالدم اليمني و اكتمل جيش المليون لتحرير القدس …وصارت فلسطين  قاب قوسين أو ادنى من النصر الكبير وما ذلك على الله بعزيز…

  اخيراً وليس آخراً يا ابا احمد وانت في عرس الاربعين، فقد صار بامكانك ان تنظّم احتفالاً من نوع متفاوت تماماً،  بميلاد الرسول الاعظم الذي لطالما احببت ، وهو بالمناسبة يوم ميلادك ايضاً ، وانت بين اغلى الرفاق والاخوة والاحباب ،  وانتم متحلقون حول الحوض وبرعاية امير المؤمنين واهل الكساء، ولا تنسى ان تدعو لنا بالقدوم اليك فقد طال الفراق … فلا تُمعن كثيراً في ايلامنا بالانتظار فأما القدس أو حضور احتفالك في الفردوس الاعلى يا ابن السجاد…

جبلٌ هوى… لكنّ صاحبنا ارتقى لك يا أنيس قلوبنا كلّ العُلا

محمد صادق الحسيني

تتزاحم الشجون والمشاعر والذكريات والمحطات في ذهني كما تتزاحم الأقلام اليوم في رثائك يا أنيس هذا اليوم، ولا أدري من أين أبدأ وأين انتهي معك وأنت اليوم صرت كلّ الحكاية… ولا تقل «انتهيت وماتت الرواية»… فنحن لا ننتهي بل ننتقل من هذه الدنيا الفانية الى تلك الآخرة الباقية…

حاولت يا أنيس أن أرثيك بقلمي المكسور وظهري المنحني حزناً وقلبي المفجوع برحيلك الفجائي، كما ينبغي، فما وفقت ولكنني أكتب إليك بضع كلمات لعلها تشفي وجعي…

لقد رحلت عنّا من دون وداع ولا استئذان، إلا من عمّتنا العقيلة زينب عليها السلام والتي زرتها مودّعاً ومستئذناً قبل أيام من إصابتك بهذا الوباء اللعين، كما هي عادتك وولعك الهندسيّ في رسم المثلثات والمكعّبات وتشفير الرسائل والكلمات فبحت للعقيلة الحوراء ما لم تبحه للآخرين ورحلت.

آه يا أنيس كم مرةٍ كنت قد قرّرتَ الرحيل وما أذن الله لك…

دعني أبدأ معك من حيث البداية الهندسية للرواية…

هل تتذكر أول مرة تعرّفتُ فيها عليك في مكتبك لهندسة الديكور في كورنيش المزرعة في سبعينيات القرن الماضي، يوم كنت تخطط مع رهط عظيم من أصحابك مثل هاني فاخوري وعلي يوسف ونزار الزين ومحمد بركات ومحمود هلال رسلان ونذير الأوبري وخالد الشحيمي ومروان الكيالي وعبد الحسن الأمين وعصمت مراد وسمير الشيخ وربيع الجبل ومحمد عرندس وعشرات آخرين من الرموز والقامات الأخرى «للاستيلاء» على لبنان كلّ لبنان وتسليمه كله لفلسطين، هدية من بيروت كليمة البحر والبحّارين العاشقين للسفر الى المحيط الأرحب، بيروت العصية على الدخلاء والغرباء إلا من آمن بالله ورسله وأنبيائه، ونحت في صخورها ورسم على جدرانها وهندس ديكورها بلوحات فلسطين؟

هل تذكر كيف اخترقتَ يومها كلّ حواجز و»سيطرات» القرار الدولي والاقليمي والمحلي المتكلس بنمطيات «لبنان قوي بضعفه» و»لبنان مرآة عاكسة لتناقضات المحيط» و»العين ما فيها تقاوم المخرز»، لتتمكن من إيصال منشوراتك الى قرى جبل عامل تدعوها للقيام.. وزدت على ذلك طموحاً بتجنيد بعض ضباط الأمم المتحدة على الطرف الآخر من الأسلاك الشائكة ليوصلوا صوتك الجهوريّ وصوت حركتك لبنان الأرض بتتكلم عربي الى أهلنا في فلسطين؟

كيف أرثيك اليوم وأنت أنت، أنت الذي هويت اليوم من علياء جبل قاسيون بقوّة فرط صوتية لم نألفها فيك ولا منك، وفي عينيك اللتين كانتا دوماً مسدّدتين الى جبل الشيخ والجليل الأعلى فإذا بهما تغفوان على سفوح جبل عامل ودماوند فاستحضرت مع رحيلك المدوّي هذا أبا جهاد خليل الوزير ومحمد صالح الحسيني وعماد مغنية وآخرين كثراً من رجال المشروع الأممي المقاوم المبدعين.. وإصراري على ذكر هؤلاء الثلاثة تحديداً لأنهم كانوا المواكبين والملهمين لك في لحظات التحوّل والتغيير الأساسية في عمرك السياسيّ، وإنْ أصبحتَ «ملهماً فاق ملهميه» في بعض فصول عطائه بأشواط.

رثاؤك يا أنيس ليس بالأمر السهل وأنت كنت عنوان التحوّل والإبداع والهندسة الديناميكيّة في ثلاث محطات أساسية:

1

ـ أنيس لبنان العربي

يوم اجتمع الكون كله ليخطفه من عروبته وفلسطينه فكنت سيد المرحلة في الدفاع عن عروبة لبنان الرديفة لفلسطين بكلّ تقاسيم العروبة والإسلام مانعاً المرجفين من سلخ لبنان عن بحره ومحيطه والمتحجّرين الظلاميين عن التفريط بإسلام محمد الأصيل.

2

ـ أنيس إسلام الخميني

يوم اجتمع الكون كله ليمنع ولادة إيران الإسلام معلنين الحرب عليها لأنها نادت بإيران اليوم وغداً فلسطين.

فكانت نخوتك العربية وصفاء روحك ومن عشقت من السهرودي وملا صدرا وعرفان إمام العصر لتتجلى وحدة العقيدة لديك في نظريتك التي أحببت وآمنت بأنّ مهندس هذا الكون واحد ونوره واحد، ما عنى لك أن تترجمه بانتقالك الى المرحلة الأرقى وهي الجمع بين جناحي الأمة الإسلامية عنيت به مرحلة الإسلام المحمدي الأصيل على سنة محمد وفي تشيّع علي والتي تمثلت لديك وتبلورت بالانتماء.. نعم الانتماء لمدرسة ونهج محقق حلم الأنبياء ووارث آدم والحسين عليهما السلام، عنيت به الإمام روح الله الموسوي الخميني.

3

ـ أنيس حضارة المشرق

يوم اجتمع الكون كله لينتقم من كلّ حواضر الأمة العربية والإسلامية ممثلة بشام المسيح ومحمد، وبعثوا جيوشهم الناطقة بعربية زائفة كاذبة والحاملة راية ظلامية سوداء تحمل في جوفها عدة وعديد بقايا عصابات الهاغانا وشتيرن وسواهما من جيوش الشجرة الملعونة في القرآن، فكنت أيضاً سيد المرحلة وعنوانها منذ اليوم الأول، ولم تختلط عليك الأمور ولم تشتبه، فأطلقت نداءك الشهير بأن هيا لننتقل من الاشتباك «المنفرد» الى التشبيك «المتحد» لتصبح الساحات والدماء واحدة متّحدة كما هو هدفنا الواحد الموحّد…

ويوم صرعت الإمبريالية والصهيونية على بوابات الشام وصعد من صعد الى بارئه من القادة والأحباب وأخيرهم وارث كلّ علم الحروب والمقاومات وابن الخميني البار ومالك علي الخامنئي الى السماء، عنيت به أسطورة الشرق الحاج قاسم سليماني، قرّرت أن تذهب أنت بكليتك الى دمشق لتخوض ما كنت تعتقد وأنت محقّ بأنها المعركة الأخيرة ما قبل الصعود إلى الجليل الأعلى، أيّ معركة منع تكرار سيناريو العراق الذي يحضر لسورية الأسد ولبنان، ولكن هيهات لهم ذلك. وقد نجحت في أداء واجبك وقسطك في المعركة، مبدعاً وملهماً.

وبينما جيش سورية الأسد وحلفاؤه الأوفياء يستعدون لتطهير ما تبقى من أرض الأنبياء وأرض المعراج الى السماء، والكلّ يعدّ العدّة ممن تعرفهم وآخرين جدد يأتون الينا من كلّ حدب وصوب ومأرب… فإذا بك تفاجئنا بالترجّل عن صهوة فرسك والرحيل…

لماذا يا أنيس…!؟

سؤال يُمعن في إيلامنا، لكن الله يقول لنا بلسان الوحي :

«ولكلّ أمة أجَل فإذا جاء أجلهم لا يستأخرون ساعة ولا يستقدمون».

آمنا بالله وهو الحق والموت حق …

رثاؤك صعب يا أنيس بعد أن قلّ الأنيس لولا أبي هادي الأمين وبعض رهطه وحوارييه…

وبعد أن صار لنا في السماء أكثر مما لنا في الأرض، وبعد أن اشتعل الشيب فينا لهباً…!؟

ولكن لا يا أنيس، فعهدنا وإياك ألّا نستسلم، لا للجنرال كلل ولا للجنرال ملل، ولا للجنرالات الآخرين إحباط ويأس وقنوط، فرحمة الله واسعة…

وعهدُنا الأول نحن «جمعية المصدقين» هل تذكر.. هكذا كانوا يسمّوننا.. بأننا مصدقون أنّ الأمور بخير وانّ كلّ شيء على ما يُرام وانّ التحرير آتٍ وانّ أمر محمد وآل محمد قائم…

نعم يا أنيس قسماً بمن أحببت وبمن آمنت وبمن التحقت أننا على العهد باقون والى الجليل وجبل الشيخ صاعدون ونحن نردّد …»نحن اللي خلينا الدنيا تحكي بلهجة فلسطين» و»أنا ابن فتح ما هتفت لغيرها» طبعاً فتح التي كانت تعني فلسطين كلّ فلسطين وكلّ من حمل البندقية بعدها وقرّر الاشتباك خيراً دائماً لأجل فلسطين حرة عربية مستقلة تسبح في محيطها العربي والاسلامي، ومدعومة من كلّ أحرار العالم الذين أحببتهم وأحبّوك يا أنيس الإنسان ..

نم قرير العين يا أنيس واطمئن، وعندما تستفيق غداً أخبر حواريي عيسى المسيح وجند محمد عندك من ضيوف الرفيق الأعلى بأننا قادمون وكلّ واحد من أهل الاختصاص فينا، قد أخذ موقعه الخاص به في المستوطنة او المستعمرة التي سيحرّر… وسنصلي في القدس…

ولكن مع ذلك يا أنيس…

ثمة وجع وألم وحنين في قلبي لعودتك وعودة مَن معك هناك في الفردوس الأعلى وأنتم حول محمد وعلي وفاطمة والحسن والحسين متحلقون…

ولكن الحزن عليك يا أنيس جاء أضعافاً مضاعفة

كما أخبرتك أعلاه فأنت برحيلك استحضرت كلّ القامات والهامات التي سبقتك…

ولم يبق في جعبتي إلا هذه الأبيات التي رثا فيها الشريف الرضي صديقه أبا اسحق الصابي :

اعلمت من حملوا على الأعواد

أرأيت كيف خبا ضياء النادي

جبل هوى لو خرّ في البحر اغتدى

من وقعه متزاحم الإزباد

ما كنت أعرف قبل حطك في الثرى

أن الثرى يعلو على الأطواد

اقبلها مني أوتاراً في غمد سيفً ملئ بالشجن

لا أقول لك وداعاً يا أنيس حتى النفوس المستوحشة من بعدك، فأنت من جنس الشهداء… حيّ بيننا وان كانت كورونا قد فتكت بك على حين غرة بالوكالة عن العدو الأصيل الذي هزمته في أكثر من ميدان…

قادمون يا أنيس من هرمز التي جهّزت راداراتها البحرية بيديك، الى باب المندب التي كنتَ تعمل على تحضير سفينة كارين لها، حتى مع غياب عماد …

ومن البصرة التي لطالما نصحت بحسم أمرها قبل فوات الأوان الى بنت جبيل التي لطالما حرست تلالها أنت والقامات الكبرى التي كبرت وكبرت حتى حققت الانتصارين وصار عدوّك وعدوّنا أوهن من بيت العنكبوت…

أنت رحلت بدمك يا أنيس مرفوع الهامة منتصراً

ونحن بقينا هنا ننتظر إشارة حبيبك وحبيبنا معركة يوم القيامة التي نكاد نلامسها بين يوم وآخر في معادلة قوة جديدة لجغرافيا آخر الزمان.

ستبعث فيها أنت ورفاقك الذين سبقوك لتقاتلوا معنا من جديد بهندسة هذه المرة من نسج رب الكون.

الله وياك الله وياك الله وياك.

بعدنا طيبين قولوا الله…

الرئيس الأسد يعزي بوفاة المفكر والمناضل العروبي أنيس النقاش

بعث السيد الرئيس بشار الأسد اليوم برقية تعزية إلى أسرة المفكر والمناضل العروبي أنيس النقاش الذي وافته المنية في دمشق أمس.
وقال الرئيس الأسد في برقيته…

ببالغ الحزن والأسى تلقينا نبأ وفاة المفكر والمناضل العروبي أنيس النقاش.. ونتقدم اليكم وإلى جميع المناضلين والمقاومين الأحرار بأحر التعازي القلبية سائلين الله العلي القدير أن يتغمده بواسع رحمته ويسكنه فسيح جنانه وأن يلهمكم الصبر والسلوان.

وأضاف الرئيس الأسد.. لقد أمضى الفقيد حياته مقاوماً ضد الاحتلال واتباعه في منطقتنا ومدافعاً عن القضايا العربية بجسده وبفكره فكان وسيبقى دائماً أحد الرموز المشرفة التي ستخلد في الذاكرة العربية لتستلهم منها الأجيال معنى التمسك بالأرض والدفاع عنها والنضال من أجل القضايا المحقة.. وكما احتضنته دمشق في أيامه الأخيرة فإن الشعب السوري سيحتضن في وجدانه على الدوام ذكراه العطرة.

فيديوات ذات صلة

مقالات ذات صلة

Al-Manar TV Channel, Al-Nour Radio Station Lament Al-Naqqash Death: He Disappeared amid Bad Need for His Revolutionary Vision

February 22, 2021

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The Lebanese Communication Group (Al-Manar TV Channel and Al-Nour Radio Station) on Monday mourned the Lebanese and Arab struggler, Anis Al-Naqqash, who sculpted his name on the way to Palestine and defended its flag.

In a statement, the Lebanese Communication Group maintained that Al-Naqqash was the voice of right in face of oppression, adding that he passed away amid a bad need for his revolutionary vision necessary to confront the normalization and Arab disgrace campaigns.

The Lebanese Communication Group lamented Al-Naqqash as a companion of its voice and image that conveys and defends the causes of the oppressed, especially that of Palestine,offering deep condolences to his family and lovers and asking Holy God to grant him His Mercy along with the righteous martyrs and mujahidin (fighters).

Born on 1951, Al-Naqqash joined the ranks of Fatah movement in 1968. He was tasked with several missions in Lebanon, occupied territories and Europe as well. He played vital role in coordination between Palestinian revolution and revolution in Iran.

Al-Naqqash was among the first operatives who formed the Lebanese resistance against Israeli occupation in 1978. He witnessed the Lebanese civil war and documented its behind-the-scenes events.

In 1980, he was accused for being involved in a failed assassination attempt on the last Prime Minister of Iran under Pahlavi monarchy, Shapour Bakhtiar, in a court in Paris and was sentenced to life in prison. Al-Naqqash was freed on 27 July 1990, after being pardoned by President François Mitterrand.

He is well known for being a pro-resistance political analyst who opposes Western-backed Arab regimes. In the last years, he had run Beirut-based Al-Aman Network for Studies and Researches.

Source: Al-Manar English Website

Hezbollah Mourns Al-Naqqash: He Defended Palestinian Cause, Lebanese Resistance, Islamic Republic and Syria

February 22, 2021

Hezbollah mourned on Monday the mujahid, thinker, and major researcher Mr. Anis Al-Naqqash, who died on the same day of coronavirus, offering deep condolences to his family. friends and lovers and asking Holy God to grant him His Mercy along with the righteous martyrs.

In a statement, Al-Naqqash was one of the most important thinkers and researchers in our region and presented numerous researches and strategic studies, which enhanced the comprehensive confrontation with the Zionist enemy.

The statement mentioned that Al-Naqqash, spent long years of his life as a resistance fighter and carried the Palestinian cause in his heart and mind, mobilizing the free people everywhere to support it and defend its oppressed people.

He also defended forcefully the “honorable” resistance in Lebanon and its political ans well as military choices in various local and international forums, according to Hezbollah statement, which added that Al-Naqqash supported the Islamic Republic of Iran in face of the aggression and blockade and defended its values.

The statement, moreover, indicated that Al-Naqqash confronted the conspiracies which were devised in the context of the global terrorist war on Syria.

Born on 1951, Al-Naqqash joined the ranks of Fatah movement in 1968. He was tasked with several missions in Lebanon, occupied territories and Europe as well. He played vital role in coordination between Palestinian revolution and revolution in Iran.

Al-Naqqash was among the first operatives who formed the Lebanese resistance against Israeli occupation in 1978. He witnessed the Lebanese civil war and documented its behind-the-scenes events.

In 1980, he was accused for being involved in a failed assassination attempt on the last Prime Minister of Iran under Pahlavi monarchy, Shapour Bakhtiar, in a court in Paris and was sentenced to life in prison. Al-Naqqash was freed on 27 July 1990, after being pardoned by President François Mitterrand.

He is well known for being a pro-resistance political analyst who opposes Western-backed Arab regimes. In the last years, he had run Beirut-based Al-Aman Network for Studies and Researches.

Source: Hezbollah Media Relations (Translated by Al-Manar English Website)

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Is a Revolutionary Movement Developing in Europe? Rejecting the Lockdown and the Mask

By Dr. Paul Craig Roberts and Klaus Madersba

Global Research, February 16, 2021

All Global Research articles can be read in 27 languages by activating the “Translate Website” drop down menu on the top banner of our home page (Desktop version).

***

US media provides little news of Europe.  What is provided is strictly “narrated.”  Consequently, Americans are unaware of what seems to be a spontaneous, leaderless, popular uprising against mandated lockdowns and masks.

There are large demonstrations in Germany, and they have spread to Vienna and to Copenhagen.  The people have more sense than the public authorities and reject the Covid mandates. 

In The Netherlands, the Hague Court has ruled that the Covid curfew has no legal basis and “is a far-reaching violation of the right to freedom of movement and privacy and limits, among other things, the right to freedom of assembly and demonstration.” See this.  

Klaus Madersbacher, proprietor of the antikrieg.com website, thinks that Germans are associating the fear-based campaign that is asserting new government controls over people’s lives and activities with an American hegemonic agenda. He believes that it is a revolutionary mass movement that should now become organized under leadership in order to achieve the independence of countries and their peoples.  

One wonders if insouciant Americans are capable of a revolutionary temperament or whether the only protests Americans will witness are the Establishment-funded Antifa and BLM riots that loot and burn private businesses.

Here is Madersbacher’s analysis of what he is witnessing.

*

A New Revolutionary mass movement 

by Klaus Madersbacher

QUERDENKEN is a revolutionary mass movement directed against the US-controlled German regime, similar in essence to the revolution of the Iranian people in 1978 against the US-run dictatorship of the Shah in Iran. It should be emphasized that the Iranian revolution was a peaceful revolution in the course of which the Iranian security forces refused to fight against their own people. The same type of revolutionary movement seems to be emerging in countries under the dominance of the United States of America.

Instead of serving their own people, European regimes serve the interests of Washington, which seems driven to obtain supremacy over the world for material reasons and also as a way out of the economic crisis in which it finds itself.

The theater with and around the coronavirus is staged with the explicit intention of distraction and of creating fear and a climate of general insecurity that leads to control measures that enable hegemonic power, perhaps resulting in a “global reset” that serves the interest of the few at the expense of the many. 

It is against these measures that the Germans and neighboring nations are rising up in an unprecedented and unforeseen readiness to defend themselves as a people and a society.

I read the protests of the last several months as clear expressions that the German people are no longer willing to submit to puppet governments that fail to represent the interests of the people.

Germans and Europeans are used as support for Washington/NATO’s push against Russia and Asia, which is clearly against European interests. If spontaneous cooperation is achieved among European peoples, Washington’s aspirations are defeated, and representative governments will form in place of Washington’s puppet states.  

Since the ruling European governments are neither willing nor able to represent the interests of their peoples, they have lost the confidence of the people and forfeited the right to remain in power. Constitutionally prescribed steps can be followed as far as possible to remove them from office.

First steps /measures

As a first step, a revolutionary council should be elected consisting of two or three members per federal state. 

The revolutionary council will accept no guidance from the EU, Washington, or any agreements that limit the exercise of national sovereignty. 

Existing governmental and financial institutions will continue in operation, but the revolutionary council will reestablish all civil liberties, such as freedom of movement, freedom of income, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and freedom of travel. The institutional structure of government will then be thoughtfully reconstructed to be consistent with human rights and national wellbeing. 

The Covid control measures will be revoked.

The campaign of fear will be halted, and open public discussion by independent medical and scientific experts will be used to determine reasonable measures to protect the population from Covid.

Layoffs, terminations & repossessions resulting from Covid ordinances will be reversed.

Fines and penalties collected under Covid ordinances will be repaid, and court judgments against citizens under Covid ordinances will be reversed.

The Iranian Revolution against the Shah shows that revolutionary mass movements can be peaceful. To reconstruct the state to serve the people, a constitutional requirement is required that permits the passage of no law that cannot be proved in open discussion to serve the people over organized interests.  To protect the people’s interest, schooling will be used to support the ethos that honor, not material interests or service to ambition, is the basis for government service.

These idealistic aims will never be fully achieved, but their conscious cultivation can preserve the freedom of European peoples.

*

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Dr. Paul Craig Roberts writes on his blog site, PCR Institute for Political Economy, where this article was originally published. He is a frequent contributor to Global Research.

Non Muslims should also recognise the achievements of Iran’s Revolution

Talk by Dr Tim Anderson in Sydney on the 42nd anniversary of the Iranian Revolution. 11 February 2021. Video by Shawki Moselmane.

Iran: Keeper of mankind’s anti-imperialist flame amid the ‘end of history’

Source

Thursday, 04 February 2021 3:33 AM  

US Rep. Ilhan Omar (D-MN) (L) talks with Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi (D-CA) during a rally with fellow Democrats before voting on H.R. 1, or the People Act, on the East Steps of the US Capitol on March 08, 2019 in Washington, DC. (AFP photo)
The Islamic Revolution, February 1979. (Photo by Reuters)
Iran at 42: Keeper of mankind’s anti-imperialist flame amid the ‘end of history’
Ramin Mazaheri (@RaminMazaheri2) is currently covering the US election. He is the chief correspondent in Paris for Press TV and has lived in France since 2009. He has been a daily newspaper reporter in the US, and has reported from Iran, Cuba, Egypt, Tunisia, South Korea, and elsewhere. He is the author of ‘Socialism’s Ignored Success: Iranian Islamic Socialism’ as well as ‘I’ll Ruin Everything You Are: Ending Western Propaganda on Red China,’ which is also available in simplified and traditional Chinese.

By Ramin Mazaheri and cross-posted with The Saker

At 42 years the Iranian Islamic Revolution has endured so long that it has seen the reactionary force which rose to counter it – Reaganism – partially defeated by a new faction: Trumpism.

With the return to power – via Joe Biden – of the three decade-long Clintonista ideology Iran hasn’t lasted so very long as to witness a total sea change in US politics, but revolutionary Iran continues to vex, undermine and even defeat mighty Washington precisely because of a key pillar of the Islamic Republic: anti-imperialism.

It’s difficult for me to take Biden and his supporters seriously because even though they claim to represent a progressive leap forward politically one never hears them utter the phrase “anti-imperialism”. In fact, nowhere in US mainstream discourse is this phrase ever heard, and that should be very telling about the true nature of the political factions here.

Anti-imperialism. Indeed, it is a complete sentence. It is a definitive answer to so many questions and problems.

It’s so big that even Wikipedia’s scant page on anti-imperialism relates how it has five different axes: “the moral, the economic, the systemic, the cultural and the temporal”. In one column I cannot discuss all five axes, but I can relate how the phrase is never discussed in both polite and impolite American society. That’s worth repeating because the US is so very aggressive militarily, still.

The single greatest cardinal sin in politics is to attack another country, so from a political point of view the dominant concept behind “anti-imperialism” is an anti-war stance: To be anti-imperialist is to be pro-peace. Therefore, in its political sense “anti-imperialism” is a phrase which implies an inherently internationalist viewpoint which sees weaker – or maybe just less warlike –  countries bound together against any colonising aggressor.

The sad reality is that “anti-imperialism” is not what it used to be.

As I have often related, an accurate analysis of modern human history is that precisely as Iran emerged victorious from the Western-orchestrated War of Holy Defense (also referred to as the Iran-Iraq War) the global anti-imperialist struggle completely collapsed, due to the fall of the USSR and Europe’s Eastern Bloc.

Almost universally anti-imperialism had a crisis of intellectual confidence. This even allowed Western pro-imperialists to insist that Iran was in a laughable condition: it went from being a revolutionary country to an outdated country almost overnight! The sad, but partial, truth of this historical era is not widely understood even in 2021.

It’s an important rejoinder that Iran’s revolutionary mix of anti-imperialism, state economic management and a modern, late-20th century political structure mixed with the revolutionary addition of clerical democratic inclusion has also still not been fully understood by most non-Iranians on both the left and the right.

But for pro-imperialists understanding was not necessary because in 1992 they infamously, abruptly and arrogantly declared the “end of history”, and that anti-imperialism had permanently lost. This explains Washington’s philosophy towards Iran for the last 30 years: waste time – and make things as difficult as possible via illegal and murderous sanctions – until Iran catches up with “history”. Or to put it in the exact terms used today by the Biden administration, which is struggling to gain domestic legitimacy after a deeply-disputed election: wait for Iran to accept “reality” (a “reality” defined by pro-imperialists, of course).

After 42 years Iran is still waiting for many to understand the political and economic modernity of its culture, but most with open eyes have at least partially come to understand Iran thanks to its actions. They see that Iran is consistently a top 10 country in the acceptance of refugees; they see that Iran puts its best and most beloved, like QasemSoleimani, in harm’s way in foreign nations in order to aid their struggles; they see that Iran supports righteous Sunni countries like Palestine; they see that Iran takes major and daring risks to send help to Latino countries like Venezuela; they see that Iran followed all the rules of the JCPOA pact on Iran’s nuclear energy program even when Western signatories did not.

Anyone with open eyes sees that Iran is an internationalist country, an anti-imperialist fighter, a peacemaker and a supporter of righteous global cooperation . Anyone with a modicum of imagination has also wondered just how very successful Iran could be and would have been – with their natural and human resources, and with the exact system they have had in place for 42 years – if the West would end its decades of imperialist blockades on Iran.

In the modern digital age – dominated by Western corporations who undoubtedly support pro-imperialist ideologies – eyes are not allowed to be opened, sadly. The pen is not mightier than the sword of deplatforming, censorship and endless Western propaganda.

And yet anti-imperialism remains an ever-powerful sword, because defense of one’s home and sovereignty is always legitimate.

In the post-1991 world who has wielded this sword more than Iran? This is not mere boasting, and proof of humility can be shown by quickly recounting the history of modern anti-imperialist struggles:

Only a know-nothing would say that the USSR, with its 25 million martyrs, didn’t primarily defeat German imperialism. China gave so very much to protect Korea from American invasion, but not as much as North Koreans gave, of course. The sacrifices of the Vietnamese were the most globally galvanising anti-imperialist force in the 20th century – who could ever forget that? Ending South African Apartheid can never be forgotten, but Western media certainly does obscure the role played by Cuban soldiers in repelling attacks from the Western-backed South African Defense Force, which ultimately resulted in the discrediting of the entire South African system and led to the freedom of Angola and modern-day Namibia. And who can forget when Algiers was the “Mecca of revolutionaries”, following the victory of its incredibly inspiring anti-imperialist struggle which overturned 132 years of Algeria “being France”?

Yet Iran’s contributions to the global and supremely humane anti-imperialist movement have been easily obscured by the West’s post-2001 state-sponsored ideology: Islamophobia.

Islamophobia was a very good ideology for pro-imperialists to promote because it has no troublesome economic or class components – it is mere xenophobia. Islamophobia explains why even the few committed Western anti-imperialists so often dismiss Iran’s anti-imperialism with a dismissive wave of their hand: they feel that because of the presence of the religion of Islam Iran is too difficult to even be understood. Sadly, Western pro-imperialists – via the promotion of Islamophobia – have won in many areas for decades.

Iran is concerned with Islam, of course, but Islam differs from Christianity in that there is no possibility for forced conversion, for proselytising monks or nuns or for the forcing of faith on others. Islam, from a political, economic and geopolitical perspective, is simply an insufficient tool with which to define all of modern Iran (believing that it is sufficient is Islamophobic, of course).

Because anti-imperialism cannot die as long as countries are conquered and colonised (openly or via puppets), it must have a center somewhere, no?

It’s laughable to say that the centre of the anti-imperialist movement in 2021 – which began in politics with Lenin and his critiques of Western-style capitalism – could be located anywhere in the United States. Or in Western Europe, for that matter.

I think it is perhaps fair to say the centre in 2021 is in Iran.

If that seems strange to your ears: Isn’t it true that Western Islamophobia has made modern Iran seem to be totally inscrutable, or even not even worth serious analysis? At the very same time, hasn’t the huge reductions in the anti-imperialist movement – which was a global cultural force for nearly a century – made Iran even more atypical? Is Iran so hard to place on the global and historical political spectrums because it is so very revolutionary, or is it that many simply don’t make the effort to accurately understand it’s structures, ideals and actions?

After 42 years Iran’s actions are clear, even if – to some – their motivations and methods are not yet comprehended.

There are other established anti-imperialist nations, as I have noted, and I am not accusing them of resting on their laurels – I simply note here that since 1979 Iran has undoubtedly joined their company in the history of modern mankind. Given the importance of anti-imperialism in establishing global peace, goodwill and cooperation – who wouldn’t thank God for that?

(The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect those of Press TV.)


Press TV’s website can also be accessed at the following alternate addresses:

www.presstv.ir

www.presstv.co.uk

www.presstv.tv

First Batch of Iran’s 20% Enriched Uranium Products Ready

First Batch of Iran’s 20% Enriched Uranium Products Ready

By Staff, Agencies

Iran says it has produced its first UF6 [uranium hexafluoride or hex] product a few hours after restarting the enrichment of uranium up to a purity level of 20 percent at Fordow nuclear facility.

Behrouz Kamalvandi, the spokesman for the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran [AEOI], announced late Monday that the first UF6 product was prepared a few hours ago.

The process of injecting gas into the centrifuges and resuming uranium enrichment up to 20% started earlier in the day after informing inspectors from the International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA], the spokesman said.

“Considering the previous experience of enrichment in Fordow facility, the new production line for enriching uranium to 20% was prepared very quickly,” Kamalvandi said.

He also noted that the country is prepared to enrich uranium at purity levels beyond 20 percent.

According to the AEOI, the resumption of uranium enrichment at this level of purity came in line with the legislation earlier passed by the Iranian Parliament, which obliges the administration of President Hassan Rouhani to expand the country’s nuclear activities in a bid to have the sanctions lifted.

Earlier in the day, Iran’s government spokesman announced the beginning of the process to enrich uranium to 20 percent purity at Fordow nuclear facility.

“President [Hassan Rouhani] had ordered the beginning of 20-percent enrichment a couple of days ago, and the process of injecting gas [into centrifuges] has started after informing the International Atomic Energy Agency [IAEA] … and the first UF6 product will be out a few hours from now,” Ali Rabiei said.

Following Iranian government spokesman’s announcement, Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif also took to Twitter, saying that resumption of 20% uranium enrichment by Iran is totally legal and based on a recent legislation by the country’s Parliament while keeping the IAEA fully abreast of Tehran’s decision.

“We resumed 20% enrichment, as legislated by our Parliament. IAEA has been duly notified,” Zarif said in his tweet.

He emphasized that the move is in conformity with Paragraph 36 of the JCPOA, once again reiterating that all Iran’s measures are reversible if other signatories to the landmark nuclear deal remain committed to their obligations.

“Our remedial action conforms fully with Para 36 of JCPOA, after years of noncompliance by several other JCPOA participants. Our measures are fully reversible upon FULL compliance by ALL,” the top Iranian diplomat tweeted.

Zarif’s deputy Abbas Araqchi later echoed his remarks in a televised interview, and said the 20-percent uranium enrichment at Fordow is not going to kill the 2015 nuclear deal, and is in conformity with the multilateral accord.

“The 20-percent enriched uranium is what Tehran’s atomic reactor needs, and we restarted the process based on the Parliament’s legislation. If the other parties return to their commitments, we can also get back to our JCPOA commitments. We started enrichment to 20 percent in 12 hours,” Araqchi said.

He said the law recently passed by the Parliament says the country can technically enrich uranium at purity levels beyond 20 percent, but Iran enriches its uranium based on its need, and does not believe in nuclear weapons.

“These weapons have no position in our security and defense doctrine. Our programs are based on on-the-ground needs, and we don’t need enrichment beyond 20 percent,” he clarified.

His comments came after the IAEA confirmed in a statement that Iran had started the process of enriching uranium to 20 percent.

“Iran today began feeding uranium already enriched up to 4.1 percent U-235 into six centrifuge cascades at the Fordow Fuel Enrichment Plant for further enrichment up to 20 percent,” the statement said.

It added, “IAEA inspectors were present at the site to detach the Agency’s seal from a cylinder with the feed material” and that “the cylinder was then connected to the feeding line to start the production of uranium enriched up to 20 percent.”

A total of 1,044 IR-1 centrifuges were being used in the process, the IAEA said.

“The End of the War in Syria Will Come as Part of the Agreement Between Iran and China,” Says Iranian Foreign Policy Analyst

By Polina Aniftou and Steven Sahiounie

Global Research, November 19, 2020

As the US changes leadership, new opportunities for re-alignment may open up for the Middle East and the wider region.  To understand more fully the implications presented in conflicts ranging from the US-Iran tension, the Syrian war, and the role of Turkey and Israel in the destabilization of the region, Steven Sahiounie of MidEastDiscourse, reached out to Polina Aniftou, analyst of the Iranian foreign policy, in a wide-ranging interview.

***

Steven Sahiounie (SS):  Once President-elect Joe Biden takes office on January 20th, will there likely be found a solution to ease the tension between Iran and Washington, in your view?

Polina Aniftou (PA):  We have to be honest and accept that the tensions have a unilateral character from the US side, and the way the US, on behalf of Israel, try to involve Iran into a conflict, or a war, in the region, is not strategically wise. The US tried with the assassination of Major Soleimani, explosions in Tehran, sanctions, the explosion in Beirut, and the war in Armenia to involve Iran into a regional conflict that would be expanded into war and to attack Iranian militias and army forces outside Iran. The US treats Iran as they treat Egypt, Jordan, Arab monarchies of the Persian Gulf, as states under colonization, and second-class citizens of the Middle East. The difference with Iran is that Iran has a long past and history of not asking for help and not accepting being treated as a weak state, and Iran has no interest to look to the West at this moment. Iran has influence in a region from Beirut to Kabul and the country is safe and secure. Economically, Iran has is self-sufficient with products and raw materials to survive with a good living standard for decades, and the US is aware of this. Given these facts, Biden will try to approach Iran for his benefit, to understand the objectives and the goals of Iran in order not to be humiliated in his foreign policy, unlike Trump. I strongly believe that Biden will start eliminating sanctions only when he realizes the weak position of Israel and Israel’s negative demographics and inefficiency which prevent it’s being a key-actor in the region. I would say that in the next 2-3 years we will see many changes and Iran will be liberated by the imposed sanctions, mainly due to the reaction of China after signing the 25-year agreement with Iran last summer, and China needs a strong Iran to secure the Silk Road from Beirut to Kashmir through its allies and Shia populations that are loyal to Imam Khamenei.

SS:  President Donald Trump broke with the nuclear deal that former President Obama had signed.  Do you see the former deal being renewed under the future Biden administration, or will Iran have some new conditions?

PA:  In a few months’ elections are coming to Iran and the new setup will be much closer to the army, Ayatollah’s opinion, and path of understanding. After the assassination of Soleimani, Ayatollah repeated a very important admonition to not trust the US, and he made relevant statements during the US elections recently. Iran has a philosophy in its foreign policy that if the enemy is threatening Iran, the enemy needs to take the steps to attack or to conquer Iran. Historically, this has never occurred, even Alexander the Great did not manage a foothold in Iran. Thus, as the US left the agreement from the Iranian side, the US dishonored themselves and cannot be trusted. The US did not pay the penalty to Iran for the unilateral withdrawal from the Nuclear Agreement. Iran has claims but will sit on the same table to listen and be present before the eyes of the international community, and not to be accused. Iran will never sit on the table if Biden is threatening, mistreating, and assaulting Iran and its political and diplomatic honesty. I doubt that the Nuclear Agreement will be fully executed or motivated by any of the parties, but Biden will eliminate sanctions, due to pressure by Russia and China, and will start monitoring the region by closely observing Israel, which has caused discrepancies and incompatibility with the US foreign policy.

SS:  In your view, if the relationship between Tehran and Washington were to be improved, could the tensions between Saudi Arabia and Iran be eased?

PA:  The tensions between Iran and Riyadh may have been initiated by the US, but behind this diplomatic distance there is a deep ideological and theological gap that I fear cannot be bridged. The monarchies in the region worried about their future after the Islamic Revolution of 1979. The values of the Islamic Revolution are against monarchy, oppression, and promote self-sufficiency, independence, and Muslim unity (Ummah). The way the Saudis face Shiism, the solitude of Shiism, the reactions against Prophet Succession, and the leadership that Iran claims for the creation of Ummah put Saudis in a difficult position as they are afraid of the systemic existence of their monarchies.  The fact that even today it takes at least 15 years for an Iranian, after the application to be granted a visa, to visit Mecca indicates the hostility of Saudis to Iran. The violence, the lack of respect for others, and human dignity in Saudi Arabia and the laws of Saudi Arabia, affect the relations between the two countries more than any involvement of a third power. How is possible, when in Iran there are so many Sayyed, that receive legitimacy and origin from the 12 Imams, that 11 of them were killed by the forefathers of the Saudis and the Caliphs, for Iranians to feel secure with Saudis? Though for Iranians it is not important, certainly it is essential for Saudis, that they have tortured the daughter of the Prophet for the leadership of Caliphs, from where the monarchies are founded.

SS:  The US sees the Israeli occupation as their main ally in the Middle East region. In your view, could the US keep ties with the Israeli occupation while establishing a relationship with Iran?

PA:  Iran is missing from the puzzle of the US and they cannot accept that they lost Iran. When the Islamic Revolution was at the door of the Shah, the US was afraid of a communist ‘red revolution’. The Shah did not believe that the clergies would support Imam Khomeini, and only Mossad and Israel understood that the Islamic Revolution was coming. This is important because in the 60s and 70s during the Arab-Israeli war, the US prepared the Periphery Doctrine, along with the founder of Israel, David Ben-Gurion. The objectives of the Doctrine was for Israel to be supported by two non-Arab, but Muslim countries, Turkey and Iran. It was during the time of making Iran a westernized society in the scheme of Turkey succeeded by Ataturk. Ataturk demolished all the links and ties of the Ottoman Empire with Islam and its eastern lands and introduced Turkey to the west, to westernize Turkey and control it via western legislators and education. It is similar to what Reza Shah tried to do by issuing a decree known as Kashf-e hijab banning all Islamic veils in 1935, which led to the massacre at the Goharshad Mosque in Mashhad in August 1935, and the White Revolution of 1963 by his son M. Reza, and introducing land reforms, education changes, and westernizing society. The Islamic Revolution stopped the Periphery Doctrine, something that the US cannot forgive Iran for, as this forced the US to be focused on the protection of Israel in the region and to invest in infrastructure and support of Turkey to become a regional power, as a Muslim country with imperial ambitions to protect Israel under the instructions of the US. I am sure that a government led by Mr. Rouhani could skip this detail between Israel and the US, but a new government that will be supported by Quds (Jerusalem) forces, cannot forget its invisible mission to end its task by liberating Quds.  The US will keep their ties with Israel, as Israel is a small, weak country, made by the US to keep Jews away from the west and for intervening in the region, thus Iran will discuss with the US to solve sanction issues, but not for accepting Israel and its ties with the US.

SS:  Iran has supported the fight against terrorism in Syria. Do you see Iran including the end to the war in Syria as part of their negotiations which may begin with the future Biden administration?

PA:  Iran never negotiates its positions in one table. Iran puts its demands in different baskets moving according to the reactions. The war in Syria will end as soon as Biden realizes that Israel will have implications and costs through this war, and the only way for that to happen is by enhancing the power of President Assad and by keeping Lebanon stable. Hezbollah will play a dramatic role in that and would need to take the initiation to empower Mr. Assad. But, the war in Syria will need to end to avoid re-mapping the region after the bad agreement in Armenia that got Turkey and Israel into the Caucasus, threatening the stability and peace. The end of the war in Syria will come as part of the agreement between Iran and China and will be imposed on the US, by annulling the plans of Ankara and Tel Aviv, that since the 60s have worked officially together with common grounds and targets in the regional policy. Iran will demand not only the end of the war, and the disarmament of terrorists, but also the terrorists to be convicted and to eave west Asia.

*

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This article was originally published on Mideast Discourse.

Steven Sahiounie is an award-winning journalist. He is a frequent contributor to Global Research.The original source of this article is Global ResearchCopyright © Polina Aniftou and Steven Sahiounie, Global Research, 2020

Read More: “Israel’s Presence Near the Iranian Border Would Also Put Them in Direct Confrontation with Iran.” Dr. Javad Heirannia

يوم إقليميّ دوليّ فاصل: 18 تشرين الأول

ناصر قنديل

خلال العقدين الأولين من القرن الحادي والعشرين، تحوّل المشهد الدولي القائم من جهة، على وجود مشروع سياسي عسكري اقتصادي للقوة الأميركية العظمى التي فازت بنهاية الحرب الباردة مع سقوط جدار برلين وتفكك الاتحاد السوفياتي، ومن جهة مقابلة على بدء تبلور ممانعة دولية متعددة المصادر لهذا المشروع من قوى كبرى ومتوسطة، على خلفيات مصالح إقتصادية وإستراتيجية قومية تحت عنوان رفض عالم أحادي القطبية، وشكلت روسيا الجديدة مع الصعود السريع للرئيس فلاديمير بوتين، والصين الجديدة مع الصعود التدريجي للرئيس جين بينغ، لكن إيران التي كانت تتعافى من نتائج وتداعيات الحرب التي شنّها النظام العراقي عليها، كانت تدخل معادلة القرن الجديد من باب واسع، فهي تتوسّط قلب المنطقة الساخنة من العالم، التي ستشهد حروب الزعامة الأميركيّة للقرن، وهي الداعم الرئيسي للمقاومة التي انتصرت بتحرير لبنان عام 2000، وقد بدأت برنامجاً نووياً طموحاً ومشاريع للصناعات العسكرية تحاكي مستويات تقنية عالية، وتشكل خط الاشتباك المتقدّم مع المشروع الأميركي ضمن حلف يتعزز ويتنامى على الضفتين الروسية والصينية، ويحاكي خصوصية أوروبية فشل المشروع الأميركي باحتواء تطلعاتها ومخاوفها.

خلال العقدين الماضيين كان الخط البياني التراجعي للمشروع الأميركي، بعد فشل الحروب الأميركية على العراق وافغانستان وسورية والحروب الإسرائيلية المدعومة أميركياً على لبنان وغزة، تعبيراً ضمنياً عن خط بياني صاعد لموقع ومكانة إيران، التي وقفت بصورة مباشرة وغير مباشرة وراء الفشل الأميركي، وفي قلبه صعود في خلفية الصورة لمكانتي روسيا والصين وتقدم لتمايز أوروبي عن السياسات الأميركية، ويمثل ما كان العام 2015 نقطة تحوّل في السياسة الدولية، مع توقيع الاتفاق الدولي بقيادة أميركية مع إيران على ملفها النووي. كان هذا الاتفاق تسليماً بمكانة إيران الجديدة، دولياً وإقليمياً.

جاء الانسحاب الأميركي من الاتفاق النووي ترجمة لهجوم معاكس يقوده ثلاثي أميركي إسرائيلي خليجي، يقوم على إنكار حقائق المواجهات السابقة، ومحاولة لصياغة معادلات بديلة، وكان عنوان هذا الهجوم على جبهتين، جبهة إقليميّة تشكلت من جهة على ترجمة الحلف الجديد بمشروع إقليميّ حمل اسم صفقة القرن لحل القضية الفلسطينية وعزل إيران عن التأثير بمساراتها، وانتهى بالتطبيع الخليجي الإسرائيلي من جهة وتوحّد الساحة الفلسطينية كمعني أول بالمواجهة، خلف شعارات المقاومة التي تدعمها إيران. من جهة موازية، كانت الجبهة الثانية دولية تشكلت على خلفية السعي لتعميم نظام العقوبات وصولاً لخنق الاقتصاد الإيراني، وفرض تفاوض جديد بشروط جديدة عليها، وكانت النتيجة من جهة تعاظم الضغوط الناتجة عن العقوبات الأميركيّة القصوى على إيران، ومن جهة موازية عزلة أميركية دولية في فرض منهج العقوبات على إيران، وفشل واسع في الحصول على دعم أمميّ لها، بما تخطى الرفض التقليدي لروسيا والصين لسياسة العقوبات، مع انضمام أوروبا إلى المصوّتين ضد الدعوة الأميركية.

في 18 تشرين الأول عام 2020، يسقط بموجب الاتفاق النووي، الحظر الأممي على السلاح بيعاً وشراء بالنسبة لإيران، بعد محاولات مستميتة فاشلة بذلتها واشنطن لتجديد الحظر، وكان واضحاً ان إيران بذلت جهوداً دبلوماسية معاكسة مع اوروبا تضمنت ضبط إيقاع المواقف الإيرانية من الاتفاق النووي بما يحفظ بقاءه كإطار دبلوماسي قانوني على قيد الحياة، وقد كانت فرصة اللقاء مع وزير الخارجية الإيرانية محمد جواد ظريف في مطلع العام بعد نهاية زيارة مفوض السياسات الخارجية في الاتحاد الأوروبي جوزف بوريل إلى طهران، مناسبة لسماع موقف إيراني عنوانه، انتظروا 18 تشرين، إنه الموعد الفاصل بين مرحلتين، والفوز الإيراني بحلول هذا الموعد وتثبيت حق إيران بسقوط حظر السلاح عنها، سيكون فاتحة مرحلة جديدة نوعيّة، يتقاطع انطلاقها زمنياً من باب الصدفة مع اقتراب الاستحقاق الرئاسي الأميركي.

Understanding the Concepts of Imamat and Wilayat in Shi’a Islam: Iranian Revolution and Constitution, Part I

Understanding the Concepts of Imamat and Wilayat in Shi’a Islam: Iranian Revolution and Constitution, Part I

October 01, 2020

by Mansoureh Tajik for the Saker Blog

Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim, “In the Name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.

Who is qualified to be in the position of governing and based on what rules are two of the most essential questions with which human societies continue to wrestle. We are currently witnessing at the global stage how the fate and wellbeing of nations are tightly linked to the quality of, or lack thereof, the people in charge of their affairs and the quality of the rules with which they are governed. There is now multitude of nations and leaderships globally that operate based on many ideological shades and hues. From among them, one could choose a few systems to dissect, compare, and contrast to have a sober understanding of which system could offer the wisest framework for a given nation, why, and how. Here, I will focus on one specific form within Shi’a Islam frame of reference, that of Imamat with its extension Wilayat Faqih.

Admirers of secular and other non-secular persuasions could have their own picks and explain their version of things. While they are at it, they could also explain how theirs is working out for them but we request that they do so with intellectual honesty and solid evidence.

Happily, time is almost up for two specific groups of people who have actually been enablers of one another’s dysfunctions, true colleagues, if you will: 1) Religious hypocrites who have duplicitously used religion as a shield to further their selfish lusts and corrupt ways. 2) Non-believing seculars who have made misuse of religion by the first group a scapegoat for their ignorance, arrogance, and incompetence. They are in fact two blades of the same scissors, a match made in hell.

A genuinely interested and intellectually honest and fair person nowadays could examine all evidence about particular leaderships and nations that claim a given religion or ideology as their frame of reference and distinguish the real from the fake. Quite a few rulers around the world, for example, claim Islam as their frame of reference—let’s say, like Iran or Turkey or Saudi Arabia or Egypt or Pakistan or any other— but an impartial thinker could examine all the evidence and reach a reasonable conclusion that these nations have decidedly different systems of words and deeds even though they all claim Islam as the overarching framework. When, for instance, Ayatullah Khamenei of Iran speaks about which direction Iran and the Iranians should be, would be, and are taking, a diligent truth seeker has enough tangible, measurable, and truthful evidence to determine that this man is speaking and behaving as an honest, forthright, and God-fearing leader. In contrast, when the Sultan Al-junior Rajab Tayyib Erdogan of Turkey speaks of Islam, Muslims, and Quran, a fair person can clearly conclude based on real and tangible evidence that s/he is witnessing an Effendi Charlatan in operation.

Questions (be they real, cynical, or rhetorical) forming in the mind of those without real familiarity with Quran and Islam might include the followings: If Islam as a religion and Quran as a Book of God have qualities that they could produce such contrary products and opposite leaderships as a wise leader like Ayatullah Khamenei and a weasel like Sultan Erdogan Junior, then what good is such religion and of what use is such Book?! Random and lottery picking could have a 50/50 chance of either of the two outcomes, too. So, why bother with God, Islam, the religion, and the Book?

These are rational questions and I am glad that some are asking them, albeit with their inner voices. The short answer to these questions is that the two are not both products of the same religion and Book. They are the products of the degree to which they stay on or astray from the Right Path as set by this religion and this Book. The Leader is an example of someone who is genuinely striving to be on the Right Path to the best of his abilities. The weasel is an example of someone who has willfully deviated from the Right Path in deeds but is pretending to be on it in his ramblings. The long answer and evidence and documents supporting it constitute the core of these writings.

For the sake of transparency and for those who may be new to my essays, I must state once again that I am a Shi’a Muslim Twelve-Imami and a believer in Wilayat Faqih, the current system of governance in Iran. An important task before me here as I see it, is not to get anyone to accept or approve of this system of Imamat and Wilayat Faqih. Rather, I hope to provide enough and clearly enough explanations and examples to disentangle and clarify complex and at times decidedly contentious historical and religious facts and concepts in order to correctly convey the wisdom and the reasoning behind this particular system of leadership and governance to those who are interested and/or have an intellectual curiosity about the subject.

I am certain I cannot pack into one moderately-sized essay everything I ought to say to do a decent job of explaining without making this difficult article so lengthy that by the time people reach the middle, they will have already forgotten the beginning. Therefore, in as much a synopsis form as possible, I will Inshallah explain in this and most likely one or two follow-up essays how a delegated system of governance by God based on God’s rules as revealed in Quran and interpreted by scholars of Shi’a Twelve-Imami has worked both in theory and in practice. We shall see. I will also use historical examples from Islam and Iran in addition to relevant concepts to make the text less abstract and more comprehensible. We shall see as well how things have been working out for us the non-seculars specifically the Shi’a Muslims under Imamat and Wilayat Faqih, as operationalized in the Islamic Republic of Iran. It is not going to be an easy ride. So, do please bear with me and the essays.

“Islamic Republic, Not a Word More, Not a Word Less”

Fifty days after the victory of the Iranian Revolution in 1979, through a nation-wide referendum in which 98 percent of eligible voters participated, 99.25% of the participants voted “yes” to an Islamic Republic system of government in Iran[1] replacing a system of monarchy based on an inherited position transfer from a king to his eldest son.

The ballots were worded rather simply (See the image below): “The change from previous regime to Islamic Republic the constitution of which will be put to the nation’s vote for approval.” The “Yes” ballots were in crimson text on a green background. The “No” ballots were in red lettering on a beige background.

No gimmicks. No play on words. No deceptive tactics. It was on persistent urging of Imam Ruhullah Khomeini the referendum was held in the first place. Many were insisting that he, as the uncontested Leader of the Revolution, should just make a public announce about the change in Iran’s political system since the majority in the population was wholeheartedly supporting him anyway. Why mess with a referendum?

Imam Khomeini begged to differ. He insisted on a real tangible and measurable participation by the people of Iran. The people of Iran must put their choice into writing. A choice in which there is obligation and responsibility for their life on earth and for the Hereafter. Their decision had to be clearly documented and witnessed by themselves first and foremost, by the world at large, by the future generations, and above all, by God. A majority “yes” vote in this context could be thought of as a written Bey’at, or a written covenant of allegiance, to the very principles of Islam as the overarching framework of governance. The governed does not just consent. The governed enters into a contract to never desert the scene and to remain ever-vigilant and ever-present at war or at peace or wherever the battle is. For the past 40+ years, majority of the Iranian people, by Grace of God Almighty, have been in the scene.

It is useful to go into a bit more details about the events surrounding the referendum since it gives us an inside look into how things were back then at the beginning. Also, I might need to refer back to some segments later on in the essays. Late Sadiq Tabatabai, the spokesperson for then the transitional government, writes the details in his memoires as follows:

We were in the middle of Esfand (the 12th month in the Iranian calendar, March 1979) when Ahmad Agha (Imam Khomeini’s second son) called me from Qom. He said, “Agha says you must hold a referendum.”

I said, “That’s all good but I am not in charge!”

He said, “You should talk to the State Minister and tell him Imam says a referendum must be held.” I went to Agha Ahmad Haj Seyyed Javadi and relayed Imam’s message. He said, “A referendum needs tools. It requires provincial and regional governors. When we have none of these, how could we hold any referendum?! The State Ministry used to have a major office of elections but that is not currently active either.”

So, I called Ahmad Agha and told him what the State Minister had told me. An hour later, Ahmad Agha called again and said that Agha was asking how the referendum’s situation was progressing. I said, “Ahmad jan, this is not some dyeing barrel [an Iranian expression meaning it is not that easy].”

He said, “You know Agha and I know him, too! I am not going to go back to him a second time and say no! If you want, you come and tell him yourself.”

Immediately, I headed to Qom and went to see Imam. I said, “Agha, why a referendum? You should just make an announcement about it. The whole world knows that the entire population is behind you if you just announce that Islamic Republic is now our political system, all the people will be behind you and support you. Besides, a referendum is going to show exact same thing as well. Right now, we have no resources.”

He said, “You are not understanding things. Right now, it is as you say. But fifty years from now, they are going to turn around and say that they stirred people’s emotions and they just forced the system they wanted on them. They manipulated the public’s sentiment and had them say what they themselves told them to say. So, voting must be done and the precise number of people for and against it must be officially determined and publicly announced.”[2]

Those of us who observe on a regular basis what is spewed out of the media outlets of hostile regimes in the UK, the US, the Zionist entity in Occupied Palestine, and their regional oil wells with flags, we could see quite vividly how they are trying so desperately to distort and falsify the Iranian history and the history of our revolution. So, we find ourselves always remembering to salute Imam Khomeini for his prudence and foresight.

Within less than three weeks from the majority “yes” vote to change to an Islamic Republic, another nationwide election was held and 73 members of Majlis Khubregan-e Qanon Asasi, the Assembly of Experts for Constitutional Laws were elected directly by the people. This assembly formulated the first constitution of the Islamic Republic with Wilayat Faqih, or the Guardianship of Faqih, as its core custodial authority and stewardship through some 67 public and open sessions.[3]

The final draft of the constitution was once again put to a nationwide vote on November 22, 1979, just as it had been promised by Imam Khomeini and was clearly written on the ballots for the very first referendum (See above). Again, there were quite a few people who were insisting the constitution not to be put into another direct vote by the people. However, Imam Khomeini insisted once again on proceeding with another nationwide referendum so the people of Iran could cast their votes regarding the constitution of the Islamic Republic of Iran. The constitution was approved by nearly 95% of the eligible participants who voted positively.

Now, from among all existing systems of government, why this system and how is it different from other Islamic countries in the world? Why did it happen in 1979? Why in a Shia-majority Iran? What does “Wilayat” mean? What are the indicators of “Wilayat”? What does “Faqih” mean? What are the attributes of a “Faqih”? Why should a “Wali Faqih” become the supreme steward of the entire system? Where did this system and its principle concepts come from and why? Where is it headed, how, and why?

We will get to all these questions and more. But it is important to first contextualize the formation of this decidedly religious system by examining the global socio- and geo-political context in which it was being established during the last quarter of the 20th Century. I apologize for zigzagging back and forth through time. It is a necessary tactic here to get to some significant events.

The Iranian Islamic Revolution in a Global Context

Written in blood-red color and pasted on a solid black background a rhetorical question was plastered on the cover of Time magazine on April 8, 1966, about thirteen years before the victory of the Iranian Revolution. At the cost of 35 cents per issue, a willfully ostentatious question read: “Is God Dead?”[4] The cover, for the first time ever, used no figures, photographs, or drawings. Dismissal of a deeply-rooted system of belief in God was gleefully advertised. No need for any distractions and pictorial bells and whistles. The title aimed to rehash a rhetoric of Nietzsche from eight decades earlier written in The Gay Science:

“After Buddha was dead, people showed his shadow for centuries afterwards in a cave,—an immense rightful shadow. God is dead: but as the human race is constituted, there will perhaps be caves for millenniums yet, in which people will show his shadow.—And we—we have still to overcome his shadow.”[5]

A shadow play, heh?! In the Time article, the author had not failed to overestimate the power of the self-proclaimed liberals of the West. Nor had it faltered to underestimate God and men of God. He wrote, “Secularization, science, urbanization all have made it comparatively easy for the modern man to ask where God is and hard for the man of faith to give a convincing answer, even to himself.” He was, after all, catering to his bosses’ greed to sell a few more copies of the magazine at 35 cents a piece. His boss was catering to the greed of his masters at Meredith Corporation to keep his job. Meredith Corporation in turn was catering to the greed of its shareholders at New York Stock Exchange to show a noticeable rise in their stock price. Greed, a deadly Sin? Says who?

The harbingers of the self-declared liberal West intoxicated by a feeling of intestinal fortitude failed to see, or more accurately refused to believe, what was going on right under their aloofly laic noses in their most precious puppet kingdoms. While the West was busy closing the file on anything God might say about the governance and rulership of people and societies in the West itself and around the world, Imam Ruhullah Khomeini, a man of God in his sixties then, who was sent to exile in Najaf by Shah’s regime was hard at work to bring the Word of God into the governance of the people who believed in God, and in Iran of all places.

Around the time the Time article was being circulated in April 1966, Imam Khomeini gave a mission to his first son, Agha Mostafa Khomeini to take part in Hajj and make connections with other Muslim activists and inform them of the aims and the progress of the Islamic movement. Shah’s SAVAK (National Intelligence and Information Agency) in close collaboration with Istikhbarat (Information Ministry) in Iraq and Saudi Arabia is following the movement. A memo from the central office of Shah’s SAVAK that was forwarded to a local office of SAVAK in Qom (See the image below) reads:

“Information obtained indicates Mostafa Khomeini, the son of Ayatullah Khomeini, who in the current year went to Mecca, has had contacts with a few radical elements including Majdiddin Mahllati, one of the opposition clerics in Shiraz. They have made some decisions for the months of Muharram and Safar. Since it is probable that these types of people, upon their return to Iran, create incitements, you must order a complete surveillance of the known entities and make necessary arrangements and announce the outcome.”[6]

Iran was a country that was groomed by the lords of the West and through overt and covert operations and a major coup d’etat to become its most darling puppet secular regime and Gendarme in Persian Gulf. It was to be Shi’a only in name and a great model for the region. Even up until two years before the victory of the Iranian Revolution, Jimmy Carter referred to it as an “Island of Stability in one of the more troubled areas of the world.” How boorishly unschooled. (To be continued.)

References

[1] The Center for Islamic Revolution Documents, “Media Narrative Regarding the Islamic Republic Referendum on Farvardin 12, 1358.” News Code: 4822. Published online at 12:19, Farvardin 12, 1398 (April 1, 2019). Accessed online through the Center’s site: http://irdc.ir/

[2] Tabatabai S. “Social and Political Memoires of Dr. Sadeq Tabatabai.” Vol. 3, Pages 269-276. Translated from Farsi.

[3] Madani, Seyyed J (1382). “A Review of the Formation of the Islamic Republic’s Constitution.” Portal of Comprehensive Social Sciences, Zamaneh, No. 16. Social Sciences and Cultural Studies Research Center, Article Number: 9644. Online at: Insani.ir

[4] Time. Available online at: http://content.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,19660408,00.html

[5] Friedrich Nietzsche (2001). “The Gay Science.” Willimas B., the Editor; Nauckhoff J., the Translator. Cambridge Texts in the History of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, UK. Available online at: http://www.holybooks.com/the-gay-science-friedrich-nietzsche

[6] SAVAK Memo #1432600011 to Qom’s SAVAK. Central Office of National Intelligence and Security Agency, Prime Minister’s Office, Farvardin 25, 1345 (April 14, 1966).

Imam Khamenei: Sacred Defense Established Security in Iran, Enemies Will Pay Dearly If They Invade Country

Imam Khamenei: Sacred Defense Established Security in Iran, Enemies Will Pay Dearly If They Invade Country

By Staff, Agencies

Leader of the Islamic Revolution His Eminence Imam Sayyed Ali Khamenei says Iran’s decisively victorious defense against foreign-backed forces of Iraq’s former dictator Saddam Hussein proved that invading the country is a “very costly” undertaking.

“When a nation shows that it has the diligence and power to defend itself and delivers a crushing response to invaders, invaders would then think twice before perpetrating any incursion against this country and its people, and realize that such an act of aggression would be very costly for them,” the Leader said on Monday.

Imam Khamenei made the remarks via video-link during an even held in the capital Tehran to honor one million veterans of the country’s 1980-88 war against Saddam’s invading forces.

Successful engagement in the war, therefore, awarded the country its current level of security, the Leader noted, enumerating the rewards of the Sacred Defense.

The name signifies Iran’s eight-year-long struggle under the leadership of the late founder of the country’s Islamic Republic, Imam Khomeini against the Iraqi aggressor.

The Leader said the defensive struggle also equipped the Iranian people with a sense of self-belief in its ability to fend for itself and put it on a course of technological and scientific development because it had to wade into many new areas to be able to buttress its defensive activities.

The war taught us that “some things that appear to be impossible, are actually possible,” Imam Khamenei stated.

While specifying the actual goal of the warmongers as being destruction of the country’s Islamic Revolution and its Islamic establishment, the Leader noted that Saddam and his Ba’ath party were just being used as “tools by powers, such as the United States, that had suffered serious blows from Iran’s Revolution.”

Others, like the Soviet Union, the Western military alliance of NATO, as well as some other Western and even European countries also contributed to the war because they were “concerned” about the emergence of a new phenomenon in the region that had been founded upon religion, Imam Khamenei said.

Documents that surfaced afterwards showed the US had entered some agreements with Saddam before the war, the Leader remarked, adding that during the war too, Washington would generously provide the former Iraqi dictator with intelligence and arms support.

Imam Khamenei reminded how weapon-laden vessels would dock at regional ports to shore up the invading forces against Iran on a daily basis during the wartime.

Imam Khomeini, however, identified the main forces lying behind the war well, and aptly advised that the Iranian nation to join the Armed Forces in fighting the invaders, the Leader said.

Imam Khomeini’s addresses at the time were marked by “truthfulness, innocence, acuity, and decisiveness,” while his leadership style featured appropriate discernment of the requirements of the battle’s different stages as well as proper moralizing of the Iranian servicemen, Imam Khamenei recalled.

His leadership of the country during the war was also “very prudent,” Imam Khamenei said, noting how his innovative wartime strategies would help the Armed Forces outflank the enemy at various stages.

In the meantime, Imam Khomeini brought about a “massive popular mobilization” during the war, helping recruit all the potentials that were being offered by the full spectrum of the country’s population into the battle, the Leader remembered.

This helped many potentials that lay latent in many people at the time to come to the fore, leading to emergence of many exceptional military, intelligence, and other leaders among the people, Imam  Khamenei said, citing the example of Lieutenant General Qassem Soleimani, former commander of the Quds Force of Iran’s Islamic Revolution Guards Corps [IRGC], and many others.

The Leader said despite some attempts at casting doubt over Iran’s victory in the war, it should be known that the country’s triumph is “as bright as the sun” as neither did it lose a handspan of its soil, nor did its leadership take a single step back.

This is while the former monarchical regime’s reign was marked by regular unauthorized intervention of foreigners, including during the World Wars, Imam Khamenei noted.

The Leader said Sacred Defense constitutes part of the country’s national identity because it amounted to supreme manifestation of popular involvement.

The warfare, on the other hand, also betrayed the true and made-up face of the Western world to the Iranian people because it saw the entire Western front pool their forces to deny Iran everything and fortify its enemies to the limit, Imam Khamenei said.

The Leader recalled how the Western countries would outfit the aggressors with chemical weapons, thus going back on all of their pro-human rights claims

Imam Khamenei finally called for the promotion and preservation of the memory of the heroic struggle, especially through creation of rich textual materials that could yield many other instances of content, such as plays and motion pictures.

Prior to the Leader’s remarks, Armed Forces Major General Mohammad Baqeri briefed the participants on the country’s ongoing and pending plans to honor the memory of the war.

He unveiled a stamp printed out to honor the war’s 40th anniversary, and announced that the country would be inaugurating as many as eight Sacred Defense museums over the upcoming days.

“We are determined not to allow the distortion of the history of the Sacred Defense that is an invaluable resource for the next generation of the country’s independence, esteem, and pride,” the military chief said.

Related

Lebanese academic explains Khamenei’s roadmap for ‘New Islamic Civilization’

Source

Lebanese academic explains Khamenei’s roadmap for ‘New Islamic Civilization’

September 11, 2020

Middle East Observer

Description:

The following is a translation of an Arabic article by Lebanese academic Dr Muhammad Mohsen Olleik, in which he analyses the roadmap by Iran’s Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei for the building of a new “Islamic Civilization”.

Olleik, a lecturer in Education and Islamic Studies from the Lebanese University, says that the Islamic world today is before a “golden opportunity” that can bring about the revival of the Ummah (nation) based on the comprehensive roadmap put forth by Iran’s Khamenei.

Source: Khamenei.ir (Arabic website)

Date: 29 February, 2020

(Important Note: Please help us keep producing independent translations for you by contributing as little as $1/month here: https://www.patreon.com/MiddleEastObserver?fan_landing=true)


Transcript:

“The fate of the region depends on its liberation from the arrogant U.S. hegemony, and the freedom of Palestine from the domination of the Zionist foreigners, God willing. All nations are responsible to help achieve this goal. The world of Islam must erase elements of discord. The unity of Islamic scholars can present Islamic solutions for a new Islamic lifestyle. Cooperation between our universities can improve science and technology, and this cooperation will create the infrastructure for the new civilization. Coordination between our media will correct the culture of the people down to its roots. Communication between our armed forces will push war and transgression away from the entire region. Dealings between our markets will free our economies from the domination of plundering companies. Our people’s travels to one another’s countries will bring us solidarity, affection, unity and friendship”.

– An extract from the Arabic Friday sermon of Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei in Tehran on January 17, 2020

In this unequivocal manner, and during a Friday sermon imbued with the scent of martyrdom, crammed with masses of thrilled and excited people, and in clear, eloquent Arabic language, Imam Khamenei summarized the principles of the ‘Manifesto’ surrounding the necessary transformation of the Ummah (Islamic world) that “must open a new chapter”.

Although Imam Khamenei has already mentioned some of these ideas related to this structural transformation in previous key statements and sermons, nevertheless, this strategic concentration and in-depth description of the actions required to direct and carry out this desired civilizational transformation has paved the way for all scholars, leaders, decision-makers, influential elites in all fields, and every individual seeking to discover his practical (religious) duty.

Furthermore, the words of Imam Khamenei, that “all nations are responsible”, during this delicate and defining (historical) moment, has removed many popular misconceptions and ambiguities. The process of building the new Islamic civilization is not confined to any one country or nation, or even to the Islamic Republic of Iran. We have always heard this “deduction” being suggested or directly stated by influential personalities and officials from some Islamic movements and parties.

The idea of resistance, despite its sanctity, does not amount to a goal and purpose of action for our jihadi nations and (political) movements. Resistance is a (natural) human reaction to occupation, aggression, attempts to dominate, humiliate, and impose political, cultural or economic dependency. Comprehensive resistance is the path to liberation and to quelling injustice and occupation. However, it is neither an aim nor a goal that (can) define all the frameworks of action and thought.

The primary goal is establishing the new Islamic civilization as a prelude to the salvation of humanity by the ‘awaited justice’ (i.e. the reappearance of Imam Mahdi and Prophet Jesus). All the triumphs and achievements of the resistance movements and the Islamic revival and awakening must be employed to reach this comprehensive “positive” goal, in order bring about a fundamental transformation in the project of Islam whose aim is to achieve perfection (i.e. fulfillment of purpose) and happiness for humans and society.

It is useful to draw attention here to a very important issue which is the key difference between the concepts ‘leader’ and ‘leadership’, rather between ‘The Guardianship of the Jurist (Wilāyat al-Faqīh)’ and ‘The Guardian Jurist (Wali al-Faqih)’. To fulfill the lofty hopes and ideals, the Guardian Jurist – whether the divinely-protected Imam or his deputy – is the cornerstone for reviving, perfecting, and leading humans towards prosperity. However, throughout history till our present day, there have always been exceptional leaders – whether from the divinely-protected (Imams) or elite scholars – who have demonstrated unparalleled intellectual, administrative and political capabilities. The ‘leader’ has always been there. However, when we talk about ‘leadership’, it is a (totally) a different story. (Leadership) is the mutual interaction between the guardian leader and those (who pledge) loyalty to him, and the extent to which (this interaction) produces the greatest desired results and achievements in all areas of material and spiritual progress.

Implementing the plan of the leader requires a civilizational “mobilization” which is deeper and more crucial than the military and political battles, and even (more crucial) than fighting the soft war(s) and cultural invasion(s). This general mobilization must discover the (true) Islamic lifestyle, “the good life”, or what Imam Khamenei calls “the essence of civilization”. This is the area in which we have not advanced properly in yet.

This plan (of ‘Imam Khamenei’) raises many questions about our social behavior and problems plaguing our current lifestyle, such as weaknesses surrounding collective action, widespread consumerist trends, the divorce phenomenon, weak ties (between family members), the lack of mastery in industry and production, the way we dress, our food, architecture, entertainment and many other plagues and phenomena.

First, we need to determine the causes of these (plagues) and how they are entrenched in our societies; and second, we need to have faith in our abilities to change and move towards a good, genuine and contemporary lifestyle derived from the treasure trove of Islamic thought, sciences and values. This transformation (in our lifestyles) can be achieved directly, or by reproducing and innovating in the field of social trends and behaviors, in a way that does not imitate the anti-human Western-American civilization which seeks to destroy other cultures – through both hard and soft power – as it takes advantage of the lack of self-confidence of some culture producers in Islamic societies.

Accordingly, this highlights the necessity of a revolutionary reexamination, and deeper, bolder modes of thinking regarding the fundamentals and strategies (that guide) our work and management of people’s skills and energies in all fields. (These fields) have witnessed (great) jihadi (military) victories, and the masses are (now) eager to bring about a change in the “roots of (their) overall culture”, and are expecting the scholars and leaders to respond emphatically to the project of civilization building that is being spearheaded by the leader (Imam Khamenei). (By doing this), the scholars and leaders will ensure the process of mutual leadership and ‘Guardianship’.

By the blessings of this civilizational leader, the argument (that calls for the need for a new Islamic Civilization) is now complete and (rationally) binding upon all of us. The current favorable conditions and available opportunities are exceptional in (relation to the potential of) transforming this thought and civilizational proposal into strong and effective strategies. This argument makes this intellectual and cultural challenge a sacred priority. (This argument) oversees (and provides the vision for) the production of knowledge in the field of the Islamic Humanities, and (provides the vision for the production of) the tools for building a new civilization, that is, by solidifying (true) values, by “the production of discourses”, and a new good lifestyle characterized by justice, spirituality, and true human and economic prosperity.

“The world of Islam must open a new page. Awakened consciences and pious hearts must revive the self-confidence of nations. Everyone should know that the only path for the salvation of nations is by (developing) strategies, (practicing) steadfastness, and (enjoying) fearlessness of the enemy.”

This civilizational revival essentially demands first of all, the revival of the authentic intellectual and cultural works; making them the center for all political, social, organizational and planning activities; believing in the ability of good people to bring about change, and their ability to produce real mechanisms that enable people to participate in decision-making and electing responsible managers that truly represent them at all levels.

(These mechanisms) would derive inspiration from the experience of the Guardianship of the Jurist (Wilayat al-Faqih) and the popular religious sovereignty (model) that made the Islamic Republic (of Iran) an invincible power by granting it (various) domains of power, the most prominent of which being the atmosphere of intellectual freedom, and the ability of people to freely elect their representatives, whether at the municipal level, or even electing the Guardian Jurist (Wali al-Faqih ) via the Assembly of Experts.

“Bringing hearts and minds closer together” is another element of the principles of this civilizational “Manifesto”.  This is extremely crucial. It requires the scholars, movements and the producers of culture to have the courage to accept the other, (whether he differs with me on) a sectarian, national or religious (basis). This ought to lead to the broadening of the circle of unity based on lofty standards such as justice, serving people, defending the oppressed, and moving away from narrow fanaticism, whether in thought or in practice.

If we do not have a conscious, strong mind, and firm social, developmental and cultural views that are able to solve our enormous problems, we will neither be able to reflect and manifest “The Guardianship of the Jurist”, nor the “Leadership of the Leader”. The age of defending ourselves, and sufficing ourselves with resisting the enemy and being obsessed with the idea of preserving our existence has ended. In addition to these initial steps (i.e. defense, resistance, and preservation of existence) which (can) be referred to as ‘the minor jihad’, his excellency (Imam Khamenei) introduces the concept of the “the great jihad”, which refers to (seeking) independence, and developing ‘capabilities’ in all its forms, with the aim of preventing dependency upon the West on all levels. This in turn will lead to ‘the greater jihad’, and the road to spiritual perfection.

The “new chapter” which the nation (Ummah) – with all its youth, scholars, elites, mujahideen, and members of society, including men, women, and even children – comes under the title of ‘The cultural, social and economic challenge’. This (chapter) will be written by the strong members (of our nation), by those who will be able to produce great, creative ideas, those who will manage to produce new (forms) of knowledge and sciences (that facilitate) the administration and management of the desired transformation in our societies, organizations and movements.

(New forms of knowledge and sciences) from education, to art and media, to management and economics, to jurisprudence, wisdom/philosophy and mysticism, to all skills and crafts that contribute to ‘the happy life’. (Such knowledge) would be rooted in and derived from the two ‘precious’ sources (of Islamic thought), the Holy Qur’an and the traditions of the divinely-protected (leaders of Ahlul Bayt), peace be upon them. (These sciences) will also be rooted in the blessed principles of the revival of the great Imam Khomeini and his successor, the second Khomeini (Imam Khamenei), away from being captured, dazzled and fascinated by the West, or from calcification and fatal apathy.

Today is the period of great transformations, which will not come about unless we carry them out ourselves, and if we turn away, God will replace us with another people. It is a golden opportunity for the birth of a new Ummah (nation). Our leader is calling upon us. Will we respond to his call and help in building the great (Islamic) civilization, and by doing so preserve our victories which we produced through our struggle and martyrdom? (Will we) achieve the conquests of civilizational progress? Will we (succeed) in the (great) cultural battles? Will we be able to create the new ‘good life’ that is full of hope, energy and creativity?

For every leader, leadership and (loyal) helpers, and for every ‘Guardian Jurist’, ‘Guardianship’ and (steadfast) followers, the law of God, the All-Wise and the Bestower of Mercy, is clear: “And if you obey him, you will be [rightly] guided” (Holy Qur’an: Surat An-Nur, Ayah 54).

Say, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn away – then upon him is only that [duty] with which he has been charged, and upon you is that with which you have been charged. And if you obey him, you will be [rightly] guided. And there is not upon the Messenger except the [responsibility for] clear notification.”

IRAN AND CHINA ARE BUILDING NEW EMPIRES ON THE FAILURE OF TRUMP’S POLICY

Posted on  by Elijah J Magnier

By Elijah J. Magnier: @ejmalrai

Since the victory of the “Islamic Revolution” in Iran in 1979, the slogan “Neither East nor West but an Islamic Republic” has been a commonplace. This slogan represented the desire of the late Imam Khomeini, who aimed to liberate Iran from foreign control and from the superpowers that had ruled Iran for decades. Consequently, the Iranian constitution prohibits the establishment and influence of any foreign military base on Iranian soil (article 3/5). However, by tearing up the nuclear agreement (JCPOA) signed by former President Barack Obama , the current US administration of President Donald Trump has pushed Iran into the arms of Russia and China. Tehran has now signed strategic and commercial military cooperation agreements lasting 25 years with the two superpower countries Russia and China. The reconstruction of the Chinese and Persian empires is expanding at the expense of the US empire and as a result of its weakness.

Europe has lost its window on Iran, and America has lost its bet on eliminating Iran. Trump is still waiting by the phone for a call from Tehran, but the phone will not ring as long as the nuclear deal is in the trash. Trump apparently has strong chances to be re-elected for another four years. However, Iran will not sign any agreement with him a month after his re-election, as he may hope. Iran will close the door on the US as long as Trump remains in power, unless he restores the deal and offers guarantees. The decision to go to China is irreversible, although the door has not been forever closed on the US. 

The US’s loss of its influence on the world stage has become a reality, and the emergence of other forces, Russia, China and Iran, is impossible to ignore. The influence of these countries can no longer be limited, thanks directly to the failure and mismanagement of US foreign policy!

Proofread by:   Maurice Brasher and C.G.B.

هل يفعل السيّد حسن نصر الله ما عجز عنه عبد الناصر؟

حزب الله أدرك أنّ التفكك العربي الكبير الذي أرادته أميركا يجب أن يُرد عليه بالعودة إلى فكرة

صادق النابلسي 

المصدر: الميادين نت

بعد تحرير الجنوب اللبناني، وانتصار تموز/يوليو 2006، ودخول حزب الله إلى سوريا في العام 2013، وجد الحزب نفسه أمام سؤال حان وقته.

في السادس عشر من شباط/فبراير 1985، تلا الرئيس الحالي للمجلس السياسي لحزب الله، السيد إبراهيم أمين السيد، الرسالة المفتوحة التي وجهها حزب الله إلى المستضعفين في لبنان والعالم. بدا ما قاله آنذاك بياناً حماسياً، غريباً، بل ممعناً في غرابته، من مجموعة جديدة وافدة إلى مسرح الأحداث في لبنان، يحار مراقبوها في نسبتها إلى المجال الذي تنتمي إليه، والأهداف الكبيرة التي تطمح إلى تحقيقها.

التطلّعات العابرة للحدود التي تضمَّنتها الرسالة أقل ما كان يمكن أن يردّ عليها بعضهم في حينها، بأن يستخدم عبارة الزعيم السوفياتي جوزيف ستالين حين حذّروه من قوة الفاتيكان، فتساءل ساخراً: “كم دبابة عند بابا الفاتيكان؟”، أو بحسب نصّ آخر: “كم فرقة عسكرية يملكها البابا في الفاتيكان؟”.

مجموعة صغيرة حديثة العهد بالسياسة والقتال تدّعي لنفسها قوة خارقة، فتقول: “أما قدرتنا العسكرية، فلا يتخيّلَنَّ أحد حجمها، إذ ليس لدينا جهاز عسكري منفصل عن بقية أطراف جسمنا، بل إنّ كلاً منّا جندي مقاتل حين يدعو داعي الجهاد إنّنا متوجهون لمحاربة المنكر من جذوره، وأوّل جذور المنكر أميركا”.

أتصوّر مثلاً أن يقارن أحدهم بعد أن قرأ الرسالة بين الأحزاب القومية واليسارية التي كانت تحمل أحلام جماهيرها بالوحدة والتضامن والتكامل وتلاحم الجبهات، لدحر مشاريع الهيمنة الاستعمارية والانقضاض على “إسرائيل” وتدميرها واستعادة فلسطين من مغتصبيها، ولكنها مُنيت بعد مدة من انطلاقتها بفشل في أهدافها، وإحباطات في مشاعرها، ونكسات في نتائج أعمالها، وبين جماعة لا أرضية سياسية وعسكرية لها، تريد أن تختبر من جديد بـ”سوريالية ثورية” حجم الألم والأحلام الموجعة التي يُخلّفها طريق المحاولة والخطأ! لا بأس، يقول هذا البعض، فلتجرّب حظها من الخيبة والمرارة، ففي الإنسان دوماً شيء ما يقوده نحو حتفه وتلاشيه!

لكن لم تمرّ إلا سنوات قليلة حتى بدأ المراقبون يستكشفون شيئاً جديداً تماماً. رواية مختلفة تقول إنّه ليس بالضرورة أن يعيد التاريخ نفسه بطريقة حلزونية، فما رُصد بعد سنوات قلائل من تحولات وإنجازات وانتصارات، اتضح أنّها لم تكن استجابات عاطفية غاضبة متسرّعة على هوان قديم وعجز مقيم، بسبب ما حلّ من خراب داخل العالمين العربيّ والإسلاميّ، بل هي مبنيّة على رؤية علمية، وخطوات عملية، وعوامل تاريخية ودينية وجيوسياسية، ودوافع كافية لضمان اجتياز الصراع بنجاح. 

القضية لم تكن تتطلّب البتة عند “المؤسسيين الأوائل” تستراً على طرح ربما يؤدي إلى استنتاجات وتفسيرات خاطئة ومشوّهة، أو تستدعي مقاومة الفكرة المغرية القائلة إننا” أمة ترتبط مع المسلمين في أنحاء العالم كافة برباط عقائدي وسياسي متين هو الإسلام”، وبضرورة الدعوة” إلى إقامة جبهة عالمية للمستضعفين، لمواجهة مؤامرات قوى الاستكبار في العالم”، أو “أننا نطمح أن يكون لبنان جزءاً لا يتجزأ من الخارطة السياسية المعادية لأميركا والاستكبار العالمي وللصهيونية العالمية”، لجهة إفراطها وخروجها عن قوانين الاجتماع والسياسة اللبنانية.

لم يكن ذلك كله مدعاة للتحفظ، بل على العكس، جاء التأكيد في الرسالة على أهميته وقيمته الحقيقية، ولو كان العقل السياسي يضيق به، أو كان يطمح إلى ما يفوق إمكانيات الحزب آنذاك، لأنّ المبدأ العقائدي الذي كان يدفع في هذا السبيل، ويُملي هذه الاعتبارات، ويُذكي هذا الشعور، ويستجلب هذه الإرادة، كان أقوى من التصورات السيادية والدستورية السائدة، وأكبر من الوقائع والمعايير التي تحكم سلوك الدول وتوازناتها.

كل المؤمنين بالنهج الأصيل والعاملين في مداره كانوا مشغولين بالتأكيد أنّ أمةً جديدةً يجب أن تُولد من رحم التناقضات والصراعات المفتوحة على أكثر من ميدان. لم يشعروا بأنهم في مأزق أو تيه صحراوي لا يدري أحد منهم إلى ماذا يُفضي، بل كانوا على يقين من سلامة الطريق وتحقيق الأهداف.

 وإذا كانت بعض الحركات العابرة للحدود الدينية والجغرافية والعرقية في المنطقة العربية قد وصلت إلى طريق مسدود في نضالاتها، ولم تستطع تجاوز هزيمتها، بسبب طبيعة التكوين الفكري والسلوك السياسي الذي حوّلها إلى كتل جامدة معطلة، فإنّ التنظيم الجديد قد صمّم فكرته تصميماً ذهنياً صارماً، وحددّ لانطلاقته بداية واعية واعدة، وخلق تشكيلاً منفتحاً على الجهاد المحلي الحديث والإرث التاريخي القديم، بنحو يعيد هيكلة البنية الرمزية والإيديولوجية باستحضار ماضي الثائرين وإعادة دمجه بالحاضر، ثم إنّ هناك إدراكاً للثمن الفادح الذي يجب دفعه، لا أنّ القضية مجرد تكهن أو رغبة “صوتية” لا تنفع في الحقيقة أكثر من استدراج أقدام “المتكهّنين” إلى هاوية الوهم. 

كما أنّ التنبؤ بالنصر استشراف علميّ محفوف بالمخاطر، لا ينفصل لحظة واحدة عن الارتباط بالواقع الحي الذي يفرز الإنجازات والإخفاقات على السواء. ولأنّ صورة العدو أكثر تعقيداً من كونه مجرد مجنون يتغذى على القتل، فإنّ النصر ليس خبراً يُذاع، وإنما هو نضال محموم، ومقاومة ضارية واستراتيجية طويلة تتطلَّب قدرة عالية على تحمل الألم والصعاب، وإرادة فولاذية لمواصلة العمل، واعتماداً على الذات في النطاق الجغرافي المحلي، واستبعاداً كلياً لدور المنظمات الدولية التي تقف في معظم الأحيان إلى جانب الظالمين والغزاة، بدلاً من مساعدتها المستضعفين؛ أصحاب الحقوق المشروعة.

وكما يقول الشاعر عبد الرحمن الشرقاوي: “إنّ القضية ملكنا… هي عارنا أو فخرنا”، فالانهزام أو الانتصار تعبير واقعي متعلق بطبيعة المعركة وظروفها، ولكن المهم في الأمر أن لا ينضوي المقاومون تحت أيّ مظلة غير موثوقة، ولا ينساقوا وراء منهج غير إسلامي. أما الاعتماد على الذات، فلا يعني التردد عن قبول مساعدة قوى الأمة المختلفة، بل المطلوب أن تتحرك كل الطاقات في التعامل مع الأزمات والتحديات في إطار الوحدة أو “الجسد الذي إذا اشتكى منه عضو، تداعت له سائر الأعضاء بالسهر والحمى”.

لذلك، يؤكد المقطع التالي العلائقية والوشائجية المطلوبة بين الأطراف وقلب الأمة: “إننا أبناء أمة حزب الله في لبنان… إننا نعتبر أنفسنا جزءاً من أمة الإسلام في العالم، والتي تواجه أعتى هجمة استكبارية من الغرب والشرق على السواء”.

هذا التعاضد بين فئة في لبنان وفئة أو فئات في بلدان أخرى أشبه بصيغة قانونية لازمة بين طرفين أو أكثر، تقتضي كل أشكال التعاون المتاحة، ما يجعل النسق الديني المتشكل عن هذا التوليف “المقدس” يلبي الوظيفة الإيديولوجية والسياسية للحزب الذي يسعى إلى هدم أركان الأعداء في البقعة التي يتحرك فيها. 

إنّ هذا الاتصال المقصود بالأمة يهدف الحزب الجديد من ورائه إلى التمايز عن مغالطات نخب حزبية وعلمائية على امتداد المنطقة، كانت تنشر الاستسلام والقدرية، وعوّضت المقاومة بالتواكل والغيب، فكان ضرورياً تطهير الإسلام مما علق به من تشويهات، واستدعاؤه مجدداً ليكون المرجع النظري والحركي الذي يُلهم المسلمين اللبنانيين طريقة النهوض، وبناء العلاقات، ومواجهة التحديات بكل تشعباتها.

ولكنَّ مشكلة هذا الاتصال، في رأي البعض، أنّه يهزّ التكوين الوطني للحزب، ويشكّك في درجة التزامه بالقضايا اللبنانية التي يُفترض أن يُدافع عنها تحت سقف سيادة الدولة، لكنّه من خلال تفضيله إطار الأمة على إطار الوطن، وتوهينه البعد الداخلي في مقابل تعظيمه البعد الخارجي، يبلغ الرجحان مستوى يجعل الحزب يفقد خصائصه ومشروعيته المحلية، بيد أنّ حزب الله بانخراطه في محاربة الاحتلال الإسرائيلي ومشاريع الهيمنة الغربية على لبنان، يعيد إنتاج الأجوبة الحاسمة حول مَن صنع الهزائم، ومَن صنع العار، ومَن جلب التخلف والهوان لهذا الوطن.

هنا يأتي النص الديني الإسلامي، لا كدليل نظري فحسب، وإنما كسياق واقعي اجتماعي، وكممارسة سياسية وجهادية ملموسة، فحضور الدين علامة على الوعي الجماعي، باعتباره وسيلة لتغيير مقاصد الناس وتوجهاتهم، وأيضاً باعتباره هدفاً لتعديل مبادئ الحكم وموازين القوى، فالنص الديني بقدر ما يسمح بالكشف عن هوية فرد أو مجتمع، فإنه يؤسّس لنهج مختلف وأوضاع جديدة.

وحين يعلن الحزب عن الإسلام كمرجعية للحياة، فإنّه يموقع ذاته داخل النسق العام للأمة في عمقه وامتداداته، فلا يعترف بأي حدود ومسافات جغرافية تعترض طريق الأخوة الدينية! الإسلام هنا لا يحضر كطقوس يكتنفها مبدأ حرية ممارسة المعتقد الإيماني فحسب، بل كإطار شمولي أممي لا تنفلت منه قضية من قضايا الإنسان، في وقت يأتي تحرك الحزب في المجال السياسي أو العسكري ليخلق تميّزه وفرادته، في مقابل السكونيين من النخب والحركات الدينية التي تبحث عن الهروب خارجاً، وبعيداً من الواقع، لئلا تصطدم بقسوته ومتطلبات الحضور الحي فيه.

لذلك، لم يكن ممكناً للحزب أن يتطور خارج عملية الصراع مع أعداء الأمة، فالحزب الذي تنظم الشريعة الإسلامية كل وجوده ومساراته في هذه الحياة، يشعر بأن هيمنة القوى الاستعمارية وتدخّلها في شؤون المسلمين يشكل انتهاكاً صارخاً لا يمكن القبول به.

هذه النقطة بالذات ستمنح الحزب إمكانية كبيرة لقيادة الجمهور وتحريكه نحو مديات الأمة الواسعة ومداراتها الرحبة. على هذا الأساس، تستوي فكرة الجهاد كمصدر للشرعية، وتحضر المقاومة بوصفها سياقاً تحررياً على المستوى الوطني، وعلى مستوى الأمة أيضاً.

ولهذا تأتي العبارة التالية: “إننا أبناء أمة حزب الله التي نصر الله طليعتها في إيران، وأسّست من جديد نواة دولة الإسلام المركزية في العالم… لسنا حزباً تنظيمياً مغلقاً، ولسنا إطاراً سياسياً ضيقاً”، لتؤكد الارتباط المطلوب والحركة الحارة المتوقعة، انطلاقاً من مستويين ديني وسياسي؛ الأول استجابة لأمل (وعد إلهي) بالاستخلاف والتمكين، والآخر استجابة لموقف عملي يقتضي تحمل التكاليف والمسؤوليات والسعي لبناء التجربة الجديدة.

صحيح أنّ دوافع النشوة والفوران بعد انتصار الثورة الإسلامية في إيران مسؤولة عن تحرّك الأحاسيس الدينية بطريقة عفوية وتلقائية، لكن لم يكن ذلك خارج رؤية استراتيجية وعقلانية في بناء السياسات والبرامج. هنا تأتي النظرية، أي الأفكار التي تشكل أساس الإيديولوجيا التي على الحزب أن يعمل بها في ما يتعلَّق بأمور الحرب والسلم، لتستقر ضمن قالب “نظرية ولاية الفقيه”، التي أبرزها الإمام الخميني كإرث مخزني قديم، ولتكون البوصلة التي احتاجها حزب الله لترسم له التوجهات والقواعد العامة، ولتخلق لجمهوره الاهتمام المطلوب بقضايا الإسلام والصراع في المنطقة والعالم.

لكن ظهور هذه النظرية كتعبير موضوعي عن المقومات التي لا بدَّ من توفرها لتهيئ للحزب مكاناً بين الحركات الثورية، وتمنحه هويته الخاصة، كان مشروطاً بالظرف التاريخي، وهو ظرف الثورة الإسلامية، وانتشار شراراتها في أرجاء المنطقة، وتفاعل حركات المقاومة والتحرر المناهضة للمشاريع الأميركية والإسرائيلية مع تطلعاتها، وتحفّز مثقفين وعلماء دين وكتاب ونشطاء سياسيين على طرح ما لم يكونوا في السابق يجسرون على الاقتراب منه، وكذلك التحولات المحلية في لبنان العالق بين الهيمنة اليمينية الطائفية والاحتلال الإسرائيلي لقسم من الجنوب اللبناني، ووجود الفدائيين الفلسطينيين الذين أغنوا الأرض بالبندقيات والشعارات الثورية الحماسية.

ضمن إطار هذه المجموعة من الأحداث بذاك السياق الطولي، بنى حزب الله مفاهيمه التأسيسية حول الجهاد المحلي والأممي، والتي لم تنحصر بالمناسبة في الوعي المكتسب من طرف نظرية ولاية الفقيه والثورة الإيرانية، بل في عمقها الممتد إلى باطن البنية الاجتماعية اللبنانية، بعناصرها التاريخية المُستلهمة من الاحتكاك بتجارب نضالات ثورية في مناطق مختلفة من العالم، ولكن عبقريته التي طورها لاحقاً أمينه العام الحالي السيد حسن نصر الله، تكمن في أنّه استطاع أن يحمل بقوة فكرة جاء أوانها، وأن يصعد بتيار استيقن أنّ حركته نحو الآماد الواسعة بدأت. 

بعد تحرير الجنوب اللبناني، وانتصار تموز/يوليو 2006، ودخول حزب الله إلى سوريا في العام 2013، وجد الحزب نفسه أمام سؤال حان وقته: كيف يمكن تشبيك الجبهات لتحقيق الهدف المقدس، وهو إزالة “إسرائيل” من الوجود؟

لقد فشل تيار القومية العربية في توظيف الإمكانيات البشرية والمادية واستثمارها وإدارتها لإنزال هزيمة بالعدو، وفشلت الأحزاب اليسارية العربية في بناء مناخ عام يتيح اتخاذ قرارات تتطلَّبها ظروف الصراع، فلم تستطع تلك القوى التي لها ارتباطات واسعة خارج المنطقة العربية تشكيل بيئة دولية للصراع، وتوجيه الحركة السياسية أو العسكرية العربية في إطار خطة عامة جدّية تستهدف إنهاك الكيان الإسرائيلي وإرباكه.

المراوغات والاستعراضات، وأنصاف الضربات، وتصادم الأولويات، وتضارب التصورات، لم تؤدِ إلا إلى تحويل الصراع من صراع عربي – إسرائيلي إلى صراع عربي – عربي. تحوّلت الحرب مع “إسرائيل” إلى شبه حرب، والتسوية معها إلى استراتيجية انجرّت إليها الأنظمة على نحو متتالٍ. 

حزب الله، في المقابل، أدرك أنّ “التفكك العربي الكبير” الذي أرادته أميركا عبر “الربيع العربي” يجب أن يُرد عليه بالعودة إلى فكرة “أمة حزب الله” العابرة لدول سايكس – بيكو المقطعة لأوصال الوحدة السياسية والدينية. قد يكون ذلك شيئاً مثيراً في لحظة مختلطة بالتحولات ودماء الشهداء ونداء القدس الغلّاب الذي ينفذ كالأذان إلى أعماق الحالمين بالنصر الأكبر.

 أفراد الحزب الذين قطعوا خطوة في هذا الطريق مع الدخول إلى سوريا، وتهشّم الحدود بين أكثر من دولة من دول المنطقة، أضفوا على الموقعية الجديدة لحزبهم مسحة دينية ومسحة تاريخية. مقطع من الرسالة يقول: “إننا نعلن بصراحة ووضوح أننا أمة لا تخاف إلا الله، ولا ترتضي الظلم والعدوان والمهانة، وأنّ أميركا وحلفاءها من دول حلف شمال الأطلسي والكيان الصهيوني… مارسوا ويمارسون العدوان علينا، ويعملون على إذلالنا باستمرار. لذا، فإننا في حالة تأهب مستمر ومتصاعد”.

المطلوب، إذاً، بناء وحشد قوى الأمة التي بدأت طلائعها تتبلور في اليمن “أنصار الله”، والعراق” الحشد الشعبي”، وفلسطين “فصائل المقاومة المختلفة”، لتغلب على هذه العطالة التاريخية. أمة حزب الله تحتاج إذاً إلى القدرات الكبرى والمشاعر العظيمة، وإلى موقف جماهيري يستهدف التقدم بالوعي والإلهام، وذلك بالخروج من الالتزام الجغرافي المزعج، لجهة عبئه الداخلي المعاكس لحركة الساعة السريعة المستمرة! 

اليوم، ليس لهذه القوى سبب يؤطرها ويحدّها في بقعة جغرافية واحدة وفي مهام محلية محددة. الأحداث الكبرى في المنطقة حوّلت الدول إلى حدود وسكان ومتوسط دخل وميزان مدفوعات، والأنظمة إلى بروتوكولات واحتفالات وميديا، فيما حزب الله يدرك ضرورة أن تتحول هذه القوى المقاومة إلى فكرة وتيار وحركة تاريخية، وينبغي أن لا يدعها أحد مكتوفة اليدين في الحروب المقبلة إذا ما هدد وجود الأمة خطر، أو دفعها طموح محموم إلى خوض حربها المقدسة نحو فلسطين!

هل حانت اللحظة فعلاً؟ وهل لدى حزب الله الشجاعة الكافية ليقود جماهير الأمة لتوحيد التراب العربي، مدشناً مرحلة جديدة من تاريخ حركات المقاومة في المنطقة والعالم؟ وهل يفعل السيد حسن نصر الله ما لم يقدر عليه جمال عبد الناصر؟

Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala

Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala

August 03, 2020

by Mansoureh Tajik for the Saker Blog

As part of a very thoughtful email last month, the Saker wrote, “In your latest contribution you wrote ‘Every day is Ashura, Every land is Karbala’ twice.  Did you know that this is my absolute favorite Islamic saying?  I also believe that this belief is the real core of the strength of the Resistance in Lebanon, especially Hezbollah.” He was referring to the article (see here) in which I invoked the spirit of that phrase in relation to two case examples of injustice suffered by the people in North Casper, Wyoming, and the people in eastern North Carolina. These were two seemingly very unlikely candidates to be contextualized oddly in an expression that is very much known to be Shi’a Islam in essence.

The Saker also suggested mindfully that I write a short history about the phrase and explain its meaning for the readers of this blog in order to, as he put it, “make it possible for my readers to get a real insight into the Islamic ethos, especially the Shia ethos,” among other reasons. I was grateful about the suggestion and delighted to yield for several specific reasons. First, the phrase is one of the most cherished expressions for me as well and I would never tire of exploring and reflecting on it.

Second, the month of Muharram and its 10th day, the day of Ashura, are right around the corner (in a few weeks) and this essay could serve as a good introduction to this year’s Ashura as a lot of relevant and interesting events are happening all around us.

Third, this month is one full year since I began writing the monthly essays for the Saker’s blog and the article could serve as an appropriate one-year evaluation and reflection piece for me. It will also be a way to pay tribute to the Saker and his wonderful blog. What better way to show my appreciation for the opportunity he affords the global audience to take a mental path less traveled than to propose the most befitting Shi’a cue to the essence of what he actually does: With his digital pen as his weapon and his passion as its ink, he stands against global injustices and tyrant oppressors with extremely limited material resources. So, zero chance that I would not have agreed to write something on the subject!

In this essay, I hope to explore the literature and speeches of the some of the most influential contemporary thinkers and scholars who have interpreted this expression and employed it in a manner that has become a powerful Shi’a Muslim doctrine guiding an effective struggle against injustices and falsehoods in our modern era. A very brief segment about the history of Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala is presented first.

The History of the Expression and Its Role as a Doctrine

These two verses, کلّ یوم عاشورا، کلّ ارض کربلا [Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala], are among the most widely used expressions by many Shi’a Muslim sages, activists, and religious scholars in one form or another. Some scholars have traced it back to Imam Ja’afar Sadiq (Peace be upon him), the sixth Imam of Shi’a Twelvers, but no actual valid narration, or hadith, exists to corroborate that claim. A few others have attributed it to the contemporaries and students of that beloved Imam, but no solid evidence exists to support that assertion either.

According to the encyclopedia of Imam Hussain, Daneshnameh Imam Hussain, the phrase کلّ یوم عاشورا، کلّ ارض کربلا may be an adaptation of the verses from a poem by the 13th Century Egyptian poet, Muhammad bin Sa’id Busiri. In one of his long qasideh poems, he wrote, کلّ یوم و کلّ ارض لکربی فیهم کربلا و عاشورا , which is translated, “Every Day and Every Land, due to my grief and sadness for them, is Ashura and Karbala.”[1]

Regardless of its genesis, however, the expression has been referenced and interpreted by very well-known Shi’a Muslim scholars like Martyr Morteza Motahari and Ali Shariyati and it has been referenced and reflected upon by two prominent imams and leaders of the Iranian revolution and the Islamic Republic of Iran, Imam Khomeini and Imam Khamenei. In a very significant way, Imams Khomeini and Khamenei, who are also two of the most influential Shi’a Muslim leaders of the world in the 20th and the 21st centuries, have defined and put into practice this expression as a potent doctrine and in a decidedly pivotal and successful way. We will delve deeper into this since it could be quite illuminating and would provide a better understanding of the Shi’a Muslims, the Iranian Revolution, the Islamic Republic of Iran’s constitution, and Iran’s international politics and stance towards the world’s arrogant oppressors.

Furthermore, it sheds light on why the expression induces “panic attacks” among the most oppressive and corrupt-to-their-core entities, like the British regime, so much so that they invest significant resources on paid religious “scholars” to re-write history and offer utterly compromising interpretations of this expression.

During the early days of the Iranian revolution, Imam Khomeini explained in one of his speeches,[2]

“This expression, ‘Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala,’ is a really important expression but many misunderstand it. They think it means we should mourn and cry every day. But its true meaning is something quite different. What did Karbala do? What role did the land of Karbala play on the day of Ashura? A handful of people came to Karbala and stood up against the injustices of Yazid. They stood against a tyrant ruler and an emperor of their time. They sacrificed themselves and they got killed but they did not accept the injustice and defeated Yazid. Every place must be like this and every day must also be like this. Every day, our nation must reach this realization that today is Ashura and we must stand up against the injustice. And this very place is Karbala and we must make this place, right here, a Karbala. It is not restricted to one land. It is not restricted to one specific person. The story of Karbala is not restricted to a group of seventy some people and a land of Karbala. All lands must play this role. And all days must play the same role.” (Page 122)

In that speech, Imam Khomeini universalized the day of Ashura and the land of Karbala. He defined Ashura and Karbala in a way that a critical and decisive extrapolation from a specific time and place could be made to all times and all places. It reminded the Muslims in general and the Shi’a in particular about their ongoing responsibility and duty to stand up against falsehood and injustice, just like Imam Hussain, in all places and all the times.

A more direct reference was made on the occasion of the 17th of Shahriver event. The 17th of Shahrivar 1357 [1978] was the day when thousands peaceful and unarmed demonstrators were all allowed into then Jaleh Square [later renamed Shuhada/Martyrs Square] from every direction. Once the crowd filled the square, the major streets, alleys, and backstreets were blocked by the Shah’s military force. In a matter of just a few minutes the military rained a heavy fire on men, women, children, the young, and the old. A massive reaping and threshing of the crowd. “Rivers of blood” began flowing everywhere. It was the first time since the start of the uprising that the Pahlavi regime had opened fire on the masses. That day became known as the “Black Friday”.

In a powerful speech delivered on the occasion of the 17th of Shahrivar massacre in Shohada Square, Imam Khomeini made a clear and precise reference again to the Ashura and Karbala expression. In his speech,[3] he qualified the event as follows,

“The bitter memory of 17th of Shahrivar, ’57, and the bitter memories of the days of great hardship that were witnessed by the nation bore in them the sweet fruit of the toppling the palaces of tyranny and arrogance and replacing them with the flag of the republic of Islamic Justice. Is it not so that the instructive mandate of “Every day is Ashura and every land is Karbala” should serve as a paragon for the Islamic Ummah? A rising up of the masses in every day and in every land. Ashura was the rising up of the seekers of justice, few in number but fortified with their strong belief and love against tyrannical palace dwellers and arrogant predators. And the life lesson is that paragon must serve as a plan for life every day and in every place. The days that passed us by were the repeats of Ashura. And the squares, the streets, back streets, and the alleys in which the blood of the children of Islam were spilled, they were the repeats of Karbala. And in this paragon there is both a duty and a good news. It is a duty because the oppressed, even if few in number, have a responsibility, they have a duty to rise up, like the Master of Martyrs [Imam Hussain], against the arrogant powers who may have all sorts of equipment, armaments, and great Satanic power. They are charged with that duty. It is a good news since our martyrs are put in the same rank and file as the martyrs of Karbala. A good news that martyrdom is the key to victory. The 17th of Shahrivar is the repeat of Ashura. Shuhad Square is the repeat of Karbala. And our martyrs are reiterations of the martyrs of Karbala. Our enemies are reiterations of Yazid and his cronies. Karbala smashed the palace of injustice with blood and our Karbala destroyed the palace of Satanic rule. Now, it is time for us who are the inheritors of these bloods and those who have been left behind by these young martyrs not to become lethargic. We must strive to bring into fruition their sacrifice with our unwavering wills and hard fists. It is time for us to bury underneath the feet of the martyrs of goodness the remnants of that tyrant regime and the conspirators of injustice who are beholden to the East and to the West.” (Pages 445-446)

This speech was the most clear and definite way Imam Khomeini directly linked the events of the Iranian Revolution to the events of Ashura and Karbala. Another fine and noteworthy point that was raised in Imam Khomeini’s speech was this point: “the oppressed, even if they may be few in numbers, have a responsibility to rise up against the arrogant powers who may have all sorts of equipment, armaments, and great Satanic power.

The importance of this key point is appreciated only when people examine how a country like Iran which has neither the most “powerful military in the world” to be reassured, nor is she “the most powerful economy” in the world to buy her way in and out of trouble, nor the most populous nation in the world to have many lives to spare sees it necessary to defend the Palestinians, the Syrians, the Yemenis, the Iraqis, the Venezuelans, and all others in any way that she can.

It also explains how Iran mustered the willpower to take over the United States’ Spy Den masquerading as an embassy in Tehran (1979) and arrest and hold 52 spy agents for 444 days. It clarifies how Iran managed to fight an 8-year war alone (with the exception of Syrian help) with almost empty hands and under all sorts of sanctions with a regime (Saddam’s) that that the backing of all powerful governments of the world at that time (1980-1988). It lays bare the SS Bridgeton explosion (1987), the defeat of Israel and world powers in the 33-Day war by Hizbullah forces (2006), the capture of UK officers in Persian Gulf (2006), the capture of RQ-170 (2011), Syrian resistance (2011-present), Yemeni resistance (2015-present), the capture of US Sailors by Iran in 2016, RQ-4 Global Hawk capture (2019), ballistic missile attack on Ayn al-Asad (Lion’s Eye) Air Base (2020), sending oil tankers to Venezuela (2020), just to name a few examples.

The successor to Imam Khomeini, the current leader of the Islamic Republic, Imam Khamenei, too, has interpreted the expression with the same worldview. His most comprehensive explanation and the philosophy related to the phrase could be found in one of his books titled, Four Discourses: Clarification of the Circumstances, the Causes, and the Consequences of the Event of Ashura[4] Here, however, I will bring a short segment of one of his speeches in which he has a very concise and pointed reading:

“That they say, Every day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala, it means the time passes by but the happenings in life as they pertain to humanity, the truths of the creation remain untouched. If in every era, humanity who has a role to play, if they play that role at the right time, exactly when they should play that role, then everything will be reformed. The nations will grow and achieve excellence. The humanity will grow.”[5]

When there is injustice, the role every human being must play to remove the injustice is now, not later. Not when it is convenient but when it is necessary and needed. Not just in places where it is politically correct and materially advantageous to do so but in all places that is right to do so. Not just when and where it costs us nothing but when and where it costs us all worldly things.

Another great Muslim Shi’a scholar, Martyr Morteza Motahhari, who was killed in 1358 [May 1979] by agents of a terrorist organization right after the victory of the revolution, expands on the phrase in this way,

“If we say the prophets are victorious, it does not mean a military victory. If we look at the battle between Hussain Ibn Ali (peace be upon him) with the army of Yazid and Ibn Ziyad from a military perspective, that means on the surface of things and how they appear, then Imam Hussain was defeated and they won. But if we look at the heart of the subject which relates to thoughts and beliefs, that is, Yazid’s establishment represented a movement that wished to destroy the true essence of the Islamic thought and Imam Hussain fought to revive that thought. In this case, we must examine if Imam Hussain reached his goal or not. Was he able to revive a given mindset in the world or not? We see that he could. It is one thousand three hundred years that this movement has gained a new victory every year. That is, every year Ashura is Ashura. And the meaning of Every Day is Ashura becomes this fact that every day, in the name of Imam Hussain, there is a fight against injustice and falsehood, and every day, truth and justice are revived. This is victory. What victory would be greater than this? Yazids and Ibn Ziads disappear but Hussains and Abbasses and Zaynabs remain. Of course, they remain as an idea not as a person. They remain as a guardian and the ruler of their society. Yes, those who are there die. But these who are here remain alive and eternal.”[6]

Martyr Motahhari appraises the expression in terms of its endurance over a millennium and several centuries not just as a worldview but as a lifestyle of choice. Another well-known Muslim Shi’a thinker and sociologist, Ali Shariati defines the phrase in a manner that links it to the school of Intizar, or the expectation of the coming of Imam Mahdi (peace be upon him) at the end of time in a simple but psycho-socially nuanced way:

“What does Every Day is Ashura, Every Land is Karbala mean? It is not that wherever we find, we recite the Ashura prayers! It is to expect. The philosophy of expecting means a philosophy that a justice-seeking intellectual thinker, no matter what the circumstances, is not afflicted with philosophical and historical hopelessness and despair. There are no peoples or groups like Shi’a and no school of thought like the Shi’a school of thought that would fight for thirteen, fourteen centuries; all their leaders are slaughtered; they are poisoned; they are put in jail; they are killed; all their movements are all crushed. But they never succumb to despair! Why and what factor has kept these believers still convinced, still believing, and still hopeful despite protracted periods of setbacks, hardships, and adversities,?! The belief in the inevitability of history based on the philosophy of expectation!

What does a human being with expectation mean? Look at it this way. If you are at home and expecting a guest, if it is an army unit expecting an inspector or a call for readiness or a call for war or the arrival of a commander, if it is a city expecting the arrival of a person of importance, if it is someone who is expecting the coming of guest or a friend, any sort of expectation that you examine, to expect means to be prepared and to be ready. It does not mean to be dormant and sluggish! To expect means to be ready, equipped, and responsible. Therefore, the philosophy of expectation is to believe in the inevitability of history and be reassured, in all circumstances, that standing up for justice and in retaliation for spilt innocent bloods must take place all the time. It is a battle that since the beginning of history has been moved from one hand to the other, from one Prophet of God to the other, from one Shi’a Imam to the other. This battle, generation after generation, is propounded and put before every single individual. And despite all desperate condition, this flag is decidedly victorious in the future.”[7]

Shariati points to a historical and unbreakable link among all Prophets of God, Imams, and true believers throughout all times and all places to the coming of Mahdi (peace be upon him). It is useful to open a parenthesis here and make an important note: this very idea that Shia Muslim Twelvers must always evaluate their time and place on a daily basis and see where they stand in terms of their opposition to injustices and at the same time take the necessary measures to rectify and reform in preparation for the coming of Imam Mahdi (peace by upon him) defines their Waiting and Expectation. This approach stands in stark contrast with notions of passive waiting for a savior or helping create chaos and mayhem to engineer an end of time, an approach that inevitably helps and enables corrupt oppressors of every time and every place. Close parenthesis.

In closing of this essay, I would like to include a video of Maddahi, or religious recital, about Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) by Maysam Moti’ei (here) in which he has woven together several key concepts (discussed in the article) in one neat lyrical package. Since the song does not have any English subtitles, I did a translation of the lyrics (below). والسلام.

The master and the leader is Hussain,

The sereneness in hearts is Husssain.

The whisper of his lovers and devotees,

Nothing but Ya Hussain, Ya Hussain.

Besides you, I have no thought or notion,

My kin, my belonging, my life and devotion.

To the somber recital of the killing field,

Like the pouring rain we weep.

Grieving and mourning you these nights,

Alongside the martyrs we weep.

Our tears the elegy of the Euphrates,

Our Imam “Qati’ul Abarat” killed for tears.

By our Molaa, the leader, we remain,

From Ashura is the zeal that we gain.

O Lovers! Bimsillah!

The path to Al-Quds is from Karbala!

In the battlefields, I shall never abandon Ali,

My Molaa, my Leader, Sayyed Ali.

Every Day is Ashura,

Every Land is Karbala.

O the heir to Hussain’s blood!

Mahdi, the son of Zahra, arrive!

The defender of the oppressed,

The proof from God, hasten and arrive!

References

[1] Muhammadi Rayshahri M., Daneshnameh Imam Hussain (Aleyhi-Salaam) According to Quran, Hadith, and History. Vol. 6, Page 89. Digital Copy, Available online at: http://lib.eshia.ir/27254/6/89

[2] Ruhullah Khomeini, Sahifeh-ye Noor, Vol. 10, Pages 122. Available online at: https://farsi.rouhollah.ir/library/sahifeh-imam-khomeini/vol/10/page/122

[3] Ruhullah Khomeini, Sahifeh-ye Noor, Vol. 9, Pages 445-446. Available online at:

https://farsi.rouhollah.ir/library/sahifeh-imam-khomeini/vol/9/page/445

[4] Seyyed Ali Khamenei, Four Discourses: Clarification of the Circumstances, the Causes, and the Consequences of the Event of Ashura. Digital Copy, Institute for Cultural Research in the Islamic Revolution, the Office of Preservation and Publication of Ayatullah Ali Khamenei’s Works, Enghlab Islami Publication, Tehran, Iran. Book ID#: 978-964-2951-55-0.

[5] Ayatollah Khamenei, Speech during the joint educational ceremony of the students in Imam Hussain (peace be upon him) University on Farvardin 26, 1388 (2009). Available online at: https://www.leader.ir/fa/speech/5172

[6] Martyr Morteza Mottahari, “The Battle of Truth and Falsehood.” Cultural and Scientific Foundation of Martyred Teacher Morteza Mottahari, Pages 40-41. Available online at: https://3danet.ir/morteza-motahhari-books-pdf/

[7] Ali Shariati, The Philosophy of History in Islam, Section 4. Available online at: http://www.shariati.com/farsi/tarikhdarislam/tarikhdarislam4.html

To Understand Iran’s 150-Year Fight, Follow the Trail of Blood and Oil

To Understand Iran's 150-Year Fight, Follow the Trail of Blood and ...

Cynthia Chung May 23, 2020

This past Sunday, April 17th, a dispute between Iran and the U.S. occurred over the U.S.’ decision to increase its military presence in Caribbean and Eastern Pacific waters, with the purported reason being a counter-narcotics campaign.

Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif wrote to the UN Secretary-General Antonio Guterres this past Sunday, that the real purpose for this move by the U.S. is to “intervene and create disruption in the transfer of Iran’s fuel to Venezuela.” In the same letter, Zarif expressed concern over “the United States’ intention to consider dangerous, unlawful and provocative measures against Iranian oil tankers engaged in perfectly lawful international commerce with the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela.”

The Iranian deployment consists of five tankers carrying around $45.5million of gasoline and related products, as part of a wider deal between Iran and Venezuela. The U.S. has imposed sanctions on both nations’ oil exports.

For the first time since 1962, Iran has requested IMF assistance due to severe shortages created by the COVID-19 pandemic, with Iran requesting an emergency loan of $5 billion. However, the request is currently being blocked by the U.S., which accounts for slightly more than 16.5% of IMF’s voting shares and has an effective veto over decisions.

Iran is presently experiencing a critical shortage of medicines and equipment amid the pandemic, and yet is prohibited from purchasing medicines and supplies because of the banking sanctions.

It is clear that these manoeuvres against Iran are not on behalf of anyone’s “security” but rather an attempt to force Iran to finally bend the knee and be reduced to a state of complete dependence.

Iran has fought a long fight to claim its independence from western powers.

However, what if I were to tell you that once there was a time when Iran and the U.S. had good relations and that the U.S. was in fact the leading promoter and supporter of Iran’s sovereignty?

Almost out of a Shakespearean play of tragedy and betrayal, the relationship was jeopardised by a third player. As identified by John Perkins, in his book Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, the first ever U.S. coup against a foreign country was the overthrow of Iran’s nationalist Prime Minister Mosaddegh in 1953. However, what is often left out…is that it was a British authored and designed operation.

In order for us to understand how and why the U.S. was dragged into such an affair, our story starts 150 years ago…

Dieu et mon droit

It all started in 1872, with Nasir al-Din Shah having granted to the British Baron Julius de Reuter, rights to Iran’s entire economic estate. Reuter not only controlled Iran’s industry, farming, and rail transportation, but also held the right to issue currency and to set up a national bank, called the Imperial Bank of Persia, which was under direct British control.

In 1901, Muzzaffar al-Din Shah negotiated what became known as the D’Arcy Contract, granting William Knox D’Arcy, a millionaire London socialite, the special and exclusive privilege to basically own and manage the natural gas and petroleum of Iran for a term of 60 years.

In May 26th 1908 D’Arcy struck pay-dirt in Iran, discovering a huge oil field in Masjed-Soleiman. Britain immediately set up APOC in 1908, purchasing the rights to the black gold from D’Arcy. Six years later, First Lord of the Admiralty Winston Churchill gave the order to purchase 51% of APOC, effectively nationalizing the company. This was to ensure the free flow of oil to the British navy. It was the first company to extract petroleum from Iran.

Iran received only 16% of the royalties on the oil.

Britain continued to pursue total control of Iran, not through colonial occupation, but rather through economic “agreements”. In the midst of carving up the empire’s new “jewels” of the Middle East from the Sykes-Picot fraud on the Arabian people and the illegal British occupation of Palestine, the notorious Anglo-Persian Agreement of Aug 19, 1919 was also signed, with London effectively turning Iran into a de facto protectorate run by British “advisors”. Britain had succeeded in becoming the masters of Iran’s natural resources through this agreement.

Iran received almost nothing in return, not even oil from APOC for domestic consumption, but rather had to import it from the Soviet Union!

On Nov 28th 1932 Reza Shah announced that he would be cancelling the British concession to APOC. The British Navy was heavily dependent on cheap Iranian oil and thus Britain refused to acquiesce. A compromise was reached in 1933 through bilateral negotiations and the British managed to extend their concession up until 1993! Iran had succeeded in getting the British to pay a higher price but it still did not control its own oil.

The American Relationship

Despite claiming a neutral stance for Iran during WWII, word had gotten out that Reza Shah was apparently sympathetic to the cause of Hitler. The argument was thus used that a pro-German Iran could become a launching pad for an attack against the Soviet Union, justifying British and Soviet entry into the country on Aug 25th 1941 for what would be a several years’ occupation. On Sept 16th Reza was forced by the British to abdicate and go into exile transferring power to his 22 year old son, Mohammad Reza Shah.

Mohammad Reza Shah was not happy with the joint occupation and sought an American military presence as a mediator to British and Soviet interests. The Shah sent a letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt on Aug 25th 1941 asking him to:

“be good enough to interest yourself in this incident…I beg Your Excellency to take efficacious and urgent humanitarian steps to put an end to these acts of aggression.”

In response to this plea, Roosevelt sent Gen. Patrick Hurley as his special representative to Iran to help prepare what was to become the Iran Declaration, finally adopted at the Tehran Conference where Stalin, Roosevelt and Churchill would agree to guarantee the territorial integrity and national sovereignty of Iran.

The Iran Declaration was used to finally end the foreign occupation of Iran after WWII, despite some resistance, and would play a crucial role in Iran’s future fight for sovereignty. The Iran Declaration thus proved itself to be more than just words, and this would certainly never have happened if not for FDR.

As part of Hurley’s report to FDR, he wrote some biting words on the present system of British imperialism, “The imperialism of Germany, Japan, Italy, France… will, we hope, end or be radically revised by this war [WWII]. British imperialism seems to have acquired a new life. . . What appears to be a new life… is the result of the infusion, into its emaciated form, of the blood of productivity and liberty from a free nation [Iran] through Lend-Lease.”

Roosevelt sent a copy of the Hurley report to Churchill with his thoughts on the matter: “The enclosed memorandum was sent to me… I rather like his general approach to the care and education of what used to be called ‘backward countries’…the point of all this is that I do not want the United States to acquire a ‘zone of influence,’ or any other nation for that matter [in Iran].”

Churchill was less than enthusiastic on the Hurley-FDR vision. He was particularly irked by Hurley’s notion that British imperialism were in conflict with democracy.

FDR died only a few months later, and with his interment, Hurley’s plans for American support for a sovereign and democratic Iran as a model for the rest of the Middle East were relegated to the dust bins of time and forgotten by much of the world.

Following WWII, nationalistic sentiments were on the rise including in the Middle East, the most notable being Iran. However, following the death of FDR the British were free to disingenuously respond to Iran’s request for better economic conditions by offering what was called the “Supplemental Agreement”, in May 1949. This entailed a better payment in royalties but still denied Iran any oversight over accounts or any other form of control over Iranian oil.

Enter Mosaddegh

In the late 1940s, a new political force emerged in Iran called the National Front led by Mohammad Mosaddegh. Their campaign was centered on the demand to nationalize the AIOC and the people of Iran were in accord, electing Mosaddegh into the Majlis (parliament) in 1949.

Mosaddegh lost no time, and quickly became the head of the Majlis Oil Committee which was tasked to study the British “Supplemental Agreement”. When it came time to put it to a vote on Nov 25th 1950, the committee delivered a resounding “no” to the British proposition.

Less than four months later, the Majlis voted on March 15th 1951 for nationalization of the AIOC, and it was renamed as the National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC). Less than two months later, Mosaddegh became Prime Minister of Iran on April 28th 1951.

The British were left empty handed.

Twice the British tried to argue their case before the international community, once in May 1951 at The Hague and again in October at the UN Security Council. Both attempts were to lose to Mosaddegh’s defense. Mosaddegh had earned a Ph.D. in law from the Neuchatel Law School in Switzerland in 1914.

This was anything but a formal victory. It was to set a precedent in the international community that a country’s right to national sovereignty would be favored over Britain’s imperial “claims”, which were exposed during these two very public trials as amounting to nothing more than the threats and bribes of pirates.

At the UN Security Council, Mosaddegh responded to Britain’s imperial ambitions over Iran with these eloquent words:

“My countrymen lack the bare necessities of existence…Our greatest natural asset is oil. This should be the source of work and food for the population of Iran. Its exploitation should properly be our national industry, and the revenue from it should go to improve our conditions of life. As now organized, however, the petroleum industry has contributed practically nothing to the well-being of the people or to the technical progress or industrial development of my country…if we are to tolerate a situation in which the Iranian plays the part of a mere manual worker in the oil fields…and if foreign exploiters continue to appropriate practically all of the income, then our people will remain forever in a state of poverty and misery. These are the reasons that have prompted the Iranian parliament… to vote unanimously in favor of nationalizing the oil industry.”

A British coup

The British were fuming over Mosaddegh’s high profile humiliation of the British Empire’s claim to Iran’s oil. Mosaddegh would have to be deposed, however, this could not look like a British retaliation.

During Averell Harrimann’s visit to Tehran in July 1951, in an attempt to salvage the broken British-Iranian relationship, Mosaddegh is reported to have said,

“You do not know how crafty they are. You do not know how evil they are. You do not know how they sully everything they touch.”

As coup rumours circulated and reports were rife of British contact being sought with Iranian military officers, Mosaddegh severed diplomatic relations with the UK on Oct 16th 1952. The British were further humiliated and had to leave the country taking their agents with them.

It was at this point that Churchill “invited” his lap dog, de facto president Truman, to participate in his vision for regime change in Iran. In November 1952, NSC 136 and 136/I were written into record, Truman had agreed to promote direct intervention in Iran through covert operations and even military force. A detailed plan was approved on Jan 8th 1953 which was 12 days before Eisenhower was inaugurated.

The management of this covert operation was under the treasonous Dulles brothers, who would use the very same technique when JFK first entered office in setting him up with the Bay of Pigs fiasco, however, JFK managed to publicly expose Allan Dulles in this scheme and fired him. Dulles had been the Director of the CIA for 8 years up until that point, and was Deputy Director of the CIA for two years prior. Refer to my paper on this for further details.

A preliminary meeting in Washington saw representatives of the Near East and Africa Division (NEA) with British Intelligence. The key personalities were Christopher Montague Woodhouse who had been station chief for British Intelligence in Tehran and on the American side Kermit Roosevelt (son of Teddy Roosevelt) acting as NEA Division Chief. It was the British who would propose a joint political action to remove Prime Minister Mosaddegh according to CIA documents, which were in part leaked by the New York Times on April 16th 2000. The final plan was codenamed TPAJAX.

Appendix B, aka “London Draft of the TPAJAX Operational Plan” was black propaganda aimed at hammering out these themes 1) Mosaddegh favors the Tudeh Party and the USSR 2) Mosaddegh is an enemy of Islam since he associates with Tudeh.

The aim of such tactics was to drive a wedge between Mosaddegh and his National Front on the one side and his clerical allies, especially Kashani on the other. Demonstrations against Mosaddegh in the streets were to provide the pretext for bought MPs to hold a vote against him, if he refused to step down the plan was to have Fazlollah Zahedi, leader of the opposition, to arrest him. Zahedi, as laid out in Appendix B was selected by the British to replace Mosaddegh as Prime Minister after the coup.

Chief of Staff Gen. Taghi Riahi found out about the coup plans and alerted Mosaddegh in time. When the chief of the Imperial Guards, Col. Nasiri went to Mosaddegh’s house the evening before the planned coup day (Aug 16th) to arrest him, Nasiri himself was taken as prisoner by the pro- Mosaddegh military. Zahedi managed to flee.

The coup attempt had failed and the word spread fast, crowds flooded the streets supporting Mosaddegh and denouncing the Shah. The Shah left the country quickly.

The CIA informed of the fiasco alerted Kermit Roosevelt that he should leave Iran immediately. But Kermit believed the coup could still work and would make a second attempt three days later. British Intelligence and CIA orchestrated demonstrations set to the streets on Aug 19th. The royal decrees signed by the Shah for the deposal of Mosaddegh to be replaced by Zahedi were made public in the press that very day with the radio news announcing: that Zahedi was Prime Minister, that Mosaddegh had been ousted and that the Shah would return soon.

Military units were dispatched to Mosaddegh’s home. As his house was being destroyed by gunfire and tanks, Mosaddegh managed to escape. It is said he later turned himself in to the authorities.

After a ten-week period in a military prison, Mosaddegh was tried on charges of treason, because he had allegedly mobilized for a rebellion and had contradicted the Shah. In fact, the accused treason was a nationalistic response to a foreign led coup.

Mosaddegh was promptly found guilty and sentenced to death, later lessened to three years in prison, followed by house arrest.

Mosaddegh’s response to the kangaroo court proceedings was,

“My only crime is that I nationalized the oil industry and removed from this land the network of colonialism and the political and economic influence of the greatest empire [the British Empire] on Earth.”

Members of his government were also arrested, as were the leading military who remained loyal to him. Six hundred of the 6, 000 of these men were executed.

Even after Mosaddegh had passed away, on March 5th, 1967, his enemies were fearful of his influence. Mosaddegh had requested that upon his death, he be buried in the public graveyard beside the victims of the political violence that occurred on the 21st July 1952 from British-backed Ahmad Qavam who ordered soldiers to shoot at Mosaddegh nationalists during a demonstration, resulting in a blood bath. Not wanting his grave to become the site of political manifestations, a public funeral for Mosaddegh was denied and his body was quietly buried underneath the floorboards of a room in his house.

The Imam Khomeini Legacy and the fall of US Imperialism

The Imam Khomeini Legacy and the fall of US Imperialism

By Elham Hashemi

He started a revolution from the sleepy village in France where he was in exile. Him being thousands and thousands of miles away did not prevent the words of justice to reach the ears and hearts of millions across Iran as well as seekers of freedom across the world.

France was the last platform of Ayatollah Imam Ruhollah Mousavi Khomeini during the late 1978 and early 1979 before his return to the Islamic Republic of Iran. It was his last stage abroad; he stayed for long years of exile in Turkey and Iraq before arriving to France later on.

There were key ideas on which Founder of the Islamic revolution Imam Khomeini based his revolution; most importantly being independent from any external powers, being genuine, depending on popular power and will, and basing life style and the constitution on the teachings of Islam (which promote justice, equality, and preserving human dignity and other human values). The Islamic Republic, its wise leader and free people decided at a historical moment to be different; unique in a sense that they decided and dared to break the manacles of imperialism and colonialism.

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini; Iran’s most revered spiritual figure brought a vivid revolution to Iran, which was a US ally monarchy that had no independent identity. On the 31st annual commemoration of his passing, the architect of the Islamic revolution’s spirit still lives among not only Iranians but many free people of the world.

Although many theorists, think tanks, and media outlets now believe in the growing decline of the United States, one of the most unique and first predictions about the fall of the American Empire has been made by the late Imam. It should be noted that Imam Khomeini’s predictions about the fall of the United States in the future came at a time when the United States, in competition with the Eastern bloc, had apparently become an undisputed hegemony and power in the world and at the height of its power.

Today, we see the US at the height of its fragility as the American people rise in face of probably the “clumsiest and foulest” US President Donald Trump who prefers using superlative forms in his speeches.

In one of his speeches mentioned in Volume 18 of Sahifeh Nour, Imam Khomeini pointed out that the oppressed will reach a phase when they will not tolerate the injustice inflicted upon them by the oppressor, and that is when they will rise. This includes the people of America, who will stand up one day to social injustice to which they are being exposed.

Also, in another speech mentioned in volume 11 of the Sahifeh Nour, Imam Khomeini assured that “the people of America will gradually wake up until they rise.”

Today, we see a revolution at the heart of the United States as the US regime’s violence reaches a peak and by the merciless killing of George Floyd which is only the starter of protests; much anger lies underneath.

The American regime, over the years has done injustice not only to the peoples of the world, but also to its own people. Today, anger and dissent across the American community and people unravels.

In a speech he made in Qom city in 1979 addressing the reporter of the Time Newspaper, Imam Khomeini that “The American government has done injustice to us in that it has robbed us of our possessions and properties through its agent in Iran, called Muhammad-Rida. It has done injustice to    the American nation in that it has jeopardized their decency and pride.”

Imam Khomeini had always differentiated between the American administration and the American people, a fixed belief that Ayatollah Ali Khamenei has as well. For instance, in his words and speeches, there was a clear differentiation between the Carter regime and his conspiracies versus the American people who were made to believe Iran was evil due to misleading information disseminated around the clock.

Leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khamenei has reiterated Imam Khomeini’s views numerous times.

“The arrogant power of the US and the seditious and malicious power of the Zionist regime, from 40 years ago onwards, have increasingly declined. We should consider this in our calculations. The political, social and economic condition of the US in the past and in the present time should be considered in our calculations. Again, this has been acknowledged by some Americans. Some have referred to it as “a termite-like decline.” This has been coined by an American writer. He compares the decline of America decline to what occurs with termite. That is to say, it is becoming hollow from the inside like what termites do. The Americans have said this themselves. This is the case in economic, social and political areas.

Ayatollah Khomeini and Ayatollah Khamenei’s views and futuristic readings are based on divine tradition and reading of recurrent history.

As Ayatollah Khamenei expressed “The US is declining. And the factors in the decline of the US have not come into being in the present time or in the recent past so much so that someone would try to cure them. They have come into being throughout history. The factor and element which has brought about such a condition for the Americans is a long-term factor. They have created a condition in the course of history which has led to the current situation, and it cannot be cured so easily. –This is a divine tradition. They are condemned to decline and disappear from the scene of global power.”

Today, 3 decades to the demise of the leader of the Islamic Revolution Ayatollah Khomeini who is remembered and revered by not only popular masses in Iran and elsewhere but also by leaders across the world, his legacy of human rights and justice remains alive and the world witnesses his reading of history and facts.

Quds Day: Reminder of Palestinian struggle

By Salman Parviz

May 21, 2020 – 14:5

Originating in Iran with the victory of the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini declared the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan as Quds Day with the aim of forging unity among the Muslims and Arab nations so that they will unanimously express their backing for the Palestinian nation each year.

To mark the occasion amid the novel coronavirus pandemic the International Quds Day Conference was held online May 18 and 19.

This year’s Quds Day has special significance in the denunciation of the so-called “Deal of the Century” and proposed annexation of Jordan Valley and occupied West Bank, a display of shocking disregard for international law. The deal has given green light to Israeli sovereignty on the illegal settlements built since the 1967 war, which is now colonized by more than 600,000 Israeli Jews.

Protests in the region on May 15 marked the 72nd anniversary of the Nakba or “catastrophe”, when hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were forced into exile following creation of the Zionist state in 1948. It was another opportunity to denounce the policies of U.S. President D. Trump’s ultra-right policies and alliance with Israel.

While successive U.S. presidents and administrations have supported Israel, none has done as much in such a short time to embolden its right-wing settler-led colonialist government than Trump whose administration recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in 2017, stalling the road map for a two-state solution.

Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner worked closely with former U.S. special envoy for the Middle East, Jason Greenblatt, to design the “Deal of the Century”. The plan was announced in January after several months of delay. What Palestinians saw as a “surrender note”, referred in one of the Tehran Times’ headlines as the “Highway to Hell” and what many consider “Heist of the Century”.

After three inconclusive elections in the Zionist state a three-year power-sharing agreement was announced in April which allows Netanyahu first bite at leading before handing power to Benny Gantz. At the heart of that agreement is the illegal annexation of large swathes of the West Bank, including the Jordan Valley and the Northern Dead Sea.

Israel is 21st century’s Middle East version of apartheid-era South Africa, the only remaining apartheid state where Palestinians remain, at best, second class citizens in Israel, under occupation in Gaza, East Jerusalem and West Bank.

Of historical significance is the plight of residents of Gaza Strip. In January 2006, Hamas won a sweeping majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council elections ending more than 40 years of domination by Fatah, the political faction built by the late Yasir Arafat.

Following the elections U.S., EU and Canada cut off funding to the Palestinian Authority despite Canada having helped to facilitate and monitor the elections. Worth mentioning is that the Israel-Hezbollah conflict ensued during the summer of 2006.

Gaza Strip was put under Israeli and Egyptian blockade in 2007 when the Hamas resistance movement started controlling the enclave. As a result of Israel’s stifling measures the UN has warned in the past that the Gaza Strip would become “uninhabitable” by 2020.

More than two million people cramped up in a 362 square kilometer area, deprived of their fundamental human rights including freedom of movement. Under strict air, sea and ground siege imposed by Israel and Egypt for the last thirteen years, Gaza Strip is considered the largest open-air prison in the world.

This prison verdict is backed by international community, mainly the Western powers and the U.S. During the siege the coastal enclave has undergone three major Israeli offensives.

Today around 6.5 million Palestinians live abroad as refugees or members of the diaspora.

Quds day is a reminder of the plight of Palestinian people.
 

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