صمود يمنيّ أسطوريّ وسرّيّة عراقيّة ـ سوريّة أجّلا سقوط ترشيحا لأشهر…!

محمد صادق الحسينيّ

تعريف: تقع بلدة ترشيحا الفلسطينية في الجليل الغربي، على بعد عشرين كيلومتراً عن مدينة عكا الى الشمال الشرقي، كما تبعد ثمانية كيلومترات عن الحدود اللبنانية، مقابل بنت جبيل.

تقع ترشيحا على ارتفاع 600 متر عن سطح البحر وتحيط بها قرى: معليا/ فَسوطَهْ/ حُرْفيش/ البقيعة/ يانوح/ كُفُرْ سميع/ يانوح/ سُحماتا. وقد أقيم على أراضيها، بعد احتلالها، في شهر 10/ سنة 1948 / العديد من المستوطنات اليهودية وأكبرها مستوطنة معالوت الملاصقة، بل المتداخلة مع البلدة الفلسطينية حالياً، والتي تُدار عبر بلدية مشتركة مع ترشيحا.

كان عدد سكانها سنة 1948، قبل احتلالها من قبل عصابات الهاغاناه، 5700 نسمة، أما عدد سكانها العرب حالياً فيبلغ 4500 نسمة فقط، حيث يعيش الكثير من أهالي القرية المهجّرين في المخيّمات الفلسطينية في سورية ولبنان والشتات.

أما الآثار المسيحية والإسلامية في القرية فهي التالية:

1) كنيسة الروم الكاثوليك، التي بنيت عام 1945، وهي من أكبر الكنائس في الجليل.

2) كنيسة الروم الارثوذكس، التي بنيت بين أعوام 1905 و 1913 بدلاً عن الكنيسة القديمة.

3) كنيسة الروم الارثوذكس القديمة، غير الصالحة للاستعمال، والتي بُنيت سنة 550 م.

أما أهم الآثار الإسلامية في البلدة فهي التالية:

جامع الحمولة، الذي بني أواسط القرن الثامن عشر الميلادي.

مزار الشيخ مجاهد. ويقع على جبل المجاهد في أعالي البلدة.

الجامع الجديد. تم بناؤه في زمن عبدالله باشا، والي عكا، سنة ١٨٤٠. واستخدمت في بنائه الهندسة التي استخدمت في بناء جامع الجزار في عكا، الذي بني في الفترة الزمنية نفسها.

الزاوية الشاذلية. بناها الشيخ علي اليشطري، وهي بقيت لخدمة أهل الطريقة الشاذلية، واستخدمت كذلك كبيت ضيافة للزوار الذين يقصدون البلدة لسبب أو لآخر.

ترشيحا والنكبة

عند صدور قرار تقسيم فلسطين المشؤوم، في 29/11/1947، بدأ أهالي ترشيحا كغيرهم من أهل فلسطين، يبحثون عن السلاح استعداداً لتنظيم وتسليح أنفسهم للدفاع عن قراهم ومدنهم. وقد بدأت الأسلحة بالوصول الى فلسطين، من سورية ولبنان، ومن خلال أشخاص وطنيين وكذلك تجار السلاح، الذين كانوا يبيعون أسلحة من مخلفات الحرب العالمية الثانية.

تشكلت في ترشيحا سرية دفاع، من أهالي البلدة، أطلق عليها اسم: سرية ترشيحا، التي كان قوامها حوالي مئة مقاتل، وكان يقودها ضابط الصف، في الجيش البريطاني سابقاً، محمد كمال السعيد.

كما وصلت الى البلدة، بتاريخ 18/1/1948، قوة عسكرية، قوامها حوالى 350 مقاتلاً من فوج أجنادين التابع لجيش الإنقاذ، الذي شكلته الجامعة العربية. كانت هذه القوة، التي انضمّت الى سرية ترشيحا، تحت قيادة المقدّم العراقي: مهدي صالح ونائبه أديب الشيشكلي، الذي كان قائداً لكتيبة اليرموك الثانية، وأصبح لاحقاً رئيساً لسورية.

قررت قيادة هذه القوة، ومنذ وصولها الى البلدة، المبادرة الى شن هجمات وقائية أو استباقية، ضد مواقع قوات الهاغاناه اليهودية المتمركزة في المستوطنات المجاورة. وكانت أهمّ الهجمات التي شنتها قوات أجنادين وأهالي ترشيحا هي التالية:

أ) معركة قلعة جدين، التي تبعد خمسة كيلومترات الى الجنوب من ترشيحا، وشاركت فيها سرية ترشيحا وفوج أجنادين/ جيش إنقاذ/ وجمع من أهالي البلدة. نجح المهاجمون في الوصول الى المستوطنة وفرضوا الحصار عليها، تمهيداً لاقتحامها. إلا أن تدخل الجيش البريطاني لحماية المستوطنين قد حال دون استكمال المهمة. ولكن القوات العربية حافظت على الحصار مفروضاً على المستوطنة حتى سقوط ترشيحا لاحقاً.

ب) معركة كابري، والتي بدأتها قوات فوج أجنادين وسرية ترشيحا، وفصائل فلسطينية أخرى من القرى المجاورة. تم التخطيط للهجوم بهدف قطع الإمدادات، التي كانت تصل مستوطنة قلعة جدين من نهاريا. وبتاريخ 28/3/1948 وصلت إحدى قوافل الإمداد اليهودية، قادمة من نهاريا، الى منطقة السَدّْ بالقرب من بستان “أبو علي توسيس”، حيث وقعت في كمين محكم واشتبك معها الثوار العرب والفلسطينيين لمدة عشر ساعات متواصلة، بقيادة محمد كمال السعيد/ فلسطيني/ وخليل كلاس/ سوري/ واميل جميعان/ أردني/.

وقد أسفرت المعركة عن تدمير القافلة، ومقتل 46 من عصابات الهاغاناه، الذين كانوا يسيِّرونها، وكان من بينهم قائد القافلة بن عامي بحتر، وذلك على الرغم من تدخل القوات البريطانية لإنقاذ القافلة، والتي فشلت في ذلك بسبب التخطيط المحكم للعملية، من قبل الثوار، حيث كانوا قد أعدوا كميناً متقدماً آخر، باتجاه نهاريا، وذلك منعاً لتقدّم أية قوة إسناد للقافلة عندما تقع في الكمين. وهذا ما حدث بالضبط، عندما تقدمت قوة محمولة بريطانية لفك الحصار عن القافلة، وقعت في الكمين، الذي أسماه الثوار في حينه: كمين بن عامي. جدير بالذكر أنّ سلطات الاحتلال قد أقامت لاحقاً مستوطنة، في أراضي قرية أم الفرج القريبة، أطلقت عليها اسم مستوطنة بن عامي.

ج) معركة تين أبو شريتح، في 11/6/1948، والتي اندلعت إثر سقوط بلدة الكابري في أيدي عصابات الهاغاناه ومحاولة قوة منهم اختراق خطوط الدفاع عن ترشيحا، حيث قامت قوة من الهاغاناه، معززة بالمصفحات والأسلحة الثقيلة بشنّ هجوم من محورين، الأول هو محور معليا/ ترشيحا والثاني هو محور كابري/ ترشيحا. لكن يقظة الثوار والكمائن التي أعدّوها لمواجهة الهجمات اليهودية المحتملة قد أوقعت عصابات الهاغاناه في كمين محكم، دارت على أثر ذلك معركة انتهت بمقتل قائد الهحوم اليهودي، الكولونيل يعقوب، وفشل الهجوم. وقد أقامت سلطات الاحتلال مستوطنة، في منطقة تلك المعركة، أسمتها عين يعقوب.

د) الهجوم المضاد ومعركة تل الأحمر. بعد أيام قليلة، من إفشال محاولة التقدم اليهودية باتجاه ترشيحا، قرّر المدافعون عن البلدة، بقيادة الضابط العراقي مهدي صالح، شنّ هجوم مضاد، على مواقع الهاغاناه، بهدف فتح الطريق الى عكا، التي كانت لا تزال صامدةً ولم تسقط.

جاء قرار الهجوم المضاد إثر نجاح السرية اليمنية، التي كانت ترابط في مواقع التل الأحمر، بصدّ هجوم كبير على مواقعها، ليلة 18/6/1948، حيث كانت استطلاعاتها (السريّة اليمنيّة) قد حدّدت محاور تقدّم عصابات الهاغاناه المحتملة مسبقاً، وأعدّت لهم مجموعة كمائن وأوقعتهم فيها وانقضّت عليهم في قتال من مسافة أمتار وقضت على جميع أفراد تلك العصابات بالكامل. حيث كان صمود السرية اليمنيّة هو السبب الرئيسي في الحفاظ على بلدة ترشيحا وحمايتها من السقوط في أيدي عصابات الهاغاناه آنذاك.

لكن العصابات الصهيونية، وبمساعدة عسكرية بريطانية مباشرة، عبر القصف من البوارج البريطانية المرابطة قبالة ساحل نهاريا، الواقعة على بعد 15 كم غرب ترشيحا، واصلت ضغطها على ترشيحا كما واصلت حشودها العسكرية الكبيرة، استعداداً لدخولها وكسر مقاومتها.

حيث حشدت العصابات الصهيونية، تحت قيادة اللواء شيفا، كتيبتي مدرعات وكتيبة مشاة وكتيبة قوات خاصة، من لواء عوديد، وكتيبة قوات خاصة من لواء غولاني وأخرى من لواء كرمئيلي. وقد بدأ الهجوم الشامل، لهذه القوات على محاور ترشيحا جميعها، ومن بينها محور الجبل الأحمر الذي كانت ترابط فيه السرية اليمنية. بدأ هذا الهجوم بتاريخ 25/10/1948، ووصل ذروته يوم 27/10/1948، حيث شارك سرب من الطائرات الحربية الصهيونية، البريطانية الصنع من طراز بريستول ولانكستِر، في قصف مواقع المدافعين عن البلدة، ومن بينهم السرية اليمنية، بالقنابل الثقيلة والبراميل المتفجّرة عيار 200 ليتر. وقد استمرّت القوات المدافعة عن البلدة في صمودها الأسطوريّ حتى نفاد ذخيرتها بالكامل واستشهاد عدد كبير من أفرادها، بينهم متطوّعون يمنيّون، الى أن تمكنت قوات العصابات الصهيونية من دخول البلدة والسيطرة عليها بتاريخ 30/10/1948، وكانت بذلك آخر بلدة فلسطينية تمّ احتلالها من قبل تلك العصابات.

أيام مجيدة سطّر ملاحمها أخوة بالإيمان لفلسطين، اقترب وقت عودتها بحلة جديدة، ولكن هذه المرة بالنصر والظفر بإذن الله

وإعادة كل فلسطين إلى كل أهلها وعودتها إلى أمّتها.

بعدنا طيبين قولوا الله…

Quds Day: Reminder of Palestinian struggle

By Salman Parviz

May 21, 2020 – 14:5

Originating in Iran with the victory of the 1979 Islamic Revolution, Imam Khomeini declared the last Friday of the holy month of Ramadan as Quds Day with the aim of forging unity among the Muslims and Arab nations so that they will unanimously express their backing for the Palestinian nation each year.

To mark the occasion amid the novel coronavirus pandemic the International Quds Day Conference was held online May 18 and 19.

This year’s Quds Day has special significance in the denunciation of the so-called “Deal of the Century” and proposed annexation of Jordan Valley and occupied West Bank, a display of shocking disregard for international law. The deal has given green light to Israeli sovereignty on the illegal settlements built since the 1967 war, which is now colonized by more than 600,000 Israeli Jews.

Protests in the region on May 15 marked the 72nd anniversary of the Nakba or “catastrophe”, when hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were forced into exile following creation of the Zionist state in 1948. It was another opportunity to denounce the policies of U.S. President D. Trump’s ultra-right policies and alliance with Israel.

While successive U.S. presidents and administrations have supported Israel, none has done as much in such a short time to embolden its right-wing settler-led colonialist government than Trump whose administration recognized Jerusalem as Israel’s capital in 2017, stalling the road map for a two-state solution.

Trump’s son-in-law Jared Kushner worked closely with former U.S. special envoy for the Middle East, Jason Greenblatt, to design the “Deal of the Century”. The plan was announced in January after several months of delay. What Palestinians saw as a “surrender note”, referred in one of the Tehran Times’ headlines as the “Highway to Hell” and what many consider “Heist of the Century”.

After three inconclusive elections in the Zionist state a three-year power-sharing agreement was announced in April which allows Netanyahu first bite at leading before handing power to Benny Gantz. At the heart of that agreement is the illegal annexation of large swathes of the West Bank, including the Jordan Valley and the Northern Dead Sea.

Israel is 21st century’s Middle East version of apartheid-era South Africa, the only remaining apartheid state where Palestinians remain, at best, second class citizens in Israel, under occupation in Gaza, East Jerusalem and West Bank.

Of historical significance is the plight of residents of Gaza Strip. In January 2006, Hamas won a sweeping majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council elections ending more than 40 years of domination by Fatah, the political faction built by the late Yasir Arafat.

Following the elections U.S., EU and Canada cut off funding to the Palestinian Authority despite Canada having helped to facilitate and monitor the elections. Worth mentioning is that the Israel-Hezbollah conflict ensued during the summer of 2006.

Gaza Strip was put under Israeli and Egyptian blockade in 2007 when the Hamas resistance movement started controlling the enclave. As a result of Israel’s stifling measures the UN has warned in the past that the Gaza Strip would become “uninhabitable” by 2020.

More than two million people cramped up in a 362 square kilometer area, deprived of their fundamental human rights including freedom of movement. Under strict air, sea and ground siege imposed by Israel and Egypt for the last thirteen years, Gaza Strip is considered the largest open-air prison in the world.

This prison verdict is backed by international community, mainly the Western powers and the U.S. During the siege the coastal enclave has undergone three major Israeli offensives.

Today around 6.5 million Palestinians live abroad as refugees or members of the diaspora.

Quds day is a reminder of the plight of Palestinian people.
 

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Israel: A utopian image or merely a mirage?

May 13, 2020 – 21:53

TEHRAN – While the founders of Israel had envisioned a utopia for Israeli settlers, now after 72 years, it has brought no freedom or justice to anyone except for some Zionist Jews and been involved in genocide and ethnic cleansing of Palestinians an Israeli-American activist and author tells the Tehran Times.

‘Genocide and ethnic cleansing is the practice of Israel’ 

On promises by the founders of Israel, including Ben Gurion, who had envisioned a utopia for settlers in Israel based on freedom, justice, and peace,  Miko Peled says “Israel is an apartheid regime” which “has been involved in genocide and ethnic cleansing of Palestinians.”

He says Israel is “providing Jewish citizens who are Zionist with all the rights of liberal democracy.” 

He also says it “is true” that some Israelis are returning to their original countries as they are fed with governance.

‘Corrupt Netanyahu main reason behind Israeli political crisis’

Israel has been in a political crisis after three inconclusive elections and it is facing the growing prospect of an unprecedented fourth election.

Peled says it is mainly because “Israeli politics is controlled by the corrupt Prime Minister Netanyahu and his racist, violent allies.”

The deadlock ended now that Netanyahu got an agreement that he accepted and protects him and allows him to continue to serve as prime minister, he says, adding there was even social disobedience “about the fact that the man they voted for, Benny Gantz, who promised to unseat Netanyahu, lied to his voters and is now sitting with Netanyahu.”

‘Israel not a democracy but an apartheid’

On claims by Tel Aviv and its allies in the West that Israel is the only democratic country in the West Asia region, Peled says, “Israel is not and has never been a democracy. It an apartheid regime.”
 
He goes on to note that “the problem with West perspective is that it is a Zionist perspective which recognizing the legitimacy of Zionism and does not recognize the rights of Palestinians.”
 
 Israel sees Trump’s reckless policies toward Iran ‘a great thing’ 

Actually, in over a year that Israel has been holding three elections, each time Donald Trump has taken a step to promote chances of Netanyahu in elections. His administration moved the U.S. embassy to Jerusalem, recognized the occupied Golan Heights as Israeli territory, and recently Mike Pompeo claimed that annexation of lands in the West Bank does not violate international law. However, each time Netanyahu’s party failed to win enough seats in Knesset to form a government.

“Israelis are actually very happy with Trump. His support for the Israeli regime and his reckless policies regarding Iran and the Palestinians is seen as a great thing,” Peled points out.

‘Racism in Israel comes even at expenses of public health’

Despite the coronavirus epidemic, Israel is refusing to release Palestinians who are held in crowded prisons, he said, noting, “Israel never respected Palestinian rights, even now that the spread of the Coronavirus is dangerous to all people.” 
“Racism in Israel is so strong that it comes even at the expense of public health,” the activist regrets.

 ‘2 million people of Gaza are heroes’

Gaza Strip is considered the greatest open prison on the earth.

Peled calls two million residents of Gaza “heroes” who are victims of “Zionist racism and violence”.

He also notes that except Iran, no country in the world cares about the miseries of the Gazans.

“They are victims of Zionist racism and violence and of the fact that the rest of the world, with the exception of Iran, do not care about them.”

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كي لا تكون الآن نكبة

الأخبار

كي لا تكون الآن نكبة
من ذاكرة النكبة: نساء وأطفال من احدى القرى الفلسطينية على درب الهجرة الطويلة (أرشيف مجلّة «تايم»)

فلسطين كمال خلف الطويل

الجمعة 15 أيار 2020

لعلّ من بين كلّ أعوامها السبعين ونيّف، لذكرى نكبة 1948 هذا العام بالتحديد، مذاقٌ مغاير… لماذا؟ نظرة طائرٍ على فلسطين وما حولها، عند ذكراها الحالّة، تُري الناظر حزمة مشاهد كونية وإقليمية ومحلية، فيها من التداخل ما يوجب استدخالها في استشراف طيّات القادم:

1

ــــ شلل «كوروني»، جزئي أو نسبي، لقدرات القوى الكبرى في خوض صراعات حاميةٍ أو حتى فاترة، سواء بينها أم بين حلفائها الإقليميين، وانعكاس ذلك على مسرح الحوادث تهدئةً أو «تباعد» اشتباك.
2

ــــ تداعٍ اقتصادي يعمّ المنطقة، بفعل عاملَي سقوط سعر النفط والوباء الـ«كوروني»… لا يوفّر غنيةً أو فقيرةً من كياناتها، بل ينيخ بكلكله على مستقبلها، القريب منه والبعيد.
3

ــــ ميزان قوىً رجراج في المنطقة، لا يسمح لقوة إقليمية بحسم الصراع لصالحها على حساب غيرها:

إسرائيل، أعجز عن كسر إيران، أو حليفاتها، حتى إن قدِرت على إيذائها سورياً، وقدِرت راعيتها، الولايات المتحدة، على إنهاكها بحصار العقوبات. في المقابل، نراها تتحضّر لالتهام جغرافيا القدس والمستوطنات والأغوار، بالتواطؤ مع الدولة الأميركية الترامبية، تحت اعتقاد أنّ جو الوباء كفيلٌ بشلّ أحدٍ عن فعل صدٍّ أو منعٍ أو كبحٍ.
تركيا، غير قادرة على إنفاذ رغائبها في الشمال السوري، من دون تمكين روسي وسكون أميركي، ناهيك بانكشاف اقتصادها أمام غائلة غارات خصوم الخليج وغيرهم، بسعي ضرب اقتصادها ولَيِّ ذراعها استراتيجياً. في المقابل، نراها تعوّض محدودية نجاحها السوري، عبر العقد المنصرم، بمطاولةٍ عابرةٍ لشرق المتوسط، و«متشاطئة» مع ليبيا غازاً ونفطاً.

السعودية، مكسورة في أعزّ ما تملك: مال النفط؛ مستنزفة بعبثها الحربي في اليمن، قليلة حيلة أمام من تعتبره خصمها التليد: إيران، وخاسرة في الشمال العربي. في المقابل، هي بين بين في الساحة الليبية، وممسكة بأعنة القرار المصري، بالشراكة مع حليفتها الإماراتية.

إيران، محاصَرة حتى الثمالة في معاشها، معوقة سورياً، متساكنة مع شيطانها التليد في العراق، وحتى لبنان، ومحاطة بسوار قواعد أميركية في البر والبحر. في المقابل، عندها من مقدرة المصابرة والدفع ما كسر مشعر غينيس.
طيّب، لنرَ كيف هو المؤثر الدولي عندنا: في الخلفية شبح الوباء المقعِد، للكل. هذا في عموم. أما في خصوص، فلم يعد هناك ما تستطيع الولايات المتحدة فرضه بالقوة، لا بل إنّ عملية إعادة تموضعِ لقدراتها قد بدأت قبل الوباء، وها قد تسارعت بعده، محفّزةً بنتائج ما سبق من فرط تمدد، بدّد 8 تريليون دولار في مجروره، وبدّد معه عشرية بكاملها، هي أولى عشريات القرن. والشراكة الروسية ـــــ الصينية ما زالت أقدر على الإعاقة منها على الفرض، سواء بالاختيار صينياً ـــــ وهو الآن آيل ـــــ أم بالاضطرار روسياً.

كيف ينعكس ذلك كله في، وعلى فلسطين الآن؟ من منظور اليمين الإسرائيلي (وإسرائيل كلّها الآن يمين… لكنّه قبلي ومحترب، فتوراً الآن وربما سخونةً ذات وقت)، ورديفه الترامبي، فشلل الوباء سانحٌ لقفزة ضمٍّ ما فتئ الأول يتلمّظ عليها لعقود، ويعقد الثاني عزمه على نصرته، إنْ من زاوية تمكين إسرائيل وكيلاً إقليمياً، أم لجهة تلبية مطلب بيئته الانتخابية المزمن… هذا في النية. طيّب، ما هي فاعلةٌ الإقليميات الثلاثة، سوى إسرائيل… والكونيتان، سوى الولايات المتحدة… وأضيف، أوروبا؟

برغم إقعاد الوباء العمومي، إلا أنّ الإقليمي الأكثر فعّالية فلسطينياً هو إيران، وعلى مسارح متعدّدة: سوريا ولبنان وغزة. ذلك أنها، ببساطة، من انكبّ ـــــ وما انفكّ ـــــ على بناء منظومة صاروخية، نوعية كما كمّية، عبر الشمال العربي، مع صلةٍ بغزّة، وعبر سنوات سبع ونيّف، صارت توفّر قدرة ردع ما قبل ـــــ متكافئة، وتكاد تشطب قدرة إسرائيل على شنّ حرب هجومية على المحيط. لكنّ إيران وحليفاتها، لم تبلغ بعد حدّ القدرة على كبح نية إسرائيل ضمّ نصف الضفة الغربية. ما الذي ينقص؟ غياب شريك عربي مركزي، واضطراب العلاقة الإيرانية ـــــ التركية سورياً، وافتقاد سند دولي فارق.

أين السعودية اليوم؟ هي تجرّب رفقة طريق مع إسرائيل، بظنّ أنْ تقيها من «غائلة» إيران، في مقامرة غير محسوبة للتيار المتنفّذ في العشيرة الحاكمة، وكفيلةٍ، مع انكسار «رؤية» هذا التيار، بنضوب خزائنه نفطياً وشعائرياً، وبخسائره اليمنية الفادحة، أن تهزّ الأرض من تحته، بغضّ النظر عن أي أثر لغواية اللهو والمِتع بعد طول تضييق. ذات الحال يسري على محيطها، وعلى «مصرها».

وبعلم أنّ تركيا، مِثلها مثل إيران، لا ترتفع مقاماً كقوة إقليمية إلا بخفض مقام إسرائيل، وبه فقط تصبحان «عُظمَيين» لا عاديتين… إلا أنّ إشغال تركيا نفسها في متاهةٍ سوريةٍ من صنع يديها، وبخطايا حساب أحمق أجراه صنّاع قرارها في خريف 2011، قد كفّ قدرتها على أن تكون وازنة كفايةً قبالة إسرائيل فلسطينياً، رغم اشتغالها على الناحية العقارية في القدس وغيرها، وبحساب عونها السياسي والإعلامي. ما تحتاج إليه هو أن تدرك، لتوّها، مركزية تنزيل إسرائيل من عليائها، عن أي شأن مشرقي آخر. لقائل أن يقول: وكيف لتركيا أن تفيق إلى واجبها الفلسطيني وهي مكبّلة بقيود ناتوية؟ والحال أنْ ليس من قيود تكبّل، وصفقة «س 400» شاهدة.

في الكوني، هناك مسألة أقيس عليها ابتداءً: لا ترى إسرائيل في روسيا أو الصين، حليفاً أو شريكاً أو صديقاً. من ينفرد بامتلاك هذه الصفات وأكثر (الراعي)، هي الولايات المتحدة. روسيا والصين، هما عند إسرائيل مشروعا تنافع، وفي حالة روسيا بالذات طرفٌ تدير معه ترتيبات منع اشتباك… ولا تني الولايات المتحدة تذكّر إسرائيل بسقفها الواطئ لمنسوب التنافع. كلتاهما ترى في ضمّ نصف الضفة، تخريباً لحلٍّ في فلسطين طالما تاقتا إليه، وعسفاً وخيماً بظلامة شعبها لن يلبث أن يوقد النار في غرب آسيا. لكن تنطّحهما لدور معيق، يحتّ من جموح الولايات المتحدة، لا يتصلّب عوداً إلا باستناده إلى جدار إقليمي صلد، أي تركو ـــــ إيراني، والذي صار أكثر إمكانية وسط تحديات الوباء واصطفافاته. يُضاف إلى ذلك، توق الصين بالذات إلى تعرّض «إيجابي» للولايات المتحدة، وليس أعزّ من جبهة لها من إسرائيلها، سيما وأمر خسفها الصلة الصينية ــــــ الإسرائيلية صار في التداول. أوروبا الرسمية، في المقابل، لا تجيد إلا الخنوع أمام الأميركو ــــــ إسرائيلي عند الحزّة واللزّة، لكنّ مجتمعاتها في مكان آخر، وسيحفزها في الضغط على رسمياتها شعورها أنّ تماسك المحلّي والإقليمي والأوراسي يتجسّد.

طيّب، هل لقوى الضفة ذاتها من وزن في هذه المعادلة؟ يصح القطع بانعدام ثقة الشعب الفلسطيني في الضفة بقياداتها المتنفّذة، بل وفي ذلك سر تورعه عن إلقاء ثقله في الصراع ثانيةً، طالما تثقل كاهله وتعوق فطرته. شرط عودته ليصبح الرقم الصعب في معادلة الصراع، اضطرارها أن تنزاح عن طريقه، بما فيه نزع قيد أمنها عن رسغه، وإخلاء حاجزه الحارس للاحتلال، وتحوّلها إلى محض سلطة بلدية محلية لا صفة سياسية لها. أول الأوليات، ألا تُترك لتقع في درك غواية الترامبية لها بالتقدّم بمقترح بديل، بل أن تُجبر على التمنّع، ولو اللفظي. إنّ هناك الآن فرصة من أشهر، ألحظ بصددها العوامل التالية:

المؤسسة الأمنية ــــــ العسكرية لإسرائيل خاشية ومحذّرة من عقابيل الضمّ. محميات مصر والخليج تتوسّل براعيها الترامبي، أن يتمهّل في الإذن بالضمّ خشية ما يفرز من عواقب. منظومة الأمن القومي الأميركي تعارض وتُنذر. اليهودية الأميركية منشرخة نصفين، أحدهما معارض. الأردن يتحسّس رقبته. أوروبا تضرب كفّاً بكفّ، فما غرب آسيا إلا رمية حجر. وعليه، فما كان من ضوء أخضر صار أصفر.

طيّب، كيف نحوّل الأصفر إلى أحمر؟ نقطة البداية هي عند «نخب» كلّ فلسطين، فإن التقت على قاسم مشترك أدنى، من دحر الاحتلال واستعادة الضفة، وفق برنامج عملاني، وأطلقت دعوة تقريب «سوري» بين إيران وتركيا يوقف الحرب، وبرهنت لنفسها أولاً، ثم لإيران وتركيا، وخلفهما لروسيا والصين، أنها رافعة داخلٍ وطوق، فتكاملت بها وبهم أساسات سندٍ من فولاذ، صار لزوماً للأطراف الإسرائيلية والأميركية والأوروبية أن تشعل الأحمر.
ولكن… إن أضعنا هذه الأشهر الدانية، فنكون كمن جدّد النكبة.

Gilad Atzmon on Truth, Faith and Palestine – Chester Interfaith Palestine Conference

 

 The following is a talk given at Chester Interfaith Palestine Conference 2019 on  (2.1.2019).

https://youtu.be/pfxhicFBHSI

 In the last few days Zionist and Israeli advocacy groups were desperate to cancel the  gathering of many local peace enthusiasts, intellectuals and religious leaders. Every Hasbara trick was put into play: Social media abuse, intimidating phone calls, smears and lies. But none of it worked. The pro- Israeli bigoted efforts backfired – – interest in the conference grew immediately, the local community stood for Palestine, peace, harmony and free speech!

Roderick Heather MBE, Chairman of Hoole Community Centre was subjected to vitriolic abuse.  I learned yesterday that Mr Heather decided to attend the conference meetings and to judge for himself whether it was a ‘hateful’ gathering. Apparently he was  impressed and announced to the group at the end of the first day  that they will always be welcome at the Hoole Centre.  Here is the message Mr Heather sent to North West Friends of Israel, the advocacy pressure group that led the campaign.

Hoole CEOIMG_8452.jpg

One may wonder why Zionist operators are so desperate to cancel Palestinian meetings and are so fearful of my work in particular. As things stand, the law seems to be on their side. With the IHRA definition of antisemitsm  and current legislation designed to supress all criticism,  the Zionist advocacy groups could theoretically  seek to punish  everyone who even comes close to any disputes of the operation of  their community or their beloved state. You would expect Zionists to ignore Palestinian gatherings. If those gatherings were indeed ‘hateful’ they could have  locked many of us up behind bars a long time ago. Clearly, the friends of Israel know that the  reality is  different. Palestine solidarity is a peaceseeking mission. Despite my huge body of work, I have never been accused of making a single hate statement. Needless to mention, I do not need to mention that I have never been charged or even questioned by a any legal authority anywhere in the world about anything I have said or written. The same applies to Stephen Sizer. The Zionist Lobby groups accuse Palestinian solidarity gatherings of  being ‘hateful’  while knowing that this type of behaviour is something that Palestinian activism is free of.

Here are final words from Chester Interfaith Palestine Conference:

 Chester Palestine Conference November 2nd 2019

 The Chester Palestine Conference was even more successful on its second day.  We actually ran out of chairs!

 The theme for the day was “Grassroots for Palestine: making local links”.

 The day started with a brief interfaith service.

 Burnley Women’s Peace Group shared the experience of their Jerusalem Peace Pilgrimage this year. The images of Palestinian suffering were very moving. They are a Jewish, Christian and Muslim interfaith group.

 A Jewish Roma activist addressed the similarities between the Roma and Palestinian experience.

 Andrew Herbert from Chester’s Methodist Church spoke of his Palestinian house rebuilding experience with the Amos Trust.

 Gilad Atzmon the international jazz artist and author of best-selling books on Jewish identity politics flew in from Greece to give a wide-reaching presentation entitled “Zionism from Herzl to Bibi”.

Atzmon was born into a Jewish family in Tel Aviv, and conscripted into the Israeli regime army where he had a life-changing experience when he was shocked by the barbaric conditions imposed by the Israeli regime on the Palestinians during the Israeli invasion into Lebanon in 1982.

In his intellectual, philosophical and polemical style he engaged us to think deeply about the causes of the worsening trauma of the Palestinian people.

 Damien Short’s presentation on the Genocide of the Palestinians was unable to be shown due to technical problems. We will endeavour to distribute it to the conference attendees. Damien is a Reader in Human Rights at the University of London. His book “Redefining Genocide: Settler Colonialism, Social Death and Ecocide”, which includes a chapter on Genocide and Palestine, is highly recommended.

 The Israeli artist Zohar’s exhibition of Palestinian paintings is on show at Chester University Kingsway Arts Campus, Kingsway, Chester CH2 2LB for the month of November.

These accomplished and thought-provoking pictures are “witnessing the chaos and brutality inflicted on the Palestinian civilian population by an ever more confident and belligerent military power.”

(For insurance and practical reasons we were unable to show these at the conference).

 We look forward to the 3rd Annual Chester Palestine Conference in 2020 !


My battle for truth and freedom involves some expensive legal and security services. I hope that you will consider committing to a monthly donation in whatever amount you can give. Regular contributions will enable me to avoid being pushed against a wall and to stay on top of the endless harassment by Zionist operators attempting to silence me and others.

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Zionism root of Palestine plight, Rabbi Dovid Feldman says

All that is happening in Palestine today has been created or exacerbated because of the invention of Zionism, says Rabbi Dovid Feldman of Jews United Against Zionism.

“We find [the International] Quds Day to be a very important day… because what is happening in Palestine for decades is very painful… and we find this very painful as Jews, following Jewish religion where all these crimes are totally forbidden,” Rabbi Feldman said.

“All what we see today in Palestine was created or at least exacerbated because of the invention of Zionism, and therefore, we say that the solution is not necessarily the two-state solution, the solution is that this entire occupation should be stopped, all rights should be restored to Palestinian indigenous population,” he added.

The rabbi also noted that Muslims, Christians, and Jewish people co-existed and lived in peace in Palestine and there is no reason they should not be able to live together.
Quds Day is held annually on the last Friday of the Muslim fasting month of Ramadan during which demonstrators call for the liberation of Palestine and an end to Israeli occupation.
Muslims in more than 80 countries, including Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Australia and Indonesia, attended Quds Day demonstrations to support the Palestinians and condemn the Israeli occupation.
In August 1979, the late founder of the Islamic Republic, Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, declared the last Friday of the Muslim fasting month International Quds Day, a day of global solidarity with Palestine.
Palestinians are seeking to create an independent state on the territories of the West Bank, East al-Quds, and the Gaza Strip, and are demanding that Israel withdraw from the Palestinian territories occupied in a war in 1967.

Zionism and the United States Congress

Source

The locus of the present day conflict in Palestine may not be in Palestine but in Washington, DC, and in the US Congress, because the US Congress supports, probably unwittingly for the most part, the ethnic cleansing and destruction of the Palestinian people.

When the US Congress in 2011 gave Israel’s Netanyahu 29 standing ovations, was it aware it was applauding a genocidaire, asks William James Martin

 

by William James Martin

The ideology, or political project of Zionism, which underlies the creation of the state of Israel, had in fact a Christian origin rather than a Jewish one, as writings can be found dating from the 1500s written by Christian clergymen in England advocating the migration of Jews to the Holy Land.

The migration of Jews to Palestine was also advocated by Napoleon Bonaparte.

The first Jewish presentations of Zionism were written by Moses Hess in 1862 and 20 years later by Leo Pinsker, both of the Russian pale, with each writer advocating a separate state for Jews.

Twentieth century Zionism was initiated by Theodore Herzl who, likewise, advocated a separate state for Jews in his book, Der Judenstaat, written in 1896. One year later he formed the World Zionist Congress that held its first meeting in Basel, Switzerland, in that same year.

What to do with the Arabs present in the prospective Jewish state dominated the thoughts of the founders of Israel from Herzl up until the actual expulsion of the Palestinians in 1948.

Thus Herzl stated: “[We shall] spirit the penniless population across the frontier by denying it employment. Both the process of expropriation and the removal of the poor must be carried out discreetly and circumspectly.”

Thus the concept of the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians was introduced.

It is not rocket science; if you want to create a state exclusively of Jews, mostly European, in the heart of the Middle East, then you must first get rid of the Arabs.

In 1928, Vladimir Jabotinsky, founder of the Revisionist wing of the Zionist movement, which advocated the revision of the British Mandate for Palestine to include the east bank of the Jordan and some of present-day Egypt, Jordan and Syria, and which was the progenitor of the present-day Lukud Party, wrote of the Palestinians in his booklet, The Iron Wall, that no people were ever willing to give up their land to another people through mutual agreement and that the colonization by European Jews of Palestine must be prosecuted by force and against the will of the indigenous people. It must be executed behind an iron wall of bayonets, using his metaphor.

By the 1930s, “transfer” of the Arabs was the unanimous preference of the founders of Israel. So-called transfer committees, headed by Joseph Weitz, director of land management for the Jewish Agency, were set up explicitly for the purpose of studying ways of “transferring” the Arabs out of Palestine.

At the beginning of 1948, despite 50 years of land purchases, Jews only owned six per cent of the land of Palestine. By the year’s end, the Israeli army controlled 78 per cent of Palestine in a process of ethnic cleansing that saw the destruction of 531 Arab towns or villages and 11 Arab urban areas, with massacres, large or small, at almost all of those towns or villages, the almost complete looting of Palestinian property and wealth, including looting of banks, confiscation of Palestinian homes and property, businesses, fields and orchards.

The Palestinian people lost everything. Those who survived the massacres lost their careers, their means of livelihood, only to find refuge in tent cities set up by the United Nations that were later to become squalid refugee camps of cinder block buildings dotted around the Middle East.

By just checking the timeline, one quickly disposes of the 60-year-old Israeli propaganda myth that the pre-state of Israel was innocently minding its own business when it was attacked by five armies of surrounding Arab states.

The ethnic cleansing of Palestinians began 30 November 1947 in Haifa when the Jewish army under David Ben-Gurion, along with the Jewish terrorist group, the Irgun, under Menachem Begin, began shelling Arab sections of that city. The ethnic cleansing of the Arabs of Haifa was completed by April 1948 when shelling by Jewish forces obliged Haifa’s Arab residents to flee toward the harbour where they attempted to board boats in order to escape. Thus the Arabs of Haifa were literally “pushed into the sea” by Jewish forces. Many of those fleeing were drowned when the boats were overloaded and capsized.

In March of 1948, Ben-Gurion finalised and distributed Plan D to his officers, which was a programme for destroying and depopulating Arab villages and eliminating any resistance. Already, by that date, 30 Arab villages had been depopulated of Arabs.

One revealing paragraph of this document states: “These operations can be carried out in the following manner: either by destroying villages (by setting fire to them, by blowing them up, and by planting mines in their rubble), and especially those populations centres that are difficult to control permanently; or by mounting combing and control operations according to the following guidelines: encirclement of the villages, conducting a search inside them. In case of resistance, the armed forces must be wiped out and the population expelled outside the borders of the state.”

The massacre at the Arab village of Deir Yassin, only one of many, but possibly the most famous, occurred 9 April 1948. Israel declared itself a state 14 May 1948, and it was the next day that the first regular soldier of an Arab army set foot in Palestine. By then, about half of the 750,000 to 800,000 Palestinian refugees had been generated and all of Palestine’s urban centres and been depopulated of Arabs.

Let me be clear: the ethnic cleansing of the Palestinians began six months before the entrance into Palestine of any regular member of the surrounding Arab armies. And further, the intent of the Zionist movement to displace the Arab population had been in place for half a century.

One cannot understand the natural anger and resentment of the Arab people, and particularly the Palestinian people, towards Israel, and also to the West for supporting their oppressors and for being blind to their own suffering, without coming to a full understanding of the catastrophe, which the Palestinian people call the Nakba, that befell them in 1948. One cannot understand the same if one accepts the lie that the pre-state of Israel was just innocently defending itself, which is the fiction, I suspect, most members of the US Congress accept.

Nor can one understand the futility of the exalted “peace process”, ongoing now for the last 24 years, concurrent with the further erosion of Palestinian rights and freedom, and migration of new Jewish settlers into the West Bank and East Jerusalem, without understanding that Israel acquired its present status as a state not by negotiation with Palestinians, but by brute force and very much against the will of the indigenous people.

For the Arab people, Israel is an alien implant, imposed by Western powers, in the heart of the Arab world against the will of the Arab people.

The Palestinians living under occupation have been living in that situation for 45 years, deprived of basic human rights, abused and, more often than not, humiliated, suffering degradation on a daily basis, as their land and property and resources are hour-by-hour confiscated by the state of Israel, which also winks at settler violence and looks the other way as settlers, who have built their settlements on hilltops, dump their sewage onto Palestinian farmland, as they also cut down their olive trees, burn their fields and poison or otherwise kill their livestock, in order to make way for more settlers and settlements, as well as to make life as miserable as possible for the Palestinians with the intention of making their migration from Palestine more attractive than their continuing presence.

The Palestinian refugee population now stands at about five million — the largest refugee population in the world and the longest standing refugee population. There are no prospects on the horizon for any change in their situation.

Zionism is a political programme of clearing Palestine of Palestinian Arabs in order to create the space for an exclusive Jewish state. As such, its goal is to destroy the Palestinians as a people with an identity, as a people and with an attachment to the land of their births and the births of their ancestry. Such a project meets the definition of genocide under international law. Genocide is a crime against humanity was well as against its immediate victims. Genocide is a crime in which all of humanity is degraded.

When the US Congress gave 29 standing ovations to the Israeli prime minister, Binyamin Netanyahu, in his most recent appearance before this body, they were applauding a man whose has dedicated his entire life to the destruction of the Palestinian people and their ethnic cleansing.

The US Congress does not seem to know, or to care: Those who came to Palestine in the 20th century for the purpose of ethnically cleansing the indigenous people in order to establish a racially or ethnically pure Jewish state are the victimisers, not the victims; those who are being ethnically cleansed are the victims, not the victimisers. The US Congress has it backwards.

Did it not occur to the members of this august group that Netanyahu, after receiving 29 standing ovations, would return to Israel with an imprimatur from the US Congress to continue, or even accelerate, the disenfranchise of the Palestinians?

The day that the Knesset endorsed Oslo II by a majority of one, in 1993, thousands of demonstrators gathered in Zion Square in Jerusalem. While the demonstrators displayed an effigy of Rabin in SS uniform, Netanyahu delivered an inflammatory speech calling Oslo II a surrender agreement and accused Rabin of “causing national humiliation by accepting the dictates of the terrorist Arafat”. A month later, in November 1995, Rabin was assassinated by a religious-nationalist Jewish fanatic with the explicit aim of derailing the peace process. Rabin’s demise, as his murderer expected, dealt a serious body blow to the entire peace process.

There is a YouTube video, from 2002, of Netanyahu seated on a couch in the home of an Israeli family, unwittingly on camera, and bragging that he was able to destroy Oslo, and that he deceived the US president at that time, Bill Clinton, into believing he was helping implement the Oslo Accords by making minor withdrawals from the West Bank while actually entrenching the occupation. He boasts that he thereby destroyed the Oslo process.

He dismisses the US as “easily moved to the right direction” and calls high levels of popular American support for Israel “absurd”.

He also suggests that, far from being defensive, Israel’s harsh military repression of the Palestinian uprising was designed chiefly to crush the Palestinian Authority led by Yasser Arafat so that it could be made more pliable to Israeli diktat.

Netanyahu is playing the US Congress for fools.

Days before he received 29 standing ovations in Washington, Netanyahu sat in the Oval Office with the US president and told him that he would not accept 1967 borders as the basis of a solution. The 1967 borders basis for a settlement has been the consistent American position since the 1967 war (ie for 45 years), and under both Democrat and Republican presidents.

Netanyahu told the US president that Israel needed most of the West Bank because otherwise Israel would be militarily vulnerable, and also an indefinitely long presence in the Jordan Valley, because otherwise Israel would be militarily vulnerable. Of course, Netanyahu has a consistent policy of ethnically cleansing Jerusalem of Palestinians because it was given to Jews by God, or because it is the Jewish birth right. That leaves very little for the Palestinians, does it not? The original inhabitants of Palestine, the Palestinians, were promised statehood by the British Mandate for Palestine.

It is not true, by the way, that Jews were building the city of Jerusalem 3000 years ago, as Netanyahu repeatedly claims, and even if it were, it would not override international law’s injunction against ethnic cleansing. The archaeologists tell us that Jerusalem was an abandoned village 3000 years ago surrounded by a small agrarian population. This is during the purported time of David and Solomon and the purported United Kingdom. Jerusalem did not achieve any significance until the eighth century BC and then as the continuous development of a Palestinian settlement from which artefacts have been discovered representing a variety of Palestinians deities of which Yahweh was only one of several. There is not one shred of evidence for a Jewish temple dating from 3000 years ago, or any other significant engineering structures from that time.

Furthermore, it is unlikely that Netanyahu, or any other Israeli who claims to be derived from God’s Chosen People, possesses any genetic connection to the ancient Judeans. The burden of proof is on Netanyahu to produce a verifiable pedigree or genealogical tree stretching back 3000 years into the Iron Age. In fact, no living person is able to do that.

Netanyahu derives from European Jewish ancestry, who, in turn, derive mostly from the Russian Khazars, those living near the Volga and Don Rivers, who converted en masse to Judaism in the ninth century AD bringing a much larger population to Judaic belief than any population of Judeans of the ancient world, or their descendants.

Paul Wexler, a philological archaeologist at Tel Aviv University, in his book, The Non-Jewish Origin of the Sephardic Jews, writes that Hebrew and Aramaic made their appearance in European Jewish text only in the 10th century AD, and were not products of earlier linguistic developments. During the first millennium AD, Jewish believers in Europe knew no Hebrew or Aramaic. Only after the religious canonisation of Arabic in Islam and Latin in Christianity did Judaism adopt and propagate its own religious language as a high cultural code.

It is as likely that Adolf Hitler is a descendant of the ancient Judeans as is Netanyahu, for all anyone knows.

The locus of the present day conflict in Palestine may not be in Palestine but in Washington, DC, and in the US Congress, because the US Congress supports, probably unwittingly for the most part, the ethnic cleansing and destruction of the Palestinian people.

We Razed Arab Villages, So What? Says 100-Year-Old IDF General

We Razed Arab Villages, So What? Says 100-Year-Old IDF General

Introduction by GA: Earlier this month,  Israeli media outlet Arutz 7 interviewed 100-Year-Old Brig. Gen. (res.) Yitzhak Pundak who was honest enough to admit that his “conscience is at ease” in regard to the ethnic cleansing of Palestine “because if we hadn’t done so, then there would be no state by now. There would be a million more Arabs.”

The IDF elder general also suggested that Israelis are as devoted now as they were in  1948  “He predicted that if a war breaks out again, Jews will be capable of the same kind of self-sacrifice as in 1948.”

100-Year-Old General: We Razed Arab Villages, So What?

 Brig. Gen. (res.) Yitzhak Pundak: If we hadn’t done it, there would be a million more Arabs and there would be no Israel.

By Gil Ronen

 Brig. Gen. (res.) Yitzhak Pundak is celebrating his hundredth birthday. Pundak was the commander of the 53rd Battalion of the Givati Brigade in the War of Independence and went on to supervise the establishment of the Armored Corps. He was also Ambassador in Tanzania and a founder of Arad.

In an interview on IDF Radio, Pundak confirmed that forces under his command razed Arab villages in 1948. “My conscience is at ease with that, because if we hadn’t done so, then there would be no state by now. There would be a million more Arabs,” he said.

Asked why he still finds it so important to lecture to soldiers, at his advanced age, he explained: “Just like in 1948, the country is in a state of danger – and if the Jews do not fight as we did in the War of Independence, the state is in danger.” He predicted that if a war breaks out again, Jews will be capable of the same kind of self-sacrifice as in 1948.

“When there is a war, people unite,” he explained. “Afterward, they form parties and become divided.”

He spoke with pain of the 145 soldiers who were killed under his command over the years, and said that if they woke up miraculously and saw the divided country of today, “they would run back to their graves.”

And yet, when asked if he feels proud of his country, he said that his pride runs “as high as the rooftop.”

Pundak, who was the governor of Gaza in the early 1970s, said that the credit that is usually given to Ariel Sharon for stopping Arab terror in Gaza in 1971 is mistaken. He said that Sharon was an unnecessarily cruel commander who once said at a meeting with officers that he would offer champagne to whoever killed an enemy fighter – and whoever brings him a wounded enemy “will drink soda.”

He said: “I told him, ‘You are not my commander, I am not coming to your meetings.’”

Jewish ethnic cleansing & genocide started 6 months BEFORE Arab armies even arrived

TIME LINE OF THE ISRAELI AGGRESSION AGAINST THE PALESTINIANS IN THE 1948 WAR

1947-9 : In all 750,000 Palestinians would find themselves living on the borders of the Jewish state, living in deplorable conditions, in massive refugee camps, their homes, orchards, farms, bank accounts and futures having been stolen by the Jews. And even worse (if that is possible) the Jews would blame the victims for their suffering, accusing the Arab armies of precipitating the war with their intervention on the 15th of May 1948. This LIE is so outrageous, it makes one weep. As is obvious to any sane person, the Jewish invasion of Palestine started 6 months before the Arab armies finally decided to stand up to the invaders. If only the Arab armies had invaded earlier.

 TIME LINE OF THE ISRAELI AGGRESSION AGAINST THE PALESTINIANS IN THE 1948 WAR.December, 1947 : The Jewish conquest of Palestine gets underway.

December 25th, 1947 : Invasion of al Mas’udiyya Israeli military operation : Haganah or IZL
Early February, 1948 : Invasion of Lifta
15th of February 1948. : Invasion of al Burj, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown terror unit from the Haganah. Israeli military operation : Terror campaign.
Mid February 1948 : Invasion of Qisarya Invading Israeli brigade : Palmach troops, headed by Yitzhak Rabin, occupied and destroyed the village. Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Early 1948. Barrat Qisarya was probably ethnically cleansed at the same time as the nearby village of Qisarya. Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown forces from the Haganah
February 17th, 1948 : Invasion of Fajja Invading Israeli brigade : Haganah and lrgun Israeli military operation : Terror campaign.
Mid February 1948 : Invasion of Daliyat al Rawha’ Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown troops from the Haganah. Israeli military operation : Mishmar Ha’emek Battle
March 3rd, 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Ubaydiyya
March 5th, 1948 : Invasion of al Manshiyya (Tiberias) Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown troops from the Haganah
Early March, 1948 : Invasion of al Manara
15th of March.  al Ghubayya al Tahta was ethnically cleansed on 15th of March and occupied on the 8th of April 1948. Invading Israeli brigade : Units drawn from the Palmach, as well as the Carmeli and Alexandroni Brigades Israeli military operation : Battle for Mishmar Ha’emek
March 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Wadi al Hawarith Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
March 26th, 1948 : Invasion of Qumya Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
March 26th, 1948 : Invasion of al Tira (Baysan)
Late March 1948 : Invasion of Qira Invading Israeli brigade : Terror campaign by a Haganah intelligence unit.
Late March or early April, 1948 : Invasion of Umm Khalid Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Late March or early April, 1948 : Invasion of Wadi Qabbani Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Late March, 1948 : Invasion of al Muwaylih
April 3rd, 1948 : Invasion of Ijlil al Qibliyya
April 3rd, 1948 : Invasion of Ijlil al Shamaliyya
April 3rd, 1948 : Invasion of Tabsur Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
April 5th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Lid, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
April 5th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Far, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Nachshon or Yoram
April 6th, 1948 : Invasion of Khulda Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
April 6th, 1948 : Invasion of Saydun Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
8th-9th of April 1948. : Invasion of al Ghubayya al Fawqa (al Ghubayya al Fawqa changed hands several time with Fawzi al-Qawuqji). Invading Israeli brigade : Some units drawn from the Palmach (strike force), and from the Carmeli and Alexandroni Brigades. Israeli military operation : Mishmar ha-‘Emeq Battle
April 8th-9th, 1948 : Invasion of al Qastal (on the 8th it was recaptured by Palestinian guerrillas, and during that battle ‘Abd al-Qadir al-Husseini was killed). Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s Fourth Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
April 9th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Yasin. On this day the terror gang (IZL or ETZEL) lead by the former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin committed the infamous Dayr Yasin massacre, which resulted in the murder of 245 people, including more than 70 women and children. It is worth noting that 25 of the survivors were paraded around West Jerusalem as trophies, and were later brought back to Dayr Yassin where they were executed. Invading Israeli brigade : The terror gangs of Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL or ETZEL) and Stern Gang (LEHI) headed by the former Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin.
10th of April 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Fuqara’ Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Coastal Clearing
10th of April 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Nufay’at Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Coastal Clearing
April 11th, 1948 : Invasion of Qalunya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly by IZL (Irgun Zvai Leumi or ITZEL) terror gangs and some Haganah troops. Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Nahchon
April 11th-12th, 1948 : Invasion of Nasir al Din Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade
12th April 1948 : Invasion of Abu Shusha (Haifa) Invading Israeli brigade : Combination of First Battalion of the Palmach, Carmeli and Alexandroni Brigades. Israeli military operation : The Battle for Mishmar ha-‘Emeq.
12th of April 1948 (village destroyed on 15th of April) : Invasion of Abu Zurayq Invading Israeli brigade : A combination from the Palmach 1st Battalion, Carmeli and Alexandroni Brigades Israeli military operation : The battle for Mishmar ha-‘Emeq
12th-13th of April 1948 : Invasion of al Kafrayn Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Carmeli brigade Israeli military operation : Battle for Mishmar ha-‘Emeq
12th-13th of April 1948 : Invasion of al Mansi Israeli military operation : The Battle for Mishmar Ha’emek
12th-13th of April 1948 : Invasion of al Naghnaghiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown Haganah troops Israeli military operation : The battle for Mishmar ha-‘Emeq
April 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Biyar ‘Adas Invading Israeli brigade : The Stern terror gangs
April 12th-13th, 1948 : Invasion of Ayn al Mansi Invading Israeli brigade : Unknown Palmach units Israeli military operation : The battle for Mishmar Ha’emek
15th of April 1948 : Invasion of al Sarkas, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Most likely Coastal Clearing
April 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Zalafa, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
April 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Manshiyya (Tulkarm) Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
April 16th, 1948 : Invasion of Saris. Possibly exchanged hands until May 9th, 1948. Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown brigade from the Haganah Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
April 17th, 1948 : Invasion of Wadi Hunayn
April 18th, 1948 : Invasion of Samakh. Exchanged hands several times with the Syrians until May 21st, 1948. Israeli military operation : Golani Brigade

April 19, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Tiberias falls to the invading Jews.

20th April 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Zubayd Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
20th of April 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Ulmaniyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
April 20th, 1948 : Invasion of al Mansura (al Ramla) Invading Israeli brigade : Either Giv’ati Brigade or Har’ el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
April 20th, 1948 : Invasion of al Mukhayzin Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Har’el
April 20th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of Miska Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
May 20th, 1948, or possibly mid April : Invasion of al Safiriyya Invading Israeli brigade : Either Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL) or Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Chametz
21st of April 1948 : Invasion of al Husayniyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)

April 22, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Haifa falls to the invading Jews.

22nd of April 1948 (fell in the Demilitarized Zone) : Invasion of Kirad al Baqqara Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
22nd of April 1948 (fell in the Demilitarized Zone) : Invasion of Kirad al Ghannama Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
22nd of April 1948 : Invasion of Balad al Shaykh Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Either Bi’ur Chametz or Operation Bi’ur Chametz
April 22nd, 1948 : Invasion of Kafr Sabt
April 22nd, 1948 : Invasion of al Majdal Invading Israeli brigade : Some unidentified troops from the Haganah
April 24th, 1948 : Invasion of Ghuwayr Abu Shusha Invading Israeli brigade : Some unidentified troops from the Palmach
25th of April 1948 : Invasion of Yajur Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Bi’ur Chametz
April 27th-28th, 1948 : Invasion of Saqiya Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz

April 28, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Jaffa falls to the invading Jews.

April 28th or May 3rd, 1948 : Invasion of al Dalhamiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Gideon
April 29th, 1948 : Invasion of Kafr ‘Ana Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz
April 29th, 1948 : Invasion of Salama Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz
April 29th, 1948 : Invasion of al Khayriyya Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz

April 30, 1948 : The Arab quarter of the Palestinian city of Jerusalem falls to the invading Jews.

30th of April 1948 : Invasion of Madahil Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
April 30th, 1948 : Invasion of Yazur Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz
April, 1949 (fell on the Armistice line) : Invasion of al Latrun
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Naqquba Invading Israeli brigade : A force of 1,500 Palmach and Haganah troops Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Thul Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of Bayyarat Hannun Israeli military operation : Operation Coastal Clearing
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of Ghabat Kafr Sur Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of Raml Zayta Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Early April, 1948 : Invasion of al Zababida, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Either mid-July or late April, 1948 : Invasion of al Wa’ra al Sawda’, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Dekal
End of April 1948 : Invasion of Sa’sa’, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown units from the Haganah. Israeli military operation : Possibly Bi’ur Chametz
End of April, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Dajan Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Chametz
First half of April, 1948 : Invasion of Umm Kalkha Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
Late April 1948 : Invasion of al Damun, Khirbat Israeli military operation : During or after the battle for Haifa
Late April 1948 : Invasion of Tulayl Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Mid April 1948 : Invasion of al Kasayir, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Mishmar Ha’emek Battle
Mid-April 1948 : Invasion of Hawsha Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Mishmar Ha’emek Battle
Possibly during the last week of April 1948 : Invasion of al Mansura, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Most likely the Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Either Bi’ur Chametz or Operation Bi’ur Chametz
Possibly early April 1948 : Invasion of Arab Zahrat al Dumayri
Possibly early April 1948 : Invasion of Lid, Khirbat Israeli military operation : The battle for Mishmar Ha’emek
Possibly late April, 1948 : Invasion of Wadi al Hamam
Possibly mid April 1948 : Invasion of al Rihaniyya Israeli military operation : The battle for Mishmar ha-‘Emeq
Second half of April 1948 : Invasion of Wa’arat al Sarris Israeli military operation : Operation Bi’ur Chametz
1st of May 1948 : Invasion of Ghuraba Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
1st of May 1948 : Invasion of al Hamra’ Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
1st-2nd of May 1948 : Invasion of Ayn al Zaytun
1st-3rd of May 1948 : Invasion of Biriyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
2nd of May 1948 : Invasion of Fir’im Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
2nd of May 1948 : Invasion of Mughr al Khayt Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
2nd of May 1948 : Invasion of Qabba’a Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
4th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Shuna, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Haganah and lrgun forces
4th of May 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Shamalina Israeli military operation : Operation Matate (Broom) (Sub operation of Yiftach Operation)
4th of May 1948 : Invasion of Jubb Yusuf
4th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Qudayriyya Invading Israeli brigade : Some troops from the Haganah and the Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Matate (Sub-operation of Operation Yiftach)
4th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Zanghariyya Invading Israeli brigade : Some unknown brigade from the Haganah Israeli military operation : Operation Matate (Broom) part of Operation Yiftach
May 4th, 1948 : Invasion of al Samakiyya Israeli military operation : Operation Matat (Broom). A sub-operation within Operation Yiftach
May 4th, 1948 : Invasion of al Tabigha Israeli military operation : Operation Matat (Broom)
5th of May 1948 : Invasion of Burayka Israeli military operation : Either during the battle for Mishma Ha’emek or during operation Coastal Clearing.
May 6th, 1948 : Invasion of Qatra Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade
9th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Ja’una Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Early May, 1948 : Invasion of Yaquq
Early May 1948 : Invasion of al Shuna Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Early May, 1948 : Invasion of Fardisya Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Early May, 1948 : Invasion of al Jalama (Tulkarm) Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Possibly early May 1948 : Invasion of al Jalama (Haifa) Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade
Possibly early May, 1948 : Invasion of al Majdal, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing

May 8, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Beisan falls to the invading Jews.

May 9th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Mahsir Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Makkabi
May 9th, 1948 : Invasion of Aqir Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade
May 9th, 1948 : Invasion of Bashshit Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
May 9th, 1948 : Invasion of Bir Salim Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti brigade

May 10, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Safad falls to the invading Jews.

10th May 1948 : Invasion of Arab Suqrir Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
10th-11th of May 1948 : Invasion of Dallata Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 10th-11th, 1948 : Invasion of Farwana Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Gidion Operation
May 10th-11th, 1948 : Invasion of al Ashrafiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Golan Brigades and possibly Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL) as well. Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Possibly the 10th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Zahiriyya al Tahta Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Daras. Recaptured briefly by the Sudanese army on July 9th. Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of Akbara Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of Qaddita Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Buwayziyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Khalisa Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Zuq al Tahtani Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
11th-14th of May 1948 : Invasion of Hunin Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
12th of May 1948 : Invasion of Simsim Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
12th-13th of May 1948 : Invasion of Burayr Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
12th-14th of May 1948 : Invasion of Khubbayza Invading Israeli brigade : Most likely Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL) troops, which is the same terror gangs that committed several massacres against many Palestinians. See Dayr Yasin for example Israeli military operation : During or soon after the battle form Mishmar Ha’emek.
12th-14th of May 1948 : Invasion of Sabbarin Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
12th-14th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Sindiyana Invading Israeli brigade : Some units from the Haganah and the Irgun gangs. Israeli military operation : Either Operation Coastal Clearing or Operation Mishmar Ha’emek.
12th-15th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Butaymat. See Khubbayza for more. Invading Israeli brigade : Most likely Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL) terror gang, which is the same terror gang that committed several massacres against many unarmed Palestinians. For example, see Dayr Yasin. Israeli military operation : Battle for Mishmar Ha’emek
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of al Hamidiyya. al Hamidiyya was evacuated a few days earlier. Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Sirin Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Tall al Shawk Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of al Sakhina Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Awlam Israeli military operation : Some unidentified troops from the Haganah
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Hadatha Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade
May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Ma’dhar Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Possibly May 12th, 1948 : Invasion of al Jawfa, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
13th May of 1948 (possibly the July 9th, see Simsim for more details) : Invasion of Najd Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
13th of May 1948   : Invasion of Jaffa
13th of May 1948 : Invasion of Barqa Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
13th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Batani al Gharbi Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
13th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Batani al Sharqi. Possibly re-taken by the Egyptian army until 10th-11th of June 1948. Invading Israeli brigade : Eighth Battalion of Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
May 13th, 1948 : Invasion of Kafr Saba Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Possibly May 13th, 1948 : Invasion of al Mirr Invading Israeli brigade : Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL)
First half of May 1948 : Invasion of Karraza, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
First half of May 1948 : Invasion of al Butayha Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Matate (Broom) (a sub-operation of Operation Yiftach)
First half of May 1948 : Invasion of al Wayziyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Mid of May 1948 : Invasion of Qumbaza, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
Mid of May, 1948 : Invasion of Umm Sabuna, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Mid of May, 1948 : Invasion of Zab’a Israeli military operation : Opeartion Gideon
Possibly in the first half of May 1948 : Invasion of Kabara Israeli military operation : Possibly the Coastal Clearing Operation
Possibly mid of May 1948 (see the nearby village of al-Sindiyana) : Invasion of Umm al Shawf Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly units from the Haganah and the Irgun terror gang. Israeli military operation : Operation Coastal Clearing
14th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Na’ima Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)

May 14, 1948 : The Palestinian city of Acre falls to the invading Jews.

14th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Shawka al Tahta Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
14th of May 1948 : Invasion of Shahma Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti brigade Israeli military operation : First stage of Operation Barak
May 14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Bassa Israeli military operation : Operation Ben-Ami
May 14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Manshiyya (Acre) Israeli military operation : First stage of operation Ben-Ami
May 14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Sumayriyya Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Ben-Ami
May 14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Zeeb Israeli military operation : Operation Ben Ami
May 14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Na’ani Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : First stage of Operation Barak (lightening)
15th of May 1948 : Invasion of Umm al Zinat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade’s Fourth Battalion Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Bi’ur Chametz
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Taqa, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Abu Kishk Invading Israeli brigade : Irgun Zvai Leurni (IZL or ETZEL)
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Haram
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Jammasin al Gharbi
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Jammasin al Sharqi
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Abu Shusha (al Ramla) Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Muhaysin Israeli military operation : During one of the operations launched by the Haganah to capture the important Latrun fort.
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Sarafand al Kharab Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Nachshon
May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Maghar Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
May 15th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of al Zawiya, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Possibly May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Jarisha
Possibly May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Sawalima
Possibly May 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Shaykh Muwannis Invading Israeli brigade : Terror gangs of Irgun Zvai Leumi
Possibly on the 15th-20th of May 1948 : Invasion of Qannir Israeli military operation : Possibly operation Coastal Clearing.

May 15, 1948 The armies of the Arab states enter the civil war. The State of Israel is proclaimed, and more importantly the British wash their hands of Palestine. The Arab states can not ignore the massacres of Palestinians and the outright theft of all their property. They put together an army of about 20,000 and enter the war in support of their brethren, in an attempt to resist this brutal invasion of Arab land. Unfortunately, the Jews had between 40,000 and 60,000 well equipped fighters and the outcome was never in doubt unless the Arab states committed more troops and resources. Note that the Arab states could not support their brethren directly before May 15, 1948, or they would have ended up fighting the British (although some irregulars from these countries had joined the local Palestinian fighters).

16th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Muftakhira Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 16th, 1948 : Invasion of Kafra Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 16th, 1948 : Invasion of Yubla Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 16th, 1948 : Invasion of al Bira Invading Israeli brigade : Most likely by Golani Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 16th, 1948 : Invasion of al Murassas Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 16th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Kawkab al Hawa Invading Israeli brigade : Third Battalion of the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 16th-20th, 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Bawati Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Baysan valley clearing (Operation Gedion)
17th of May 1948 (fell after fierce defence by the ALA) : Invasion of al Nabi Yusha’ Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
18th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Sawafir al Gharbiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Barak
18th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Sawafir al Shamaliyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Barak
18th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Sawafir al Sharqiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Barak
May 18th, 1948 : Invasion of Jabbul Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 19th-20th, 1948 : Invasion of Sarafand al ‘Amar Invading Israeli brigade : Second Battalion of the Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
20th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Fatur Invading Israeli brigade : Most likely Golani Brigades Israeli military operation : Gidion Operation
20th of May 1948 : Invasion of Qaytiyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
20th-25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Harrawi Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
20th-25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Khan al Duwayr Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
20th-25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Khiyam al Walid Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 20th, 1948 : Invasion of Arab al ‘Arida Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 20th, 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Safa Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 20th, 1948 : Invasion of Masil al Jizl Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 20th, 1948 : Invasion of al Ghazzawiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Gedeon Operation
May 20th, 1948 : Invasion of al Khunayzir Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 20th-21st, 1948 (destroyed immediately after occupation) : Invasion of al Nahr Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : The second phase of Operation Ben-Ami
May 20th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of Umm al Faraj Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Ben-Ami
May 20th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of al Ghabisiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Ben-Ami
May 20th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of al Kabri Israeli military operation : Second stage of Ben-Ami Operation
May 20th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of al Tall Invading Israeli brigade : Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : The second phase of Operation Ben-Ami
21st of May 1948 : Invasion of Lazzaza Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
21st of May 1948 : Invasion of al Zuq al Fawqani Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 22nd, 1948 : Invasion of al Jammama Invading Israeli brigade : Negev and possibly Giv’ati Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
23rd of May 1948 : Invasion of al Tantura Invading Israeli brigade : The Haganah’s Thirty Third Battalion (the Third Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade) Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
24th of May 1948 : Invasion of Ammuqa Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
24th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Manshiyya (Safad) Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
24th-25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Jahula Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 24th, 1948 : Invasion of Indur Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Possible Baysan valley Clearing (Operation Gideon)
25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Baysamun Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
25th of May 1948 : Invasion of Mallaha Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
25th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Khisas (Safad) Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
25th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Mansura (Safad) Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach
25th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Salihiyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
May 27th, 1948 : Invasion of Zarnuqa Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
May 27th, 1948 : Invasion of al Qubayba (al Ramla) Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of operation Barak
28th-29th of May 1948 : Invasion of Qadas Invading Israeli brigade : 30th of October Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
May 28th, 1948 : Invasion of Danna Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Gidion Operation
May 28th, 1948 : Invasion of Zir’in Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
May 28th-30th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Jiz Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Ben-Nun
May 28th-30th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Susin Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : One of the operations launched to capture the important fort and junction at al-Latrun.
29th of May 1948 : Invasion of al Muharraqa Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
May 29th-30th, 1948 : Invasion of Nuris Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
30th of May 1948 : Invasion of Kawfakha Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Barak
May 30th, 1948 : Invasion of al Mazar (Jinin) Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gidion
31st of May 1948 : Invasion of Huj Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade
31st of May : Invasion of Hulayqat. Finally fell on the 18th of October 1948. The village exchanged hands several time with the Egyptian army between 31st of May and 8th of October. Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
End of May 1948 : Invasion of Abil al Qamh Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
End of May 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Abisiyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
End of May 1948 : Invasion of al Dawwara Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
End of May 1948 : Invasion of al Dirbashiyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
End of May 1948 : Invasion of al Zawiya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
End of May, 1948 (fell on the armistice line) : Invasion of Dayr Ayyub Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati and Sheva’ (Seventh) brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Ben-Nun
End of May, 1948 : Invasion of al Samiriyya Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Second half of May 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Urayfiyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Second half of May 1948 : Invasion of al Sanbariyya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
Second half of May, 1948 : Invasion of Umm ‘Ajra Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
Late May 1948 : Invasion of al Manara, Khirbat
Late May, 1948 : Invasion of al Hamra Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Fourth Battalion of Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
June 1st, 1948 : Invasion of al Lajjun Invading Israeli brigade : Golani’s Fourth Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Gideon
June 1st, 1948 : Invasion of al Nabi Rubin (al Ramla) Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Barak
June 4th-5th, 1948 : Invasion of Qaqun Invading Israeli brigade : Third Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Coastal Clearing
June 5th, 1948 : Invasion of Yibna Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Barak
10th-11th of June 1948 : Invasion of Julis Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade’s Third Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
10th-11th of June 1948 : Invasion of Yasur Invading Israeli brigade : First Battalion of the Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Barak
8th of July 1948 : Invasion of Ibdis Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
8th-9th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Masmiyya al Saghira Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An Far
July 8th-9th, 1948 : Invasion of al Tina Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
9th of July 1948 : Invasion of Qastina Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation An Far
9th of July 1949 (fell in the Demilitarized Zone) : Invasion of al Muntar, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion and ‘Oded Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
9th-10th of July 1948 : Invasion of Bi’lin Invading Israeli brigade : First Battalion of Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
9th-10th of July 1948 : Invasion of Tall al Turmus Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
9th-10th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Jaladiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade
9th of July 1948 : Invasion of Bayt ‘Affa. Initially attacked on the 9th of July 1948, but the village exchanged hands several times with Egyptian and Sudanese soldiers until the second half of October 1948. Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade’s Second Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Barak (lightening)
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Barqusya Invading Israeli brigade : Egyptian Muslim Brotherhoods, local Palestinian militias and some Arab Liberation Army volunteers Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Mughallis Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Tall al Safi Invading Israeli brigade : The First Battalion of the Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Idnibba Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Jilya Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : First stage of the operation Dani
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Qazaza Invading Israeli brigade : First Battalion Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of Sajad Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 9th-10th, 1948 : Invasion of al Khayma Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
Possibly 9th-14th of July 1948 : Invasion of Summil
July 10th, 1048 : Invasion of Innaba Invading Israeli brigade : Yiftach and Eighth brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948al ‘Abbasiyya and many other neighboring villages, including the twin cities of al-Lydd and al-Ramla, were handed over with almost no fighting by H.M. King Abdullah. Invading Israeli brigade : Units of the Israeli Home Guard Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Kuwaykat Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) and Carmeli brigades Israeli military operation : Dekel Operation
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Rantiya Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s Eighth Armored Brigade and the Third Infantry Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade. Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Daniyal Invading Israeli brigade : Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : First phase of Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Jimzu Invading Israeli brigade : Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : First phase of Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Kharruba Invading Israeli brigade : Yiftach Brigade
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of Qula Invading Israeli brigade : Armored and Alexandroni Brigades
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of al Kunayyisa Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : First stage of Operation Dani
July 10th, 1948 : Invasion of al Tira (al Ramla) Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni and Armored (Eighth) brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 10th-11th, 1948 : Invasion of Jiddin, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) and Carmeli brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 10th-13th, 1948 : Invasion of al Barriyya Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 10th-15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Duhayriyya, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : First phase of Operation Dani
July 11th, 1948 : al Lydd was handed over by H.M. King Abdullah.
11th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Masmiyya al Kabira Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 11th, 1948 : Invasion of al Qubab Invading Israeli brigade : Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : One of the operations launched to capture the vital al-Latrun fort.
Possibly July 11th, 1948 : Invasion of al Jura (Jerusalem) Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 12th, 1948 : al Ramla was handed over by H.M. King Abdullah.
July 12th, 1948 : Invasion of Majdal Yaba Invading Israeli brigade : Second Battalion of the Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 12th, 1948 : Invasion of al Muzayri’a Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 12th,1948 : Invasion of al Haditha Israeli military operation : First stage of Operation Dani
July 12th-13th, 1948 : Invasion of Suba Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 12th-13th, 1948 : Invasion of Abu al Fadl Invading Israeli brigade : Either Har’el Brigade or Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : First stage of Operation Dani
July 12th-13th, 1948 : Invasion of Zakariyya, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dani
July 12th-15th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Nabala Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dani
July 13th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Abu Salama Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : First phase of Operation Dani
July 13th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Tarif Invading Israeli brigade : Ninth Commando Battalion of the Armored Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 13th-14th, 1948 : Invasion of Aqqur Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 13th-14th, 1948 : Invasion of Sar’a Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el’s Fourth Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 13th-14th, 1948 : Invasion of Sataf Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 13th-14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Lawz, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 13th-14th, 1948 : Invasion of al Maliha Invading Israeli brigade : Irgun Zvai Leumi (IZL or ETZEL) and Yonathan Company of the Gadna (Palmach Youth Battalions).
July 14th, 1948 : Invasion of Ma’lul Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dekel
July 14th-15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Mujaydil Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade
15th July 1948 : Invasion of Ayn Hawd. Withstood over two month siege. Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from units of the Israeli Navy, Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
15th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Mazar (Haifa). al Mazar held out for over two months after the fall of Haifa. Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades. Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
July 15th, 1948 :  Some of al Buwayra, Khirbat’s land fell on the armistice lines. Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
July 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Saffuriyya Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 15th, 1948 : Invasion of al Burj Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani.
July 15th-16th, 1948 (Possibly July 31st, 1948) : Invasion of Amqa Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade and the First Battalion of the Carmeli Brigade. Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of al Damun Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Dekel
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of al Ruways
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of Barfiliya Invading Israeli brigade : A force composed of Giv’ati, Kiryati, and Eighth (Armored) brigades Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Shanna Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dani
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of Bir Ma’in Invading Israeli brigade : The First and Second Battalions of the Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani
July 15th-16th, 1948 : Invasion of Salbit Invading Israeli brigade : Kiryati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 15th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Mi’ar Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dekel
July 15th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Nahf Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 15th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Sakhnin Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
16th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Tira (Haifa). Held out under siege for over two months. Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Israeli Navy, Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades.
16th of July 1948 : Invasion of al Sarafand. al Sarafand held out for two and half months after the fall of Haifa. Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Israeli Navy, Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
16th of July 1948 : Invasion of Kafr Lam Israeli military operation : Possibly the Coastal Clearing Operation
July 16th, 1948 : Invasion of Ishwa’ Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 16th, 1948 : Invasion of Lubya Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 16th-17th, 1948 : Invasion of Hittin Invading Israeli brigade : The terror gangs of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 16th-17th, 1948 : Invasion of Nimrin Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
17th-18th of July 1948 : Invasion of Hatta Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Either An Far or Operation Barak (lightening)
17th-18th of July 1948 : Invasion of Jusayr Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Possibly Operation Barak or Operation Yo’av
17th-18th of July 1948 : Invasion of Karatiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Third Battalion of the Giv’ati Brigade and the Ninth Commando Battalion of the Armored Brigade. Israeli military operation : Either Operation Barak or Operation Ya’ov
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Zayta Israeli military operation : Operation An-Far
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Artuf Invading Israeli brigade : The Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr ‘Amr Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dani
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Rafat Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Second stage Operation Dani
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Islin Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Ism Allah, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 17th-18th, 1948 : Invasion of Kasla Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 18th, 1948 : Invasion of Sha’ab Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 18th, 1948 : Invasion of al Birwa Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
July 18th, 1948 : Invasion of Ayn Karim Invading Israeli brigade : Irgun Zvai Leumi, Gadna (Haganah Youth Battalions) and the Home Guard.
July 18th, 1948 : Invasion of Shilta Invading Israeli brigade : First Battalion of the Yiftach Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dani
July 23rd-24th, 1948 : Invasion of Ajjur Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
24th-26th of July 1948 : Jaba’ fell almost three months after the fall of Haifa! Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
24th-26th of July 1948 : Ijzim fell three months after the fall of Haifa! Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades. Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
26th of July 1948 : al Sawamir fell almost three months after the fall of Haifa. Invading Israeli brigade : A special force drawn from the Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
26th of July 1948 : the invasion of Ayn Ghazal took place after a 3 months siege. Invading Israeli brigade : A special unit drawn from the Golani, Carmeli, and Alexandroni brigades. Israeli military operation : Operation Shoter (Police)
Early July 1949 : Mansurat al Khayt fell in the Demilitarized Zone.
First half of July, 1948 : Nitaf fell in the Demilitarized Zone. Israeli military operation : Second stage of Operation Dani
First half of July, 1948 : Invasion of Ajanjul Israeli military operation : Second phase of Operation Dani
July 1949 : al Nuqayb fell in the Demilitarized Zone.
July 1949 : al Hamma fell in the Demilitarized Zone on the Syrian border.
July, 1949 : al Samra fell in the Demilitarized Zone.
Early October, 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Imara Invading Israeli brigade : Third Battalion of Yiftach Brigade
October 15th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr al Shaykh Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
18th-19th of October 1948 : Invasion of Sufla Invading Israeli brigade : Sixth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 18th-19th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr al Hawa Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade (commanded by the Ethnic Cleansing champion, Yigal Allon). Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 19th-20th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Aban
October 19th-21st, 1948 : Invasion of Jarash Invading Israeli brigade : Sixth Battalion of the Har’ el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 19th-24th, 1948 : Invasion of al Burayj Israeli military operation : First phase of Operation ha-Har
20th October 1948 : Invasion of Kawkaba Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
20th October of 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Tima Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
October 21st, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt ‘Itab Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 21st, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Umm al Mays Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 21st, 1948 : Invasion of Ras Abu ‘Ammar Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 21st, 1948 : Invasion of al ‘Umur, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 21st-22nd, 1948 : Invasion of al Tannur, Khirbat Israeli military operation : Operation Ha’ar
October 21st, 1948 : al Walaja was handed over by H.M. King Abdullah on April 3rd, 1949. See al-Qabu, Jerusalem and Wadi ‘Ara, Haifa for more details. Invading Israeli brigade : Eighth Battalion of the Etziyyoni Brigade Israeli military operation : Either Operation Dani or Operation Ha’ar
October 22nd, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Nattif Invading Israeli brigade : Fourth Battalion of the Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 22nd, 1948 : Invasion of Allar Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el and Etzioni brigades Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
October 22nd-23rd, 1948 : Invasion of Kudna Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
October 22nd-23rd, 1948 : Invasion of Ra’na Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
October 22nd-23rd, 1948 : Invasion of Thikrin Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
October 23rd, 1948 : Invasion of Zakariyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giv’ati Brigade’s Fourth Battalion Israeli military operation : Either Operations ha-Har or Operation Ya’ov
October 23rd-24th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr al Dubban Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
October 27th, 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Jibrin Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Last stage of Operation Yo’av and in coordination with Operation ha-Har (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon).
28th of October 1948 : Invasion of Hamama Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Third stage of the Israeli army’s Operation Yo’av.
28th of October 1948 : Invasion of Isdud Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av and Operation ha-Har
October 28th, 1948 (one day before the al-Dawayima massacre) : Invasion of al Qubayba (Hebron) Israeli military operation : Third stage of Operation Yo’av
October 28th-29th, 1948 : Invasion of Umm Burj, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Third stage of Operation Yo’av (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
29th of October 1948 : Invasion of Mirun Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ and Cammeli Brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
29th of October 1948 : Invasion of Safsaf Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 29th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Nakhkhas Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon).
October 29th, 1948 : Invasion of al Dawayima Invading Israeli brigade : Eighty-Ninth Battalion of Eighth Brigade, commanded by General Yitzchaq Sadeh, the founder of the Palmach. Israeli military operation : Operation Ya’ov (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon).
October 29th-31st, 1948 (a Palestinian Druze & Christian village) : Invasion of al Mansura (Tiberias) Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Alma Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Dayshum Invading Israeli brigade : The terror troops of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade (committed several massacres) Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Fara Invading Israeli brigade : The terror troops of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade (committed several massacres) Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Ghabbatiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly the terror troops of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Marus Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Sa’sa’ Invading Israeli brigade : The terror soldiers of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade and Palestinian Arab Druze unit. Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Sabalan Invading Israeli brigade : Golani’s First Battalion and Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Saliha Invading Israeli brigade : The massacre of 94 people by the terror soldiers of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of Taytaba Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of al Farradiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of al Malikiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Ninth Battalion of the Sheva’ (Seven) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of al Ras al Ahmar Invading Israeli brigade : The terror gangs of Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade (committed several massacres in the upper Galili) Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
30th of October 1948 : Invasion of al Sammu’i Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 30th, 1948 : Invasion of Dayr al Qasi Israeli military operation : Hiram
October 30th, 1948 : Invasion of Kafr ‘Inan Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 30th, 1948 : Invasion of Suhmata Invading Israeli brigade : Golani Brigade’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 30th-31st, 1948 : Invasion of Arab al Samniyya Invading Israeli brigade : ‘Arab al-Samniyya was attacked by units drawn from four different Israeli brigades (Sheva’, Carmeli, Golani, and ‘Oded). Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 31st, 1948 : Invasion of Iqrit Invading Israeli brigade : ‘Oded Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
October 31st, 1948 : Invasion of Iribbin, Khirbat Invading Israeli brigade : ‘Oded Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
Late October or early November 1948 : Invasion of Dayr Sunayd Invading Israeli brigade : Giv’ati Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
Possibly end of October, 1948 : Invasion of al Khalasa Invading Israeli brigade : Negev Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of Barbara Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly a combination of Giv’ati, Negev, and Yiftach brigades. Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of Bayt Jirja Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly a combination of Giv’ati, Negev, and Yiftach brigades Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of Hiribya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of Ni’ilya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly a combination of Giva’ti and Nagav Brigades. Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of al Jiyya Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of al Jura (Gaza) Invading Israeli brigade : Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
4th-5th of November 1948 : Invasion of al Khisas (Gaza) Israeli military operation : End of Operation Yo’av
9th of November 1948 : Invasion of Iraq Suwaydan Invading Israeli brigade : Ninth Battalion of the Armored Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
Early November 1948 : Invasion of Dimra Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Giva’ti Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Yo’av
Early November 1948 : Invasion of Kafr Bir’im Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
Early November, 1948 : Invasion of Tarbikha Invading Israeli brigade : ‘Oded Brigade Israeli military operation : Last stage Operation Hiram
Early November, 1948 : Invasion of al Mansura (Acre) Invading Israeli brigade : Possibly Carmeli Brigade Israeli military operation : Hiram
First half of November, 1948 : Invasion of al Nabi Rubin (Acre) Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
Second week of November, 1948 : Invasion of Suruh Israeli military operation : Operation Hiram
December 1st, 1948 : Invasion of Tarshiha Invading Israeli brigade : Sheva’ (Seventh) Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation Dekel
27th-28th of December 1948 : Invasion of Iraq al Manshiyya. See al-Faluja for more details and related pictures. Invading Israeli brigade : Alexandroni Brigade Israeli military operation : Operaion Yo’av
End of February or beginning of March 1949. : Invasion of al Faluja
3rd of April 1949 : Yarda fell in Demilitarized Zone. Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
3rd of April 1949 : al Dirdara fell in the Demilitarized Zone. Invading Israeli brigade : The Palmach’s First Battalion Israeli military operation : Operation Yiftach (commanded by the ethnic cleansing champion Yigal Allon)
April 3rd, 1949 : Invasion of al Qabu was handed over to Israel by 1949 by H.M. King Abdullah (See al-Walaja, Jerusalem and Wadi ‘Ara, Haifa for more on this). Invading Israeli brigade : Sixth Battalion of Har’el Brigade Israeli military operation : Operation ha-Har
3th of April 1949 : Wadi ‘Ara was ceded under duress to Israel by his majesty Abullah.

Borreman: Zionists Are Apostates Who Reject Authentic Judaism

Eslam al-Rihani Jewish observant Hadassah BorremanJudaism is considered a monotheistic religion. How does it see the oneness of God? The Messiah? What does the Zionism present? And how we can fight it?
In an interview with Hadassah Borreman, member of the anti-Zionist Jewish organization in Belgium, she strongly accused the Zionists of being the most party which violates Judaism, and the most detrimental to the Jewish people.

“The Oneness of God is a key point in Judaism. At the end of the morning prayer, we recite the thirteen principles of faith of Maimonides (1138-1204). The first principle says: I believe with perfect faith that the Creator, blessed be His Name, is the Creator and Lord of all creatures, and that He alone made, makes and will make all things,” she stated.

However, on the spiritual movements within Judaism, and the best way to worship God, the observant Jewish said “there are actually spiritual movements which adopt books like the Holy Zohar…”

“The non-Jewish origin Zionists have violated one of the 13 principles of Faith..”

“But what God asks of the Jews is to study the Torah in verbal and writing, along with practicing the Halokhoh (Code of Jewish Law), to behave just like our Sages have taught us with righteousness, truth, love with every creature,” she added.

Answering a question on the Messiah, how does she prepare for his coming and whether the Zionist entity has a role to play in this, Borreman believed that the Jew – faithful to the Torah – expects the Messiah every day.

Jewish Kabbalah“Three times a day we pray for his coming… The twelfth of thirteen Principles of Faith (Ani Ma’amin) says: I believe with perfect faith in the coming of the Messiah, and even if delayed, I await his coming every day. Our Sages say that whoever rejects one of the thirteen principles, is subtracted from the Jewish people!” she noted.

Moreover Borreman assured that the Jews nowadays live in the worst ordeal with Zionism and its illegal entity in the Holy Land, “because it is heresy.”

It is an attack against our Jewish identity, this satanic ideology which has lost many souls Jewish in their by denying the Jewish faith for a nationalist policy,” she added.

“Zionism is also a Nakba for the Palestinian people who suffered and is still suffering today the barbarism of expansionist Zionist regime and its criminal army. The existence of the Zionist entity in Palestine is blasphemy. It is the source of conflict in Palestine and in the world.”

Zionism with its entity and its lobbies around the world (AIPAC, Mossad … CRIF) delays and prevents the Messiah!

Borreman also pointed out that “it is imperative that we recognize that the Zionist entity should be dismantled and the small groups that revolve around, and also the ideology of Zionism must be condemned and eradicated from our land.”

“Muslims and Jews must fight Zionism, injustice and immorality which is a matter of pride in the West, because Zionism – along with its entity and lobbies across the world – delays the arrival of Messiah,” she stressed.
Anti-Zionism JewsRegarding the similarities between the Jewish and Islamic spirituality, Borreman admitted that “there are similarities between Jewish spirituality and Islamic spirituality certainly!”

“Having read about Islam, discussed, worked alongside Muslims, I can say that there are many parallels in our respective times, which themselves are composed of diverse and complementary movements that have their own traditions,” she figured out.

“We are moving in the same direction which is Close to the Almighty. Jews and Muslims, we agree in principle in different areas of life, although the practical application differs. For example: Faith in the Oneness of God, prayer, fasting, eating Kosher-Halal, purity / purification, decency in dress and relationships, separation between men and women ..,” the observant Jewish added.

We must accept and dare say that until Messiah of the Jews or the Mahdi of Muslims arrives, we must learn to live together intelligently, in accordance with our differences. We must fight the common enemies: Zionism, injustice and immorality which bring chaos in society and are a matter of pride in the West. When the Messiah comes, he will reveal everything to everyone, everyone will see the truth about everything,” Borreman concluded.

Source: Websites
11-02-2013 – 20:59 Last updated 11-02-2013 – 20:59

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Israel Complicit in Global State Terrorism

 
My PhotoIsrael threatens world peace and security. It’s a global menace. The International Jewish Anti-Zionist Network (IJAZN) is unequivocal.
 
Its new pamphlet headlined “Israel’s Worldwide Role in Repression.” 
 
It discusses “the role of Israel’s government, its military, and related corporations and organizations in a global industry of violence and repression.” 
 
“The states most involved with this industry profit from perpetual war and occupation across the globe while maintaining vastly unequal societies of their own.”
 
“Maintaining and expanding” Israeli colonization of Palestine requires regional ethnic cleansing, military repression, and “accompanying atrocities.”
 
Israel “developed great expertise.” It exports it “on an industrial scale. Doing so is crucial to its economic and political power.”
 
It partners with Washington’s crimes. It collaborates with the worst of regional despots. It’s waging war on Palestine, other world communities, and popular movements.
 
Allied with America and other Western states, it seeks regional dominance and resource control. 
 
It wants its share of what Franklin Roosevelt’s State Department called a “stupendous source of strategic power, and one of the greatest material prizes in world history.”
 
It referred to Saudi oil. Regional control is now sought.
 
Israel’s importance to Washington is reflected in “the growing significance of both oil and the arms trade to the world economy.”
 
Israel gets more US aid than all other countries combined. Most is military related. It’s vital to Israel’s budget. 
 
It covers about 18% of total spending. From 1949 – 2011, direct aid way exceeds official estimates. 
 
Included are $3 billion or more in annual congressional allocations, special trade advantages, preferential contracts, hidden amounts, weapons and munitions supplied, interest free loans, and various other exclusive Israeli benefits.
 
In 2002 dollars, multi-decade estimates range from $1.8 – $3 trillion. Official numbers place it between $115 – $123 billion. 
 
Most often, whatever Israel wants it gets. US taxpayers pay the tab. They have no idea how much it costs. In 2009, Israeli military spending accounted for “an additional 15.1% of (its) overall budget.”
 
As a percent of GDP, it’s “the biggest defense spender.” It’s for offense, not defense. Israel has no regional enemies. It invents them to hype fear. 
 
Washington does the same thing. They’re rogue partners in crime.
 
US-supplied aid funds regional instability, settlements, and other forms of occupation harshness. It also made Israel a “laboratory to develop weapons, surveillance technology, and” control populations.
 
Israel markets what it has globally. It exports death, destruction and human misery. It sells to allies and alleged enemies.
 
Its customers include Islamist, communist, capitalist, despotic, and nominally democratic states. Where there’s profit to be made, Israel seeks it.
 
Where there’s a way to further Israel’s imperium and ally with likeminded partners, Israel prioritizes it.
 
Israeli “crowd control, forced displacement, surveillance, and military occupation” expertise “place(s) it at the forefront of a global” repression industry.
 
Militaries, police, and other security forces brutalize people with what Israel supplies.
 
Government agencies, the IDF, and private Israeli corporations grossed over $2.7 billion in 2008. Doing so accounted for over 7% of Israel’s economy.
 
Israel has over 300 Homeland Security companies. They operate globally.
 
“No other country has such a large pool of experienced former security, military, and police personnel.” None were more able to field test “systems and solutions in real-time situations.”
 
None ever manufactured more out of whole cloth to do so. Israel has no enemies. It invents them and pretends.
 
Zionist organizations provide their own political and economic support. They share “intelligence information,” coordinate surveillance and repression strategies, and collaborate for profit.
 
Israel is a rogue terror state. It collaborates with others like itself. It plays a major global role. It limits free movement. It helps police communities. It undermines worldwide struggles for justice.
 
It’s well documented. It’s rarely if ever discussed publicly. It’s almost never challenged.
 
In his 1982 book titled “Israel’s Global Role: Weapons for Repression,” Israel Shahak discussed Israel’s ties with global repressive governments.
 
They included apartheid South Africa, El Salvador fascists, Somoza’s Nicaragua, Panama’s Noreiga, Gulf State despots, Uganda’s Idi Amin, Ian Smith’s Rhodesia, Iran under the Shah, Suharto’s Indonesia, Argentina’s military dictatorship, and others fitting the same mold.
 
“Israel ties its interests not with the masses fighting for freedom, but with their jailers,” said Shahak.
 
Haaretz once called Israel the West’s “watchdog.” It’s America’s regional cop on the beat. Turkey plays a similar role. So did Iran under the Shah.
 
Regional violence and instability remain prioritized over conflict resolution and peace. They’re anathema and spurned. A new book explains more. 
 
Avi Raz is a former Israeli journalist turned historian. He’s an  Oxford University Faculty of Oriental Studies Associate Faculty Member. 
 
His book titled “The Bride and The Dowry: Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinians in the Aftermath of the June 1967 War” covers the two-year period following Israel’s West Bank occupation.
 
It goes where most others won’t dare. It documents ethnic cleansing. It exposes what Israel goes to great lengths to conceal.
 
Its arguments are irrefutable. Sound evidence affirms them. It occupied the West Bank and East Jerusalem to stay. It considered annexing Gaza. It seeks expanded territory for a greater Israel. It’s the only country with no official borders.
 
Israeli officials acknowledge their international law violations. Raz explains Washington’s complicit role. His title derives from former Prime Minister Levi Eshkol quote he perhaps wished he never said.
 
He called the West Bank and Gaza the “dowry” Israel’s Six Day War won. “The trouble is that the dowry is followed by a bride whom we don’t want,” he said.
 
He referred to Palestinians. Before 1948, they were marked for ethnic cleansing. Israel wasted no time. It never stopped. Moshe Dayan explained. He told then Lt. General Yitzhak Rabin “that the aim was to empty the West Bank of its inhabitants.”
 
How mattered less than doing it. In 1947-48, Israel expelled or slaughtered about 800,000 Palestinians. It destroyed 531 villages, as well as 11 urban areas in Tel-Aviv, Haifa, Jerusalem, and elsewhere.
 
In June 1967, it removed or killed another 200,000. Twenty or more additional West Bank villages were partially or totally destroyed. It was done “to obliterate the Green Line.”
 
Israel “encouraged” Palestinians to flee. They terrorized them to move east of the Jordan River. Thousands who tried returning home when fighting ended were called “infiltrators.” 
 
Hundreds were killed trying. Women and children were treated like men. Many were buried in mass graves.
 
Israel never intended to return stolen land and doesn’t now. It wants more. It wants all valued parts of Palestine. It wants Jewish exclusivity. 
 
It “prefer(s) land to peace.” It disguises its real intentions. It says one thing and does another. It’s operates this way throughout its history. Lying is official policy. So is subterfuge.
 
It wants Arabs marginalized and ethnically cleansed. Slow-motion genocide is policy to achieve it. Peace is anathema. 
 
Palestinians never had a legitimate partner. Israel never missed an opportunity to spurn what it won’t tolerate.
 
Brussels-based European Friends of Israel (EFI) calls itself “a political initiative which aims to improve the overall relationship between the European Union and Israel.”
 
Parliamentary national/Israeli friendship groups from all 27 EU states are involved. EFI’s purpose is political. Israeli needs and objectives are prioritized. Reality is suppressed to further them.
 
After decades of inflicting death, destruction and human misery on a scale few other countries can match, EFI declared Israel a “world humanitarian leader.”
 
It shocks how it subverted truth. Willful deception substitutes. It called the region’s most ruthless terror state a caring and liberal country.
 
On January 23, it plans a conference titled “Humanitarian aid – Israel as a world leader.”
 
It turned truth on its head. It said Israel has “aid teams posed to respond in the wake of natural or man-made disasters anywhere in the world.”
 
It creates enough of them on its own. It doesn’t give a damn about humanitarian needs at home or abroad. Claiming so is willful deception. Propaganda, myths, lies, and damn lies substitute for truth.
 
It’s been America’s way for generations. It’s Israel’s way since stealing 78% of historic Palestine in 1948 and the remainder in 1967.
 
It’s Palestine’s way to establish self-determination within 1967 borders. Israel wages war on Palestinians who try.
 
Stephen Lendman lives in Chicago and can be reached at lendmanstephen@sbcglobal.net
 
His new book is titled “Banker Occupation: Waging Financial War on Humanity.”
 
 
Visit his blog site at sjlendman.blogspot.com and listen to cutting-edge discussions with distinguished guests on the Progressive Radio News Hour on the Progressive Radio Network Thursdays at 10AM US Central time and Saturdays and Sundays at noon. All programs are archived for easy listening.
 
 

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New York Times & the Jewish Terror State

BY OMISSION, THE NEW YORK TIMES WIPES ISRAEL’S CRIMINAL RECORD CLEAN

001 (1)
Truth, Lies, and Omissions
*
According to The New York Times, there is no siege of Gaza, no occupation of the West Bank, and never was there a Nakba (the 1948 ethnic cleansing of Palestine). Three recent articles erase these key Israeli crimes from the historical record.
*

How The New York Times erases Israel’s crimes

Robert Ross*
*
The New York Times keeps the American public in the dark about the true nature of Israel’s occupation.
(Nedal Eshtayah / APA images)

According to The New York Times, there is no siege of Gaza, no occupation of the West Bank, and never was there a Nakba (the 1948 ethnic cleansing of Palestine). Three recent articles erase these key Israeli crimes from the historical record.

In a 13 December 2012 article entitled “Hamas Gains Allure in Gaza, but Money is a Problem,” Steven Erlanger explores the reasons for Gaza’s increasingly debilitating poverty. Never once in this 1,300-word piece does Erlanger even mention the Israeli siege on Gaza or the 2008 and 2012 Israeli bombardments as factors (much less the principal causes).
Instead, Erlanger goes through a long list of regional developments (the weakening of the Assad regime in Syria, sanctions on Iran) and, most emphatically, decisions by Hamas(new taxes and fees), which have supposedly left Palestinians in Gaza not only increasingly impoverished but also more resentful than ever of Hamas. “Gazans recognize that there is more order here,” Erlanger explains, “more construction and less garbage. But many resent the economic burden of financing Hamas and, implicitly, its military.”

No siege

So to the extent that the most recent Israeli onslaught is considered at all, it is Hamas’rockets, once again, that are blamed for Gaza’s misfortune. As if to prove his point, a 43-year-old butcher says to Erlanger, “things have steadily declined in Gaza.” Another Gaza resident adds, “it is a life of depression and deprivation.”
Erlanger does include the word “siege” in his analysis, but only amidst a quoted laundry list of problems Palestinians in Gaza now endure: “poverty, mismanagement, siege,unemployment, little freedom of movement,” Mkhaimar Abusada is quoted as saying.
And the siege, among these other conditions, is implicitly attributed not to Israel, but to Hamas: “If it can’t deal with these same issues,” Abusada concludes, “Hamas will find itself in the same position as it was before the war.” While Abusada, a political scientist at Al-Azhar University, certainly knows the origins of these conditions, Erlanger’s placement of his quotation makes it seem that even Abusada blames the siege on Hamas.
Either way, Erlanger does not provide any sense of how totalizing and devastating a ground, air and naval blockade (much less the two recent military assaults) of the densely populated territory actually is. An uninformed reader could easily conclude that the siege is something for which Hamas is responsible, not an imperially-imposed form of collective punishment foisted upon Palestinians by Israel, and not something that is directly responsible for Gaza’s poverty and “little freedom of movement.”
Thus, according to The New York Times, Hamas is responsible for Gaza’s problems; Israel has nothing to do with it.

No Nakba

A Times article about Palestinian refugees in Syria published three days after Erlanger’s Gaza story obscures the reason that Palestinians are refugees in the first place (“A Syrian airstrike kills Palestinian refugees and costs Assad support,” 16 December 2012).
With just eight words, the Times absolves Israel of any responsibility for the ethnic cleansing of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians to make way for a Jewish state.

Reporting on the Syrian regime’s recent attack on Yarmouk camp in Damascus, home to thousands of Palestinian refugees, the Times explains that the Palestinians there were “refugees from conflict with Israel and their descendants.” The Nakba, the original sin ofZionism and the State of Israel, is thus smeared into obscurity. It is transformed into something it is not, changed from the wholesale removal of one group of people by another to a conflict between two presumably equal sides, from which a bunch of Palestinians evidently fled.

The newspaper of record does not, of course, go on to explain that while UN Resolution 194 specifically grants the Palestinians in Syria (as well as those in Lebanon, Jordan and elsewhere) the right to return to their homes in what is now Israel, the Israeli government has always — and, at times, violently — denied this right.

No occupation

An article published the following day, on the so-called E1 land east of Jerusalem in the occupied West Bank, fails to mention that this land and the broader territory of which it is part, is considered by international law to be a Palestinian territory currently under Israeli occupation (Steven Erlanger, “West Bank land, empty but full of meaning,” 17 December).
Reporting on Israel’s recent declaration to build settlements on E1, Erlanger reproduces the oldest Zionist myth in the book: that this is an “empty” land, over which now the “two sides” are struggling: “E1 [is] a largely empty patch of the West Bank,” Erlanger writes. And the “fight” over E1 “speaks to the seemingly insurmountable differences, hostility, and distrust between the Israelis and the Palestinians,” Erlanger informs us.

Thus, the occupied Palestinian West Bank, with all its illegal Israeli settlements, Jewish-only roads, Israeli checkpoints, Israeli military incursions and Israeli demolitions of Palestinian homes, is reduced to a territory to which two different groups are laying equally legitimate claim. The closest Erlanger gets to even hinting at the occupation is where he writes toward the end of the article that E1 is “largely state land.”
But this, like the unidentified and unexplained “siege” in Gaza, is far too vague for an uninformed reader to understand which “state” controls this land, under which conditions, and against whose rights, livelihood and sovereignty.

So there you have it: no siege, no Nakba, and no occupation. Such reporting is, at best, delusional. At worst, it is intentionally misleading. In any case, The New York Times serves Israel’s interests by keeping the American public in the dark about the true nature of Israel’s occupation.
It is easy to understand why so many Americans find the situation so apparently confusing when the people who report on it are themselves confused about the very basic historical, geographic and political realities.
*Robert Ross is an Assistant Professor of Global Cultural Studies at Point Park University, in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. His research and teaching focus upon the political-economic geographies of Israel, Palestine, Lebanon and the United States. He is also a member of the Pittsburgh Palestine Solidarity Committee and the Israel-Palestine Mission Network of the Presbyterian Church (USA)

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Magician’s Diversion: Bleeding Syria to Death


Dec 22 2012 / 1:16 am <!– AddThis Button BEGIN

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By Jeremy Salt – Ankara

According to various definitions, politicide can be used to describe the destruction of a government or a specific socio-political group, such as the Palestinians, when it overlaps with genocide. It can be extended to a state, a system and a country. Saddam Hussein attempted politicide by trying to wipe Kuwait off the map. In the 1930s the fascists committed politicide by destroying the Spanish government. Territorially, the country stayed as it was. It was simply emptied of its ideological content and turned into something else.

The destruction of governments, leaders and values who stand in the way of the interests of powerful governments is common practice. Since the Second World War the assassins have often been self-styled liberal democratic governments. There is virtually no global arena which has escaped their attention. In the past eleven years alone, in the Middle East, Iraq and Libya have been the victims of politicide. Their governments, value systems and leaders might have badly needed change but when change came it was not at the hands of the people but outside governments. Now Syria is absorbing their attention. Like Iraq and Libya, the justification for the onslaught on Syria of the past 20 months is the ‘dictator’ or the ‘regime.’ More plausibly, the real target is the country itself. Like Saddam and Qadhafi, the ‘dictator’ is the magician’s diversion, flourished with one hand so the audience does not see what is being done with the other.

The failure of the armed gangs to overthrow the government in Damascus seems to be bringing the possibility of direct military intervention closer. The US, Germany and the Netherlands are providing Turkey with six batteries of Patriot missiles, to be positioned near the Syrian border. About 2,000 foreign troops will be sent to Turkey to operate and protect the missile batteries, with an unstated number of Turkish troops assigned to protect them. The Patriots will be located in three southeastern provinces that are strongly Sunni Muslim, Gaziantep, Adana and Kahramanmaras provinces. For security reasons they will not be placed in Hatay, where more than half the population is Alevi (Alawi), and strongly opposed to the Turkish government’s intervention in Syria, or Diyarbakir, which, of course, is largely Kurdish and opposed to the government for other reasons.

Responding the day after NATO agreed to supply Turkey with the Patriots, Russia dispatched a batch of Iskander missiles to the Syrian military. These hypersonic weapons fly at 1.3 miles a second and weapons experts say they would be more than a match for the Patriots. Building up the specter of Turkey under threat, NATO spokesmen are claiming that the Syrian military is already using Scud missiles and is prepared to use chemical weapons but both these claims seem to be no more than part of the propaganda war. Anders Fogh Rasmussen, NATO’s Secretary-General, condemns the firing of Scud missiles – without producing evidence that they actually have been fired – but not the very real planting of bombs in the middle of cities by the armed groups he and the members of his organization are supporting.

Turkey claims the Patriots are for self-defense, raising an obvious question: self-defense in the extremely unlikely event of an unprovoked Syrian attack or self-defense against a NATO attack initiated on Turkish soil? While the obvious target would appear to be Syria, the commentator Abdel Bari Atwan has argued that the missiles are being put in place with an attack on Iran in mind. If the US decided to use its air base at Incirlik, in Adana province, home to thousands of troops, for an attack on Iran, Turkey would be exposed to a counter strike. Hence the need not just for the Patriots but the anti-missile radar installation placed in Malatya province earlier this year, which is also seen by Russia as a dangerous extension of NATO’s European missile ‘defense’ shield.

Even if it is Israel which attacks, Iran would assume US involvement and strike back accordingly, again exposing US/NATO bases in Turkey and the gulf to counter strikes. Iran regards the decision to station the Patriots in Turkey as part of general NATO war preparations in the region, aimed at itself as well as Syria. Whether the US and/or Israel, despite their threats over many years, really intend to attack, is the subject of continuing speculation, of course.

If the target is Syria, NATO would probably intervene behind the screen of a ‘no fly zone’, likely to stretch as far as Aleppo and intended to place the entire city in the hands of the armed groups as the ‘capital’ of ‘liberated’ territory. Without the backing of a UN Security Council resolution the unilateral declaration of a ‘no fly zone’ would not even have the fig leaf of legal authority. In such circumstances, the shooting down of a Syrian plane inside Syrian space would be an act of war. The consequences would be so dire that it is hard to imagine NATO proceeding without the tacit consent of China and Russia.

There are no signs that this is forthcoming. Russia has a lot at stake and if anything, its position on Syria seems to have hardened. Despite the willful misreading of every statement coming out of Moscow in the western media, it has not backtracked on its commitments. It has said all along that its central concern is the integrity of Syria and not the future of any particular government. It has never been committed to the preservation of the ‘Assad regime’ as such. From the beginning it has insisted that the right of choice belongs to the Syrian people and not to the armed groups and their external sponsors.

All along Russia has also warned that it will not allow Syria to be turned into another Libya through a NATO attack. In the coming week, units of Russia’s Black Sea, Baltic and North Sea fleets will be gathering for military exercises off the Syrian coast. US warships have been active in the eastern Mediterranean as well, pointing towards the possibility of a Cuba-style maritime confrontation over Syria if NATO does intervene.

Again, a question arises: does NATO seriously intend to intervene in Syria, or does the stationing of these missiles in Turkey serve an array of propaganda and psychological warfare purposes?
Deciding to give Turkey missiles is one thing. Deciding to attack Syria is something else entirely. One cannot discount the possibility, but when the time comes, unless circumstances change, so that Russia and China are neutralized, it is hard to see NATO members agreeing on this. Yet, without direct intervention, neither does it seem possible that the armed groups will be able to overthrow the Syrian government on their own.

Thus NATO would seem to have backed itself into a corner, but only if we assume that the overthrow of the Syrian government is the prime motive behind its intervention in Syria. Hasan Nasrallah sees the intervention of the US and its allies as being aimed at the removal of Syria from the ‘regional equation’. This can be done by overthrowing the government but it can also be done by turning Syria into a dysfunctional state. This is how both Iraq and Libya were removed from the ‘regional equation.’ In both cases ‘the dictator’ was used as the lever to justify intervention. In Iraq the US chose to leave Saddam in place because he could always be used to keep Iraq on its knees. Only when sanctions had run out of steam and Iraq was poised to rebuild was the decision taken to remove him. Bashar is being used in the same way, but this does not mean that the US and its allies want the armed groups to replace him. They are treading their own fine line and adapting policies to changing circumstances on the ground.

In Al Akhbar newspaper the Syrian Vice President, Faruq al Shar’a, recently put forward ideas for a political solution as a way out of the deadlock. Here it has to be said that if the self-styled ‘Friends of the Syrian People’ had ever had the best interests of the Syrian people at heart, they would have reached out for a political solution one long ago, instead of blocking, undermining or dismissing out of hand every attempt to bring this crisis to a negotiated end. If there is some reason for Mr. Shara’a thinking that the sponsors of the armed groups are likely to accept a political solution now it did not come through in the interview with Al Akhbar. Indeed, if one shares Hasan Nasrallah’s recently expressed view that the prime objective of the US and its allies is to remove Syria from the ‘regional equation’ then all the destruction of the past 20 months makes perfect sense. There might come a time when these governments will show an interest in a political solution, but for now Syria can be allowed to bleed a bit longer.

If we ask ourselves what might finally drive these governments towards negotiations, one possibility is that the armed groups will finally reach the point of doing of what they have ostensibly been tasked to do, which is to overthrow the government in Damascus.With the armed groups poised to take over, we might then see their western sponsors changing tack, cutting back their financial and armed support (through pressure on Saudi Arabia and Qatar) and clamoring for intervention and immediate negotiations so they can ensure the succession of their ‘moderate’ protégés, Mu’iz al Khatib and the Doha council.

A diametrically opposite possibility is that the Syrian military will finally succeed in routing the armed gangs. This could also spark a sudden interest in a negotiated solution, with the aim of controlling the process of political transition. An increasingly important element in the thinking of the US and its European allies is ‘blowback.’ Many of the armed groups are as hostile to ‘the West’ as they are to the government in Damascus. With the fallout from Afghanistan on their mind, the US and its European allies do not want Syria to be turned into a new base of takfiri action against western interests and allies across the region. Of course we can’t know, but a gravely weakened Syria with Bashar still in place – rather like Iraq and Saddam after 1991- during a process of transition might end up as their preferred option. Threaded through all of this is the possibility that Syria will just implode, beyond the control of any of the external actors who have done so much to bring it to the present critical situation.

The degradation of Syria is a clear plus for the US and Israel. Needless to say, what is good for the US and Israel is always bad for the Palestinians. Syria has been the visceral enemy from the start. The breakup of Arab states on sectarian lines has been on Israel’s strategic agenda virtually since the beginning and nothing could suit its purposes more than the reduction of the Syrian state to squabbling ethno-religious enclaves. Whatever Israel does in the Middle East, Palestine is always the center of gravity of its strategy.

The central problem for the US and its allies is what must follow in Syria sooner or later. At some point, chaos will stop suiting their own interests. In the abstract an Islamic state presents no problems. Saudi Arabia, Qatar and Bahrain are governed according to variations of Islamic law but all are pillars of western interests in the Middle East. The Muslim Brotherhood government in Egypt has shown that it has no intention of rocking the western boat. The Doha council is essentially Muslim Brotherhood. However, while it is being prepped by its sponsors as the next Syrian government, the Doha council has scant hope of ending up in the government offices in Damascus, or what is left of them. Having used the armed gangs as a bludgeon, their external backers, at least the US, Britain and France, if not Saudi Arabia and Qatar, now face the unpleasant prospect of them taking over, and then fighting amongst themselves over the spoils. Lakhdar Brahimi has warned that Syria could end up like Somalia. Another alternative is a Taliban-style government at the heart of the Middle East. Fearing the damage that might be done to their own interests, neither of these outcomes would suit the US and its European allies

The line being drawn by the US and its European allies between the ‘extremist’ and ‘moderate’ armed groups is artificial. When Obama declared Jabhat an Nusra a terrorist organization affiliated with Al Qaida, the head of the Doha council, Mu’iz al Khatib, asked him to take it back because of the movement’s central importance in the armed campaign. Its atrocities did not concern him. If slaughtering captives out of hand is terrorism, then Jabhat al Nusra certainly is a terrorist organization, but other groups are fighting their war by exactly the same means. This includes the so-called Free Syrian Army. The leading armed groups have rejected the authority of the Doha council and expressed their solidarity with Jabhat al Nusra. Some are already busy laying the foundations of a harsh Islamic state. The black flag of Al Qaida is being waved everywhere. ‘Moderates’ are virtually nowhere to be seen.

More than a year ago Syria was deliberately locked into a prolonged struggle with the armed groups. The situation has since metastasized far beyond the simple equations of authoritarian government versus legitimate protest movement or crimes of the ‘regime’ against crimes of the armed groups. In this proxy war being waged by outside governments the wellbeing of the Syrian people is not even a consideration. If it ever were they would not still be doing what they are doing.

Those participants or onlookers who supported the armed struggle in the name of democratic political transition can look forward to nothing more than a Pyrrhic victory. Syria is being ruined, destroyed before our eyes as an actor on the Arab stage, with the west playing the same game of divide and rule that has worked so well for it over the past 200 years.

– Jeremy Salt is an associate professor of Middle Eastern history and politics at Bilkent University in Ankara, Turkey. He contributed this article to PalestineChronicle.com.

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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

Behind the pillars of cloud

The food and farming sector in Gaza has been severely maimed, worsening the condition of agricultural sector.

Farmers are in the midst of the crucial olive harvest and olive oil production season and the destruction is a disastrous blow for food and economic security in Gaza [EPA]
 

Since its creation in 1948, Israel has used food and nutrition as a means to entrench its military and territorial occupation of Palestine. While all eyes are turned today to the savage eradication of children and entire families in Gaza through operation “Pillar of Cloud”, Israel pursues its long-term goal of decimating the means of food production, livelihoods and the ability of those in Gaza to make economic and political decisions about what they grow and what they eat.

Gaza and the rest of Occupied Palestine is being restructured as an entity where malnutrition is endemic, access to food is denied and people are forced to live under the constant fear of not having enough to eat.

In the last eight days, the food and farming sector in Gaza has been severely maimed, worsening the condition of an agricultural sector impaired by six years of Israeli imposed siege, military campaigns and decades of occupation.

In the first five days of the assault, the Ministry of Agriculture in Gaza estimated losses to the agriculture and fishing sectors to be above US $50 million.

 

According to our colleague Mohammad El Bakri, who is with the Union of Agricultural Work Committees, and other agricultural specialists in Gaza, farmers are in the midst of the crucial olive harvest and olive oil production season and the destruction is a disastrous blow for food and economic security in Gaza.

Water crisis


The targeting of tunnels by Israeli airstrikes has restricted the flow of food and fuel into Gaza. Few shops remain open and the UN has warned of an impending water crisis.

There are reports of bombing campaigns purposely targeting irrigation wells. The Ministry of Health in Gaza is out of 40 per cent of essential medicines and running low on basics like bandages and syringes.

Gaza’s dire situation began in 1948 when Zionist militia groups expelled over 700,000 Palestinians from their land, 200,000 of whom fled to Gaza and tripled its population.

Historically, Gaza had been known for the fresh water oasis of Wadi Gaza, an important stop on trade routes between Egypt and Syria. No longer an oasis, lands razed and levelled by Israeli bulldozers along Gaza’s eastern border (29 per cent of arable land) are now closed. Israeli naval ships harass and water cannon Palestinian fishermen, restricting them to three nautical miles from shore.

Polluted sewage is leaking into the coastal aquifer from water networks and buildings bombed by Israeli airstrikes in 2008-09’s operation “Cast Lead”.

Israel has also blocked the equipment needed to repair the damaged infrastructure. With tap water undrinkable, some people in Gaza are now surviving on 20 litres/day/person, while water consumption for the average Israeli is about 300 litres/day/person.

All of Gaza’s 10,000 smallholder farms were damaged in the 2008-09 onslaught, half a million trees uprooted and more than one million chickens were killed along with sheep, cattle and goats. The Israelis destroyed 60 per cent of the agricultural industry in Gaza, causing $268m in losses.

The proportion of Gazans judged “food insecure” increased to 75 per cent and in the aftermath, many households have been found to be chronically food insecure. Two years after the attack, the unemployment rate in Gaza was 45.2 per cent.

Isolated from fields

The West Bank has fared little better. The Oslo Interim Accords of 1995 carved the West Bank into Area A under Palestinian Authority control representing 3 per cent of the West Bank, Area B under joint control totalling 25 per cent and Area C, 72 per cent of the land, under full Israeli control including the agricultural land of the Jordan Valley.

In reality, the Israeli army can invade any area at any time. The bifurcation of Palestinian land and the construction of walls and barricades have isolated farmers from fields and markets, given impunity to violent Israeli settlers and disfigured the landscape.
 

Israel’s long-term goal in Gaza is not only the enforcement of the siege, but also a strategic application of de-development that forces Palestinians to be dependent on either Israel or international aid.

In 2007, the Israeli military created a calculation for the minimum number of calories allowed to people in Gaza. The caloric control mechanism ensures collective punishment, but not complete starvation. It is evident that this attack and Israel’s food policy for Palestinians enjoys support from the US government.

The consequences of the recent assault will only be visible when the dust has settled. But it will surely not depart from the aim expressed by former Israeli official Dov Weisglass in 2006: “The idea is to put the Palestinians on a diet, but not to make them die of hunger.”

Rami Zurayk is Professor at the Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences and director of the Interfaculty Graduate Environmental Sciences Program at the American University of Beirut. Author of Food, Farming and Freedom: Sowing the Arab Spring and a guest author with Al Shabaka Palestinian Policy Network. Co-author of Control Food, Control People: The Struggle for Food Security in Gaza forthcoming from the Institute of Palestine Studies
 
Anne Gough is Instructor at Faculty of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Interfaculty Graduate Environmental Sciences Program at the American University of Beirut. Co-author of Control Food, Control People: The Struggle for Food Security in Gaza forthcoming from the Institute of Palestine Studies

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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

UK’s responsibility to the Palestinians


Introduction by GA: In the following Guardian letter a few Palestinians and Pro Palestinian activists call for the British government to acknowledge publicly the responsibility for previous British administrations for the Balfour Declaration and Palestinian suffering. I totally agree with the content of the letter, yet, it fails to address the most crucial and obvious fact.

The Balfour declaration was a direct outcome of some intensive Jewish Lobby pressure in both Britain and the USA.

Unless Palestinians and their supporters are willing to address questions to do with Jewish power and lobbying, we won’t be able to confront the menace caused by Zionism and the Jewish State.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/nov/01/uk-responsibility-to-the-palestinians

Today is the 95th anniversary of the Balfour Declaration, when the then foreign secretary, Arthur Balfour, signed a fateful letter to Lord Rothschild announcing that the British government “view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a National Home for the Jewish people”. Britain thus gave the zionist movement carte blanche to transform the overwhelmingly Arab state of Palestine into a Jewish one.

To further this aim, from 1920 onwards, Britain encouraged the mass immigration into Palestine of hundreds of thousands of European Jews, expressly against the wishes of the majority population. As Palestine descended into chaos, the British washed their hands of their responsibility for the mess they had caused and stood by while hundreds of thousands of Palestinians were terrorised into fleeing their homeland, as Palestine was transformed into Israel.

We call for the British government to acknowledge publicly the responsibility of previous British administrations from 1917 to 1948 for the catastrophe that befell the Palestinians, when over threequarters were expelled deliberately and systematically by the zionist army. Most of them remain refugees today without redress. The truth about their expulsions is still not officially established, since Israel officially denies any responsibility for it.

Ghada Karmi
Tim Llewellyn
Karl Sabbagh
John Rose
Kamel Hawwash
Naomi Foyle
Mona Baker
Mike Marqusee
Seni Seneviratne

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The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

Israel’s catalogue of savagery

Lawrence Davidson views Israel’s litany of savage behaviour, from the ethnic cleansing that started in earnest in 1948 and is ongoing to the starvation war waged on Gaza and numerous acts of wanton, petty cruelty.

Savagery ongoing

In my article “America’s billboard wars: Zionists vs. the truth, I noted that a Zionist organization run by the Islamophobe Pamela Geller is posting messages on buses and subways calling for support for Israel. The messages claim that Israel represents the “civilized man” in a struggle against jihadist “savagery”. I questioned Israel’s qualifications for civilized status in the earlier piece, but am drawn back to the subject by the almost daily revelations of the Zionist state’s questionable behaviour. It is not that the jihadist cannot be a savage at times; it is that the Israeli government seems quite incapable of being civilized. For instance:

Ethnic cleansing

On 16 October 2012 the Israeli organization Yazkern hosted dozens of veterans of Israel’s 1948 “War of Independence” for a look at what that struggle really entailed. The veterans testified to what can only be called a conscious effort at ethnic cleansing – the systematic destruction of entire Palestinian villages and numerous massacres. A documentary film by Israeli-Russian journalist Lia Tarachansky, dealing with this same subject, the Palestinian Nakba or catastrophe, is nearing completion. It too has the testimony of Israeli soldiers of the 1948 war. These latest revelations lend credence to the claims of Israel’s “new historians”, such as Ilan Pappe, who have written books based on evidence gleamed from government archives showing that, even before the outbreak of hostilities leading to the creation of the state of Israel, the Zionist authorities planned to ethnically cleanse as much of Palestine as possible of non-Jews. The aim of Yazkern’s effort at truth-telling is to break through the sanitized “mainstream nationalistic narrative” of 1948 and the accompanying denial of any legitimate Palestinian counter-narrative.”

OK. The Israelis were savages in 1948 and only a small minority will admit it. What about after “the War of Independence”? As it turns out the ethnic cleansing never stopped. Conveniently, the long-standing denial that it ever started has helped to hide the fact of its ongoing nature. Yet just this week we received the news that Defence Minister Ehud Barak has given the order to demolish eight Palestinian villages with some 1,500 residents in the south Hebron hills. The excuse offered by Barack is that the land is needed for military training exercises. According to the “new historians”, this is a standard Israeli government cover for ethnic cleansing. Sure, for a couple of years the Israeli army will use the land that held the demolished villages. Then, almost inevitably, the area becomes the site of a new Israeli Jewish settlement.

Starvation

On 20 October 2012 Al-Jazeera reported on Israeli documents showing that between 2008 and 2010 the Israeli army allowed food supplies into the Gaza Strip based on a daily calorie count that held the basic diet of a million and half people to a point just short of malnutrition. According to the Israeli human rights organization Gisha, “the official goal of the policy was to wage economic warfare which would paralyze Gaza’s economy and, according to the Defence Ministry, create pressure on the Hamas government”. Actually, this bit of savagery predates 2008. Back in 2006 Dov Weissglass, then an advisor to Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, stated that “the idea is to put the Palestinians on a diet, but not to make them die of hunger”. Of course, precedents for this can be found in the treatment of European Jews in the 1930s and 1940s. One assumes that Mr Weissglass was aware of this.

However, just as with the barbarism practiced in the “War of Independence”, in this case too there is a well practised capacity for national denial. According to Gideon Levy writing in Haaretz, “the country has plenty of ways … of burying skeletons deep in the closet so that Israelis shouldn’t be overly disturbed”. The military authors of the document that turned Weissglass’s hideous “idea” into savage practice, operated in “a country afflicted with blindness”. So, the present Israeli government does not have to worry about public unease over the fact that it is slowly but surely destroying the Gaza sewage system and rendering its water supply undrinkable.

Wanton cruelty

Then there are the petty acts of cruelty that can be considered tell-tale signs of savagery. For instance, the fact that Israeli customs officials held back the exam sheets for the October 2012 College Board tests bound for the West Bank graduating high school seniors. AMIDEAST, the organization that serves as the testing agency for the Palestinian territories, had made sure the Israeli authorities had the tests in their hands weeks in advance. Nonetheless, in an apparent act of petty vindictiveness, the customs officials held on to them until AMIDEAST had to cancel the exam. One observer has asked the question: “What has the SAT [tests] have to do with Israeli security?” Well, it might be that, in the mind of a savage customs official, the more college-bound Palestinians from the occupied territories, the more articulate witnesses to Israeli oppression. On the Gaza side of the equation, the US was forced to cancel a small scholarship programme for Gaza college students because the Israelis refused to let the students leave their open air prison, even if only to go to a West Bank school.

For anyone who might want to follow the grim procession of Israeli oppressive and barbaric acts on a day to day basis, I recommend the web site “Today in Palestine“, provided by the International Middle East Centre.

Challenge and denial

In the face of this persistent savage behaviour on the part of Israel, that country’s public support has finally begun to slip in the United States. Most recently, 15 prominent church leaders, representing major Christian denominations, wrote an open letter to Congress calling for

an immediate investigation into possible violations by Israel of the US Foreign Assistance Act and the US Arms Export Control Act which respectively prohibit assistance to any country that engages in a consistent pattern of human rights violations….We urge Congress to hold hearings to examine Israel’s compliance, and we request regular reporting on compliance and the withholding of military aid for non-compliance.

So far, the Congress has turned a deaf-ear to this request, but the Zionist reaction was loud and clear. Leading the way in this effort was the head of the misnamed “Anti-Defamation League” (ADL), Abraham Foxman. Charging the Christian leaders with a “blatant lack of sensitivity” (one might ask just how sensitive one is supposed to be to an oppressor?) Foxman decided to punish the offending clergy by refusing to engage in ongoing “interfaith dialogue”. The Zionist reaction to being called out for their own savage behaviour is a classic example of denial.

Conclusion

Having “big brains” is a two edge sword for human beings. It means we can think all manner of creative thoughts and even exercise some self-control over our own inappropriate impulses if we care to try. However, it also means that we can be manipulated into thinking that we need not try – that we are the victims even as we are oppressing others and that any criticism of our actions is just another example of our victimization. Israeli culture, and indeed the culture of Zionism generally, is one ongoing project of self-manipulation to achieve just such a state of mind. And, to a great extent, it has succeeded. A recent poll taken in Israel shows that “a majority of the [Israeli Jewish] public wants the state to discriminate against Palestinians … revealing a deeply rooted racism in Israeli society”.

The Zionists are not the only experts in denial. The United States, Israel’s chief ally, has always been good at this gambit as well. After the 9/11 attacks any consideration of the possibility that United States foreign policy in the Middle East might have helped motivate the terrorism was anathema, and it still is over a decade later. Instead of taking a hard look at our own behaviour we are simply expanding our capacity to kill outright anyone who would challenge our policies in a violent fashion. Our answer is targeted killings by drones or otherwise – a bit of savagery we learned from the Israelis.

Machiavelli, who can always be relied upon to see the darker side of things, once said:

Whoever wishes to foresee the future must consult the past; for human events resemble those of preceding times. This arises from the fact that they are produced by men who ever have been, and ever shall be, animated by the same passions, and thus they necessarily have the same results.

But yet, is it really inevitable?

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The History of US-Israel Relations

Part One

How the “special relationship” was created

Alison WeirSeptember 2011

[We feel this information is so important that we are posting it now. However, this is an ongoing project and the below text is an incomplete, uncorrected draft. Please check back later for the final version.]

While many people are led to believe that US support for Israel is driven by the American establishment and U.S. national interests, the facts don’t support this theory. The reality is that for decades U.S. experts opposed Israel and its founding movement. They were simply outmaneuvered and eventually replaced.

­
Like many American policies, U.S. Middle East policies are driven by a special interest lobby. However, the Israel Lobby, as it is called today in the U.S.[1], consists of vastly more than what most people envision in the word “lobby.”
As this article will demonstrate, the Israel Lobby is considerably more powerful and pervasive than other lobbies. Components of it, both individuals and groups, have worked underground, secretly and even illegally throughout its history, as documented by scholars and participants.
And even though the movement for Israel has been operating in the U.S. for over a hundred years, most Americans are completely unaware of this movement and its attendant ideology – a measure of its unique influence over public knowledge.

The success of this movement to achieve its goals, partly due to the hidden nature of much of its activity, has been staggering. It has also been at almost unimaginable cost.
It has led to massive tragedy in the Middle East: a hundred-year war of violence and loss; sacred land soaked in sorrow.

In addition, this movement has been profoundly damaging to the United States itself.
As we will see in this two-part examination of the pro-Israel movement, it has targeted virtually every significant sector of American society; worked to involve Americans in tragic, unnecessary, and profoundly costly wars; dominated Congress for decades; increasingly determined which candidates could become serious contenders for the U.S. presidency; and promoted bigotry toward an entire population, religion and culture.

It has promoted policies that have exposed Americans to growing danger, and then exaggerated this danger (while disguising its cause), fueling recent actions that dismember some of our nation’s most fundamental freedoms and cherished principles.
All this for a population that is considerably smaller than New Jersey.[2]

The beginnings

The Israel Lobby is just the tip of an older and far larger iceberg known as “political Zionism,” an international movement that began in the late 1800s with the goal of creating a Jewish state somewhere in the world. In 1897 this movement, led by a European journalist named Theodore Herzl[3], coalesced in the First Zionist World Congress, held in Basle, Switzerland, which established the World Zionist Organization, representing approximately 120 groups the first year; 900 the next.[4]
While Zionists considered such places as Argentina, Uganda, and Texas,[5] they eventually settled on Palestine for the location of their proposed Jewish State, even though Palestine was already inhabited by a population that was 95 percent Muslims and Christians, who owned 99 percent of the land.[6] As numerous Zionist diary entries, letters, and other documents show, Zionists planned to push out these non-Jews – financially, if possible; violently if necessary.[7]

Political Zionism in the U.S.

In the 1880s groups advocating the setting up of a Jewish state began popping up around the United States.[8] Emma Lazarus, the poet whose words would adorn the Statue of Liberty, promoted Zionism throughout this decade.[9] A precursor to the Israeli flag was created in Boston in 1891.[10]
In 1887 President Grover Cleveland appointed a Jewish ambassador to Turkey, which at that time controlled Palestine. Jewish historian David G. Dalin reports that presidents recognized the importance of the Turkish embassy for Jewish Americans, “…especially for the growing number of Zionists within the American Jewish electorate, since the Jewish homeland of Palestine remained under the direct control of the Turkish government.”
Every president, both Republican and Democrat, followed this precedent for the next 30 years. “During this era, the ambassadorship to Turkey came to be considered a quasi-Jewish domain,” writes Dalin. [11]
By the early 1890s organizations promoting Zionism existed in New York, Chicago, Baltimore, Milwaukee, Boston, Philadelphia, and Cleveland.[12] Reports from the Zionist World Congress in Basle, which four Americans had attended, gave this movement a major stimulus, galvanizing Zionist activities in American cities that had large Jewish populations.[13]
In 1897-98 numerous additional Zionist societies were founded in the East and the Midwest. In 1898 the first annual conference of American Zionists convened in New York on the 4th of July, where they formed the Federation of American Zionists (FAZ).[14]
By 1910 the number of Zionists in the U.S. approached 20,000 and included lawyers, professors, and businessmen. Even in its infancy, when it was still considered relatively weak, Zionism was becoming a movement to which Congressmen listened, particularly in the eastern cities.[15]
The movement continued to expand, and by 1914 several additional Zionist groups had cropped up. The religious Mizrachi faction was formed in 1903, the Labor party in 1905 and Hadassah, the women’s Zionist organization, in 1912.[16]
By 1922 there were 200,000 Zionists in the U.S. and by 1948 this had grown to almost a million. [17]
From early on Zionists actively pushed their agenda in the media, one Zionist organizer proudly proclaimed in 1912 “the zealous and incessant propaganda which is carried on by countless societies.”[18] The Yiddish press from a very early period espoused the Zionist cause. By 1923 only one New York Yiddish newspaper failed to qualify as Zionist. Yiddish dailies reached 535,000 families in 1927.[19]

The State Department Objects

Unlike politicians, State Department officials not dependent on votes and campaign donations, and charged with recommending and implementing policies beneficial to all Americans, not just one tiny sliver working on behalf of a foreign entity – were less enamored with Zionists, who they felt were trying to use the American government for a project damaging to the United States. In memo after memo, year after year, U.S. diplomatic and military experts pointed out that Zionism was counter to both U.S. interests and principles.[20]
Secretary of State Philander Knox was perhaps the first in the pattern of State Department officials rejecting Zionist advances. In 1912, when the Zionist Literary Society approached the Taft administration for an endorsement, Knox turned them down flat, noting that “problems of Zionism involve certain matters primarily related to the interests of countries other than our own.”[21]
Despite that small setback in 1912, Zionists` garnered a far more significant victory in the same year; one that was to have enormous consequences both internationally and in the United States and that was part of a pattern of influence that continues through today.

Louis Brandeis, Zionism, and the “Parushim”

In 1912 prominent Jewish American attorney Louis Brandeis, who was to go on to become a Supreme Court Justice, became a Zionist. Within two years he became head of the international Zionist Central Office, which had moved to America from Germany a little while before.[22]
While Brandeis is an unusually well known Supreme Court Justice, very few Americans are aware of the significant role he played in World War I and of his connection to Palestine.
Brandeis recruited ambitious young men, often from Harvard, to work on the Zionist cause – and further their careers in the process. Harvard author and former New York Times journalist Peter Grose, sympathetic to Zionism[23], writes:
“Brandeis created an elitist secret society called the Parushim, the Hebrew word for ‘Pharisees’ and ‘separate,’ which grew out of Harvard’s Menorah Society. As the Harvard men spread out across the land in their professional pursuits, their interests in Zionism were kept alive by secretive exchanges and the trappings of a fraternal order. Each invited initiate underwent a solemn ceremony, swearing the oath ‘to guard and to obey and to keep secret the laws and the labor of the fellowship, its existence and its aims.’”[24]
At the secret initiation ceremony, the new member was told:
“You are about to take a step which will bind you to a single cause for all your life. You will for one year be subject to an absolute duty whose call you will be impelled to heed at any time, in any place, and at any cost. And ever after, until our purpose shall be accomplished, you will be fellow of a brotherhood whose bond you will regard as greater than any other in your life–dearer than that of family, of school, of nation.”[25]

‘We must work silently, through education and infection’

An early recruiter explained: “An organization which has the aims we have must be anonymous, must work silently, and through education and infection rather than through force and noise.” He wrote that to work openly would be “suicidal” for their objective.
Grose writes: “The members set about meeting people of influence here and there, casually, on a friendly basis. They planted suggestions for action to further the Zionist cause long before official government planners had come up with anything. For example, as early as November 1915, a leader of the Parushim went around suggesting that the British might gain some benefit from a formal declaration in support of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.”[26]
Brandeis was a close personal friend of President Woodrow Wilson and used this position to advocate for the Zionist cause, at times serving as a conduit between British Zionists and the president.
In 1916 President Wilson named Brandeis to the Supreme Court. Although Brandeis officially resigned from all his private clubs and affiliations, including his leadership of Zionism, behind the scenes he continued this Zionist work, receiving daily reports in his Supreme Court chambers and issuing orders to his loyal lieutenants.[27]
When the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA) was reorganized in 1918, Brandeis was listed as its “honorary president.” However, he was more than just “honorary.”
As historian Donald Neff writes, “Through his lieutenants, he remained the power behind the throne.” One of these lieutenants was future Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, another particularly well-regarded justice, and another whose Zionist activities have largely gone unnoted.[28]
Zionist membership expanded dramatically during World War I, despite the efforts of some Jewish anti-Zionists, who called the movement a “foreign, un-American, racist, and separatist phenomenon.”[29]

World War I & the Balfour Declaration

Unlike some wars, most analysts consider WWI a pointless conflict that resulted from diplomatic entanglements rather than some travesty of justice or aggression. Yet, it was catastrophic to a generation of Europeans, killing 14 million people.[30]
The United States joined this unnecessary war a few years into the hostilities, costing many American lives, even though the U.S. was not party to the alliances that had drawn other nations into the fray. This even though Americans had been strongly opposed to entering the war and President Woodrow Wilson had won with the slogan, “He kept us out of war.”
Americans today are aware of these facts. What few know is that Zionists pushed for the U.S. to enter the war on Britain’s side as part of a deal to gain British support for their colonization of Palestine.
From the very beginning of their movement, Zionists realized that if they were to succeed in their goal of creating a Jewish state on land that was already inhabited by non-Jews, they needed backing from one of the “Great Powers.” They tried the Ottoman Empire, which controlled Palestine at the time, but were turned down (although they were told that Jews could settle throughout other parts of the Ottoman empire and become Turkish citizens).[31]
They then turned to Britain, which was also initially less than enthusiastic. Famous English Arabists such as Gertrude Bell pointed out that Palestine was Arab and that Jerusalem was sacred to all three major monotheistic faiths.
Future British Foreign Minister Lord George Curzon similarly stated that Palestine was already inhabited by half a million Arabs who would “not be content to be expropriated for Jewish immigrants or to act merely as hewers of wood and drawers of water for the latter.”[32]
However, once the British were embroiled in World War I, and particularly during 1916, a disastrous year for the Allies,[33] Zionists were able to play a winning card. Zionist leaders promised the British government that Zionists in the U.S. would push America to enter the war on the side of the British, if the British promised to support a Jewish home in Palestine afterward.[34]
As a result, in 1917 British Foreign Minister Lord Balfour issued a letter to Zionist leader Lord Rothschild. Known as the Balfour Declaration, this letter promised that Britain would “view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people” and to “use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object.”
The letter then qualified this somewhat by stating that it should be “clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine.” The “non-Jewish communities” were 90 percent of Palestine’s population at that time, vigorous Zionist immigration efforts having slightly expanded the percentage of Jews living in Palestine by then.[35]
The letter, while officially signed by British Foreign Minister Lord Balfour, was actually written by Leopold Amery, a British official who, it came out later, was a secret and fervent Zionist[36].
While this letter was a less than ringing endorsement of Zionism, Zionists considered it a major breakthrough as it cracked open a door that they would later force wider and wider open.
These Balfour-WWI negotiations are referred to in various documents. For example, Samuel Landman, secretary of the World Zionist Organization, described them in a 1935 article in World Jewry:
“After an understanding had been arrived at between Sir Mark Sykes and [Zionists] Weizmann and Sokolow, it was resolved to send a secret message to Justice Brandeis that the British Cabinet would help the Jews to gain Palestine in return for active Jewish sympathy and for support in the USA for the Allied cause, so as to bring about a radical pro-Ally tendency in the United States.”[37]
British Colonial Secretary Lord Cavendish, in a memorandum to the British Cabinet in 1923, reminded his colleagues: “The object [of the Balfour Declaration] was to enlist the sympathies on the Allied side of influential Jews and Jewish organizations all over the world… and it is arguable that the negotiations with the Zionists…did in fact have considerable effect in advancing the date at which the United States government intervened in the war.”[38]
Former British Prime Minister Lloyd George similarly referred to this deal, telling a British commission in 1935: “Zionist leaders gave us a definite promise that, if the Allies committed themselves to giving facilities for the establishment of a national home for the Jews in Palestine, they would do their best to rally Jewish sentiment and support throughout the world to the Allied cause. They kept their word.”
American career Foreign Service Officer Evan M. Wilson, who had served as Minister-Consul General in Jerusalem, writes that the Balfour declaration “…was given to the Jews largely for the purpose of enlisting Jewish support in the war and of forestalling a similar promise by the Central Powers [Britain’s enemies in World War I]”.[39]
In 1917 President Wilson, who had been voted into office by Americans who believed his promises that he would keep them out of the war, changed course and plunged the U.S. into a tragic and pointless European conflict in which hundreds of thousands were killed and injured.[40] Over 1,200 American citizens who opposed the war were rounded up and imprisoned, some for years.[41]
The influence of Brandeis and other Zionists in the U.S. had enabled Zionists to form an alliance with Britain, one of the world’s great powers, a remarkable achievement for a non-state group and a measure of Zionists’ immense power. As historian Kolsky states, the Zionist movement was now “an important force in international politics.”[42]

Paris Peace Conference 1919: Zionists defeat Christian leaders’ calls for self-determination

After the war, the victors met in a peace conference and agreed to a set of Peace Accords that addressed, among many issues, the fate of Ottoman Empire’s Middle East territories. The Allies stripped the defeated Empire of its Middle Eastern holdings and divided them between Britain and France, which were to hold them under a “mandate” system until the populations were “ready” for self-government. Britain got the mandate over Palestine.
Zionists, including Brandeis, Felix Frankfurter, the World Zionist Organization, and an American delegation, went to the conference to lobby for a Jewish “home”[43] in Palestine and to push for Balfour wording to be incorporated in the peace accords.[44] The official U.S. delegation to the Peace Conference also contained a number of highly placed Zionists.
Distinguished American Christians posted in the Middle East, who consistently supported self-determination, went to Paris to oppose Zionists. Numerous prominent Christian leaders in the U.S. – including two of the most celebrated pastors of their day, Harry Emerson Fosdick and Henry Sloane Coffin[45] – also opposed Zionism. However, as a pro-Israel author notes, they were “simply outgunned” by Zionists.[46]
The most prominent American in the Middle East at the time, Dr. Howard Bliss, President of Beirut’s Syrian Protestant College (later to become the American University of Beirut), traveled to Paris to urge forming a commission to determine what the people of the Middle East wanted for themselves, a suggestion that was embraced by the U.S. diplomatic staff in Paris.[47]
Princeton Professor Philip Brown, in Cairo for the YMCA, provided requested reports to the U.S. State Department on what Zionism’s impact would be on Palestine. He stated that it would be disastrous for both Arabs and Jews and went to Paris to lobby against it.[48]
William Westermann, director of the State Department’s Western Asia Division, which covered the region, similarly opposed the Zionist position. He wrote that “[it] impinges upon the rights and the desires of most of the Arab population of Palestine.” Westermann and other US diplomats felt that Arab claims were much more in line with Wilson’s principles of self-determination and circulated Arab material.[49]
President Wilson decided to send a commission to Palestine to investigate the situation in person. After spending six weeks in the area interviewing both Jews and Palestinians, the commission, known as the King-Crane commission, recommended against the Zionist position of unlimited immigration of Jews to make Palestine a distinctly Jewish state.[50]
The commissioners stated that the erection of a Jewish state in Palestine could be accomplished only with “the gravest trespass upon the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine,” pointing out that to subject the Palestinians “to steady financial and social pressure to surrender the land, would be a gross violation of the principle [of self-determination] and of the peoples’ rights…”[51]
They went on to point out that “the well-being and development” of the people in the region formed “a sacred trust,” that the people should become completely free, and that the national governments “should derive their authority from the initiative and free choice of the native populations.”[52]
The report stated said that meetings with Jewish representatives made it clear that “the Zionists looked forward to a practically complete dispossession of the present non-Jewish inhabitants of Palestine,” concluded that armed force would be required to accomplish this, and urged the Peace Conference to dismiss the Zionist proposals.[53] The commission recommended that “the project for making Palestine distinctly a Jewish commonwealth should be given up.”[54]
Zionists through Brandeis dominated the situation, however, and the report was suppressed until after the Peace Accords were enacted. As a pro-Israel historian noted, “with the burial of the King-Crane Report, a major obstacle in the Zionist path disappeared.”[55] The US delegation was forced to follow Zionist directives.[56]
Ultimately, the mandate over Palestine given to Britain, supported the Zionist project and included the Balfour language. According to the mandate, Britain would be “responsible for putting into effect the [Balfour] declaration … in favor of the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, it being clearly understood that nothing should be done which might prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine….”[57]

Brandeis and Frankfurter vs. U.S. diplomat

The idea behind Zionism was to create a state where Jews worldwide could escape anti-Semitism.[58]
There are various documented cases in which fanatical Zionists exploited, exaggerated, invented, or even perpetrated “anti-Semitic” incidents both to procure support and to drive Jews to immigrate to the Zionist-designated homeland.[59] A few examples are discussed below.

One such case involved a young diplomat named Hugh Gibson, who in 1919 was nominated to be U.S. Ambassador to Poland. After he arrived in Poland, Gibson, who was highly regarded and considered particularly brilliant,[60] began to report that there were far fewer anti-Semitic incidents than Americans were led to believe. He wrote his mother: “These yarns are exclusively of foreign manufacture for anti-Polish purposes.”[61]
His dispatches came to the attention of Brandeis and his protégé (and future supreme Court Justice) Felix Frankfurter, who demanded a meeting with Gibson. Gibson later wrote of their accusations:
“I had [Brandeis and Frankfurter claimed] done more mischief to the Jewish race than anyone who had lived in the last century. They said…that my reports on the Jewish question had gone around the world and had undone their work…. They finally said that I had stated that the stories of excesses against the Jews were exaggerated, to which I replied that they certainly were and I should think any Jew would be glad to know it.”[62]
Frankfurter hinted that if Gibson continued these reports, Zionists would block his confirmation by the Senate.
Gibson was outraged and sent a 21-page letter to the State Department. In it he shared his suspicions that this was part of “a conscienceless and cold-blooded plan to make the condition of the Jews in Poland so bad that they must turn to Zionism for relief.”
In 1923 another American diplomat in Poland, Vice Consul Monroe Kline, echoed Gibson’s analysis: “It is common knowledge that Zionists are continually and constantly spreading propaganda, through their agencies over the entire world, of political and religious persecution.”[63]

Zionists and Nazis

Perhaps the most extreme case of Zionist exploitation of anti-Semitism to further their cause came during the rise of Adolf Hitler. Historians have documented that Zionists sabotaged efforts to find safe havens for Jewish refugees from Nazi Germany in order to convince the world that Jews could only be safe in a Jewish state.[64]
When FDR made efforts in 1938[65] and 1943[66] to provide havens for Nazi refugees, Zionists opposed these projects because they did not include Palestine.
Morris Ernst, FDR’s international envoy for refugees, wrote in his memoir that when he worked to help find refuge for those fleeing Hitler, “…active Jewish leaders decried, sneered and then attacked me as if I were a traitor. At one dinner party I was openly accused of furthering this plan of freer immigration [into the U.S.] in order to undermine political Zionism… Zionist friends of mine opposed it.”[68]
Ernst wrote that he found the same fanatical reaction among all the Jewish groups he approached, whose leaders, he found, were “little concerned about human blood if it is not their own.”[69]
FDR finally gave up, telling Ernst: “We can’t put it over because the dominant vocal Jewish leadership of America won’t stand for it.”[70]
Journalist Erskine B. Childers, son of a former Irish Prime Minister, wrote in the Spectator in 1960, “One of the most massively important features of the entire Palestine struggle was that Zionism deliberately arranged that the plight of the wretched survivors of Hitlerism should be a ‘moral argument’ which the West had to accept.”
He explained that “this was done by seeing to it that Western countries did not open their doors, widely and immediately, to the inmate of the DP [displaced persons] camps.”
Childers, author of several books on conflict resolution and peace-keeping who later became Secretary General of the World Federation of United Nations Associations, commented: “It is incredible that so grave and grim a campaign has received so little attention in accounts of the Palestine struggle – it was a campaign that literally shaped all subsequent history. It was done by sabotaging specific Western schemes to admit Jewish DPs.”[71]

Zionist fake “hate” attacks on Iraq Jews

Zionists wished for a massive “in-gathering of Jews” in one state, but most Iraqi Jews wanted nothing to do with it, according to Iraq’s then-Chief Rabbi, who stated: “Iraqi Jews will be forever against Zionism.”

“Jews and Arabs have enjoyed the same rights and privileges for 1,000 years and do not regard themselves as a distinctive separate part of this nation,” the rabbi declared.[72]
Zionists worked to change that by covertly attacking Iraqi Jews so as to induce them to “flee” to Israel. Zionists planted bombs in synagogues and in an American building “in an attempt to portray the Iraqis as anti-American and to terrorize the Jews,” according to Author and former CIA officer Wilbur Crane Eveland.

“Soon leaflets began to appear urging Jews to flee to Israel,” writes Eveland, and “… most of the world believed reports that Arab terrorism had motivated the flight of the Iraqi Jews whom the Zionists had ‘rescued’ really just in order to increase Israel’s Jewish population.”[73]
Similarly, Naeim Giladi, a Jewish-Iraqi author who later lived in Israel and the U.S., describes this program from the inside: “I write about what the first prime minister of Israel called ‘cruel Zionism.’ I write about it because I was part of it.”
Giladi states that “Jews from Islamic lands did not emigrate willingly to Israel.” In order “to force them to leave,” Giladi writes, “Jews killed Jews.” He goes on to say that in an effort “to buy time to confiscate ever more Arab lands, Jews on numerous occasions rejected genuine peace initiatives from their Arab neighbors.”[74]

The modern Israel Lobby is born

The immediate precursor to today’s pro-Israel lobby began in the early 1940s under the leadership of Rabbi Abba Hillel Silver, originally from Lithuania. He created the American Zionist Emergency Council (AZEC), which by 1943 had acquired a budget of half a million dollars at a time when a nickel bought a loaf of bread.
In addition to this money, Zionists had become influential in creating the United Jewish Appeal in 1939[75], giving them access to the organization’s gargantuan financial resources: $14 million in 1941, $150 million by 1948. This was four times more than Americans contributed to the Red Cross.[76]
With its extraordinary funding, AZEC embarked on a campaign to target every sector of American society, ordering that local committees be set up in every Jewish community in the nation. In the words of AZEC organizer Sy Kenen, it launched “a political and public relations offensive to capture the support of Congressmen, clergy, editors, professors, business and labor.”[77] [78]
AZEC instructed activists to “make direct contact with your local Congressman or Senator” and to go after union members, wives and parents of servicemen, and Jewish war veterans. AZEC provided activists with form letters to use and schedules of anti-Zionist lecture tours to oppose and disrupt.
A measure of its power came in 1945 when Silver disliked a British move in 1945 that would be harmful to Zionists. AZEC booked Madison Square Garden, ordered advertisements, and mailed 250,000 announcements – the first day. By the second day they had organized demonstrations in 30 cities, a letter-writing campaign, and convinced 27 U.S. Senators to give speeches.[79]
Grassroots Zionist action groups were organized with more than 400 local committees under 76 state and regional branches. AZEC funded books, articles and academic studies; millions of pamphlets were distributed. There were massive petition and letter writing campaigns. AZEC targeted college presidents and deans, managing to get more than 150 to sign one petition.[80]
Rabbi Elmer Berger, executive director of the American Council for Judaism, which opposed Zionism in the 1940s and 50s, writes in his memoirs that there was a “ubiquitous propaganda campaign reaching just about every point of political leverage in the country.”[81]
The Zionist Organization of America bragged of the “immensity of our operations and their diversity” in its 48th Annual Report, stating, “We reach into every department of American life…”[82]
Berger and other anti-Zionist Jewish Americans tried to organize against “the deception and cynicism with which the Zionist machine operated,” but failed to obtain anywhere near their level of funding. Among other things, would-be dissenters were afraid of “the savagery of personal attacks” anti-Zionists endured.[83]
Berger writes that when he and a colleague opposed a Zionist resolution in Congress, Emanuel Cellar, a New York Democrat who was to serve in Congress for almost 50 years, told them: “They ought to take you b…s out and shoot you.”
When it was unclear that President Harry Truman would support Zionism, Cellar and a committee of Zionists told him that they had persuaded Dewey to support the Zionist policy and demanded that Truman also take this stand. Cellar reportedly pounded on Truman’s table and said that it Truman did not do so, “We’ll run you out of town.[84]
Jacob Javits, another well-known Congressman, this one a Republican, told a Zionist women’s group: “We’ll fight to death and make a Jewish State in Palestine if it’s the last thing that we do.”[85]
Richard Stevens, author of American Zionism and U.S. Foreign Policy, 1942-1947, reports that Zionists infiltrated the boards of several Jewish schools that they felt didn’t sufficiently promote the Zionist cause. When this didn’t work, Stevens writes, they would start their own pro-Zionist schools.[86]
Stevens writes that in 1943-44 the ZOA distributed over a million leaflets and pamphlets to public libraries, chaplains, community centers, educators, ministers, writers and “others who might further the Zionist cause.”[87]
Alfred Lilienthal, who had worked in the State Department, served in the U.S. Army in the Middle East from 1943-45, and became a member of the anti-Zionist American Council for Judaism, reports that Zionist monthly sales of books totaled between 3,000 and 4,000 throughout 1944-45.
He reports that Zionists subsidized books by non-Jewish authors that supported the Zionist agenda. They would then promote these books jointly with commercial publishers. Several of them became best sellers.[88]

Zionists manufacture Christian support

Silver and other Zionists played a significant role in creating Christian support for Zionism, a project Brandeis encouraged.[89]
Secret Zionist funds, eventually reaching $150,000 in 1946, were used to revive an elitest Protestant group, the American Palestine Committee. This group had originally been founded in 1932 by Emanuel Neumann, a member of the Exectuve of the Zionist Organization. The objective was to organize a group of prominent (mainly non-Jewish) Americans in moral and political support of Zionism. Frankfurter was one of the main speakers at its launch.[90]
Silver’s headquarters issued a directive saying,“In every community an American Christian Palestine Committee must be immediate organized.”[91]
Author Peter Grose reports that the Christian committee’s operations “were hardly autonomous. Zionist headquarters thought nothing of placing newspaper advertisements on the clergymen’s behalf without bothering to consult them in advance, until one of the committee’s leaders meekly asked at least for prior notice before public statements were made in their name.”[92]
AZEC formed another group among clergymen, the Christian Council on Palestine. An internal AZEC memo stated that the aim of both groups was to “crystallize the sympathy of Christian America for our cause.”[93]
By the end of World War II the Christian Council on Palestine had grown to 3,000 members and the American Palestine Committee boasted a membership of 6,500 public figures, including senators, congressmen, cabinet members, governors, state officers, mayors, jurists, clergymen, educators, writers, publishing, and civic and industrial leaders.
Historian Richard Stevens explains that Christian support was largely gained by exploiting their wish to help people in need. Steven writes that Zionists would proclaim “the tragic plight of refugees fleeing from persecution and finding no home,” thus linking the refugee problem with Palestine as allegedly the only solution.[94]
Stevens writes that the reason for this strategy was clear: “…while many Americans might not support the creation of a Jewish state, traditional American humanitarianism could be exploited in favor of the Zionist cause through the refugee problems.”[95]
Few if any of these Christian supporters had any idea that the creation of the Jewish state would entail a massive expulsion of hundreds of thousands of the non-Jews who made up the large majority of Palestine’s population, creating a new and much longer lasting refugee problem.
Nor did they learn that during and after Israel’s founding 1947-49 war, Zionist forces attacked a number of Christian sites. Donald Neff, former Time Magazine Jerusalem bureau chief and author of five books on Israel-Palestine, reports in detail on Zionist attacks on Christian sites in May 1948, the month of Israel’s birth.

Neff tells us that a group of Christian leaders complained that month that Zionists had killed and wounded hundreds of people, including children, refugees and clergy, at Christian churches and humanitarian institutions.
For example, the group charged that “‘many children were killed or wounded’ by Jewish shells on the Convent of Orthodox Copts…; eight refugees were killed and about 120 wounded at the Orthodox Armenian Convent…; and that Father Pierre Somi, secretary to the Bishop, had been killed and two wounded at the Orthodox Syrian Church of St. Mark.”
“The group’s statement said Arab forces had abided by their promise to respect Christian institutions, but that the Jews had forcefully occupied Christian structures and been indiscriminate in shelling churches,” reports Neff. He quotes a Catholic priest: “‘Jewish soldiers broke down the doors of my church and robbed many precious and sacred objects. Then they threw the statues of Christ down into a nearby garden.’ [The priest] added that Jewish leaders had reassured that religious buildings would be respected, ‘but their deeds do not correspond to their words.’”
After Zionist soldiers invaded and looted a convent in Tiberias, the U.S. Consulate sent a bitter dispatch back to the State Department complaining of “the Jewish attitude in Jerusalem towards Christian institutions.’”[96]

Zionist Colonization Efforts in Palestine

As early Zionists in the U.S. and elsewhere pushed for the creation of a Jewish state, Zionists in Palestine simultaneously tried to clear the land of Muslim and Christian inhabitants and replace them with Jewish immigrants.
This was a tall order, as Muslims and Christians accounted for more than 95 percent of the population of Palestine. Zionists planned to try first to buy up the land until the previous inhabitants had emigrated; failing this, they would use violence to force them out. This dual strategy was discussed in various written documents cited by numerous Palestinian and Israeli historians.
As this colonial project grew, the indigenous Palestinians reacted with occasional bouts of violence; Zionists had anticipated this since people usually resist being expelled from their land.
When the buy-out effort was able to obtain only a few percent of the land, Zionists created a number of terrorist groups to fight against both the Palestinians and the British. Terrorist and future Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin later bragged that Zionists had brought terrorism both to the Middle East and to the world at large.
By the eve of the creation of Israel, the Zionist immigration and buyout project had increased the Jewish population of Palestine to 30 percent and land ownership from 1 percent to approximately 6 percent.
This was in 1947, when the British at last announced that they would end their control of Palestine. Britain turned the territory’s fate over to the United Nations.
Since a founding principle of the UN was “self-determination of peoples,” one would have expected to the UN to support fair, democratic elections in which inhabitants could create their own independent country.
Instead, Zionists pushed for a General Assembly resolution to give them a disproportionate 55 percent of Palestine. (While they rarely announced this publicly, their stated plan was to later take the rest of Palestine.

U.S. Officials Oppose Zionism

The U.S. State Department opposed this partition plan strenuously, considering Zionism contrary to both fundamental American principles and US interests.
For example, the director of the State Department’s Office of Near Eastern and African Affairs consistently recommended against supporting a Jewish state in Palestine. The director, named Loy Henderson, warned that the creation of such a state would go against locals’ wishes, imperil US interests and violate democratic principles.
Henderson emphasized that the US would lose moral standing in the world if it supported Zionism:
“At the present time the United States has a moral prestige in the Near and Middle East unequaled by that of any other great power. We would lose that prestige and would be likely for many years to be considered as a betrayer of the high principles which we ourselves have enunciated during the period of the [second world] war.”
When Zionists began pushing the partition plan in the UN, Henderson recommended strongly against supporting their proposal, saying that such a partition would have to be implemented by force and was “not based on any principle.” He warned that partition “would guarantee that the Palestine problem would be permanent and still more complicated in the future.…”
Henderson elaborated further on how plans to partition Palestine would violate American and UN principles:
“…[Proposals for partition] are in definite contravention to various principles laid down in the [UN] Charter as well as to principles on which American concepts of Government are based. These proposals, for instance, ignore such principles as self-determination and majority rule. They recognize the principle of a theocratic racial state and even go so far in several instances as to discriminate on grounds of religion and race…”[97]
Zionists attacked Henderson virulently, calling him “anti-Semitic,” demanding his resignation, and threatening his family. They pressured the State Department to transfer him elsewhere; one analyst describes this as “the historic game of musical chairs” in which officials who recommended Middle East policies “consistent with the nation’s interests” were moved on.[98]
In 1948 Truman sent Henderson to the slopes of the Himalayas, as Ambassador to Nepal (then officially under India). (In recent years, virtually every State Department country desk has been directed by a Zionist.)
But Henderson was far from alone in making his recommendations. He wrote that his views were not only those of the entire Near East Division but were shared by “nearly every member of the Foreign Service or of the [State] Department who has worked to any appreciable extent on Near Eastern problems.”[99]
He wasn’t exaggerating. Official after official and agency after agency opposed Zionism.
In 1947 the CIA reported that Zionist leadership was pursuing objectives that would endanger both Jews and “the strategic interests of the Western powers in the Near and Middle East.”[100]
Henry F. Grady, who has been called “America’s top diplomatic soldier for a critical period of the Cold War,” headed a 1946 commission aimed at coming up with a solution for Palestine. Grady later wrote about the Zionist lobby and its damaging effect on US national interests.
Grady argued that without Zionist pressure, the U.S. would not have had “the ill-will with the Arab states, which are of such strategic importance in our ‘cold war’ with the soviets.” He also described the decisive power of the lobby:
“I have had a good deal of experience with lobbies but this group started where those of my experience had ended….. I have headed a number of government missions but in no other have I ever experienced so much disloyalty…. [I]n the United States, since there is no political force to counterbalance Zionism, its campaigns are apt to be decisive.”[101]
Grady concluded that without Zionist pressure, the U.S. would not have had “the ill-will with the Arab states, which are of such strategic importance in our ‘cold war’ with the soviets.”[102]
Former Undersecretary of State Dean Acheson also opposed Zionism. Acheson’s biographer writes that Acheson “worried that the West would pay a high price for Israel.” Another Author, John Mulhall, records Acheson’s warning of the danger for American interests:
“…to transform [Palestine] into a Jewish State capable of receiving a million or more immigrants would vastly exacerbate the political problem and imperil not only American but all Western interests in the Near East.”[103]
The head of the State Department’s Division of Near Eastern Affairs, Gordon P. Merriam, warned against the partition plan on moral grounds:
“U.S. support for partition of Palestine as a solution to that problem can be justified only on the basis of Arab and Jewish consent. Otherwise we should violate the principle of self-determination which has been written into the Atlantic Charter, the declaration of the United Nations, and the United Nations Charter – a principle that is deeply embedded in our foreign policy. Even a United Nations determination in favor of partition would be, in the absence of such consent, a stultification and violation of UN’s own charter.” [104]
Merriam added that without consent, “bloodshed and chaos” would follow, a tragically accurate prediction.
An internal State Department memorandum accurately predicted how Israel would be born through armed aggression masked as defense:
“…the Jews will be the actual aggressors against the Arabs. However, the Jews will claim that they are merely defending the boundaries of a state which were traced by the UN.… In the event of such Arab outside aid the Jews will come running to the Security Council with the claim that their state is the object of armed aggression and will use every means to obscure the fact that it is their own armed aggression against the Arabs inside which is the cause of Arab counter-attack.”[105]
And American Vice Consul William J. Porter foresaw one last outcome of the “partition” plan: that no Arab state would actually ever come to be in Palestine.[106]

Truman Accedes to Pro-Israel Lobby

President Harry Truman, however, ignored this advice and chose instead to support the Zionist partition plan. Truman’s political advisor, Clark Clifford, believed that the Jewish vote and contributions were essential to winning the upcoming presidential election, and that supporting the partition plan would garner that support. (Truman’s opponent, Dewey, took similar stands for similar reasons.)
Truman’s Secretary of State George Marshall, the renowned World War II General and author of the Marshall Plan, was furious to see electoral considerations taking precedence over policies based on national interest. He condemned what he called a “transparent dodge to win a few votes,” which would make “[t]he great dignity of the office of President seriously diminished.”[107]
Marshall wrote that the counsel offered by Clifford “was based on domestic political considerations, while the problem which confronted us was international. I said bluntly that if the President were to follow Mr. Clifford’s advice and if in the elections I were to vote, I would vote against the President.…”[108]
Secretary of Defense James Forrestal also tried, unsuccessfully, to oppose the Zionists. He was outraged that Truman’s Mideast policy was based on what he called “squalid political purposes,” asserting that “United States policy should be based on United States national interests and not on domestic political considerations.”[109]
Forrestal represented the general Pentagon view when he said that “no group in this country should be permitted to influence our policy to the point where it could endanger our national security.”[110]
A report by the National Security Council warned that the Palestine turmoil was acutely endangering the security of the United States. A CIA report stressed the strategic importance of the Middle East and its oil resources.
Similarly, George F. Kennan, the State Department’s Director of Policy Planning, issued a top-secret document on January 19, 1947 that outlined the enormous damage done to the US by the partition plan (“Report by the Policy Planning Staff on Position of the United States with Respect to Palestine”).[111]
Kennan cautioned that “important U.S. oil concessions and air base rights” could be lost through US support for partition and warned that the USSR stood to gain by the partition plan.
Kermit Roosevelt, Teddy Roosevelt’s nephew and a legendary intelligence agent, was another who was deeply disturbed by events, noting:
“The process by which Zionist Jews have been able to promote American support for the partition of Palestine demonstrates the vital need of a foreign policy based on national rather than partisan interests…. Only when the national interests of the United States, in their highest terms, take precedence over all other considerations, can a logical, farseeing foreign policy be evolved. No American political leader has the right to compromise American interests to gain partisan votes…”[112]
He went on:
“The present course of world crisis will increasingly force upon Americans the realization that their national interests and those of the proposed Jewish state in Palestine are going to conflict. It is to be hoped that American Zionists and non-Zionists alike will come to grips with the realities of the problem.”
Truman wrote in his memoirs: “I do not think I ever had as much pressure and propaganda aimed at the White House as I had in this instance.” There were now about a million dues-paying Zionists in the U.S.[113]
Then, as now, in addition to unending pressure there was financial compensation, Truman reportedly receiving a suitcase full of money from Zionists while on his train campaign around the country.[114]

Personal influences on Truman

One person key in such Zionist financial connections to Truman was Abraham Feinberg, a wealthy businessman who was later to play a similar role with Kennedy and Johnson.
While many Americans at the time and since have been aware of Truman’s come-from-behind win over Dewey, few people know about the critical role of Feinberg and the Zionist lobby in financing Truman’s victory. (When the CIA later discovered that Feinberg also helped to finance illegal gun-running to Zionist groups, the Truman administration looked the other way.[115] )
An individual inside the US government who worked to influence policy was David K. Niles, executive assistant first to FDR and then to Truman. Niles, according to author Alfred Lilienthal, was “a member of a select group of confidential advisers with an often-quoted passion for anonymity. Niles… though occasionally publicized as Mr. Truman’s Mystery Man, remained totally unknown to the public.”[116]
Behind the scenes Niles was regularly briefed by the head of the Washington Office of the Zionist Organization of America (ZOA).
When it was discovered that top secret information was being passed on to the Israeli government, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Omar Bradley told Truman he would have to choose between Bradley and Niles. Not long after, Niles resigned and went on a visit to Israel.[117]
Another who helped influence Truman was his old Kansas City friend and business partner, Eddie Jacobson, active in B’nai B’rith and “a passionate believer in Jewish nationalism,” who was able to procure Zionist access to the President at key times.[118] Truman credited Jacobson with making a contribution of “decisive importance.”[119]
Still another was Sam Rosenman, a political advisor to Truman, who screened State Department memos sent to Truman. A longtime diplomat reports that one of the departments memoranda was returned, unopened, with a notation, “President Truman already knows your views and doesn’t need this.”[120]
Evan M Wilson, a career diplomat who had been U.S. Consul General in Jerusalem, later wrote that Truman had been largely motivated by “domestic political considerations.”[121] At least one of Truman’s key policy speeches had been drafted primarily by the Washington representative of the Jewish Agency.[122]
Acting Secretary of State James E. Webb in a dispatch to Secretary of State Acheson noted the obvious: “Past record suggests Israel has had more influence with US than has US with Israel.”[123]

Pro-Israel Pressure on General Assembly Members

When it was clear that, despite US support, the partition recommendation did not have the two-thirds support of the UN General Assembly required to pass, Zionists pushed through a delay in the vote. They then used this period to pressure numerous nations into voting for the recommendation. A number of people later described this campaign.
Robert Nathan, a Zionist who had worked for the US government and who was particularly active in the Jewish Agency, wrote afterward, “We used any tools at hand,” such as telling certain delegations that the Zionists would use their influence to block economic aid to any countries that did not vote the right way.[124]
Another Zionist proudly stated:
“Every clue was meticulously checked and pursued. Not the smallest or the remotest of nations, but was contacted and wooed. Nothing was left to chance.”
Financier and longtime presidential advisor Bernard Baruch told France it would lose U.S. aid if it voted against partition. Top White House executive assistant David Niles organized pressure on Liberia; rubber magnate Harvey Firestone pressured Liberia.[125]
Latin American delegates were told that the Pan-American highway construction project would be more likely if they voted yes. Delegates’ wives received mink coats (the wife of the Cuban delegate returned hers); Costa Rica’s President Jose Figueres reportedly received a blank checkbook. Haiti was promised economic aid if it would change its original vote opposing partition.
Longtime Zionist Supreme Court Justice Felix Frankfurter, along with ten senators and Truman domestic advisor Clark Clifford, threatened the Philippines (seven bills were pending on the Philippines in Congress).
Before the vote on the plan, the Philippine delegate had given a passionate speech against partition, defending the inviolable “primordial rights of a people to determine their political future and to preserve the territorial integrity of their native land…”[126]
The delegate went on to say that he could not believe that the General Assembly would sanction a move that would place the world “back on the road to the dangerous principles of racial exclusiveness and to the archaic documents of theocratic governments.”
]
Twenty-four hours later, after intense Zionist pressure, the Philippine delegate voted in favor of partition.
The U.S. delegation to the U.N. was so outraged when Truman insisted that they support partition that the State Department director of U.N. Affairs was sent to New York to prevent the delegates from resigning en masse.[127]
On Nov 29, 1947 the partition resolution, 181, passed. While this resolution is frequently cited, it was of limited (if any) legal impact. General Assembly resolutions, unlike Security Council resolutions, are not binding on member states. For this reason, the resolution requested that “[t]he Security Council take the necessary measures as provided for in the plan for its implementation,”[128] which the Security Council never did. Legally, the General Assembly Resolution was a “recommendation” and did not create any states.
What it did do, however, was increase the fighting in Palestine. Within months (and before Israel dates the beginning of its founding war) the Zionists had forced out 413,794 people. Zionist military units had stealthily been preparing for war before the UN vote and had acquired massive weaponry, some of it through a widespread network of illicit gunrunning operations in the US under a number of front groups. (see below)
The UN eventually managed to create a temporary and very partial ceasefire. A Swedish UN mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte, who had previously rescued thousands of Jews from the Nazis was dispatched to negotiate an end to the violence. Israeli assassins killed him and Israel continued what it was to call its “war of independence.”[129]
At the end of this war, through a larger military force than that of its adversaries and the ruthless implementation of plans to push out as many non-Jews as possible, Israel came into existence on 78 percent of Palestine.
But let us take a closer look at the violence that followed the UN recommendation.

Massacres and the Conquest of Palestine

The passing of the partition resolution in November 1947 triggered the violence that State Department and Pentagon analysts had predicted and for which Zionists had been preparing. There were at least 33 massacres of Palestinian villages, half of them before a single Arab army joined the conflict.[130] Zionist forces were better equipped and had more men under arms than their opponents[131] and by the end of Israel’s “War of Independence” over 750,000 Palestinian men, women, and children were ruthlessly expelled.[132] Zionists had succeeded in the first half of their goal: Israel, the self-described Jewish State, had come into existence.
The massacres were carried out by Zionist forces, including Zionist militias that had engaged in terrorist attacks in the area for years preceding the partition resolution.[133]
Descriptions of the massacres, by both Palestinians and Israelis, are nightmarish. An Israeli eyewitness reported that at the village of al-Dawayima:
“The children they killed by breaking their heads with sticks. There was not a house without dead….One soldier boasted that he had raped a woman and then shot her.”[134]
One Palestinian woman testified that a man shot her nine-month-pregnant sister and then cut her stomach open with a butcher knife.[135]
One of the better-documented massacres occurred in a small, neutral Palestinian village called Deir Yassin in April 1948 – before a single Arab army had joined the conflict. A Swiss Red Cross representative was one of the first to arrive on the scene, where he found 254 dead, including 145 women, 35 of them pregnant. [136]
Witnesses reported that the attackers lined up families – men, women, grandparents and children, even infants – and shot them. [137]
An eyewitness and future colonel in the Israeli military later wrote of the militia members: “They didn’t know how to fight, but as murderers they were pretty good.”[138]
The Red Cross representative who found the bodies at Deir Yassin arrived in time to see some of the killing in action. He wrote in his diary that Zionist militia members were still entering houses with guns and knives when he arrived. He saw one young Jewish woman carrying a blood-covered dagger and saw another stab an old couple in their doorway. The representative wrote that the scene reminded him of S.S. troops he had seen in Athens.
Richard Catling, British assistant inspector general for the criminal division, reported on “sexual atrocities” committed by Zionist forces. “Many young school girls were raped and later slaughtered,” he reported. “Old women were also molested.”[139]
The Deir Yassin attack was perpetrated by two Zionist militias and coordinated with the main Zionist forces, whose elite unit participated in part of the operation.[140] The heads of the two militias, Menachem Begin and Ytzakh Shamir, later became Prime Ministers of Israel.
Begin sent the following message to his troops about their victory at Deir Yassin:
“Accept my congratulations on this splendid act of conquest. Convey my regards to all the commanders and soldiers. We shake your hands. We are all proud of the excellent leadership and the fighting spirit in this great attack. We stand to attention in memory of the slain. We lovingly shake the hands of the wounded. Tell the soldiers: you have made history in Israel with your attack and your conquest. Continue thus until victory. As in Deir Yassin, so everywhere, we will attack and smite the enemy. God, God, Thou has chosen us for conquest.”[141]
Approximately six months later, Begin (who had also publicly taken credit for a number of other terrorist acts, including blowing up the King David Hotel in Jerusalem, killing 91 people) came on a tour of America. The tour’s sponsors included famous playwright Ben Hecht, a fervent Zionist who applauded Irgun violence,[142] and eventually included 11 Senators, 12 governors, 70 Congressmen, 17 Justices, and numerous other public officials.
The State Department, fully aware of his violent activities in Palestine, tried to reject Begin’s visa but was overruled by Truman.[143]
Begin later proudly admitted his terrorism in an interview for American television. When the interviewer asked him, “How does it feel, in the light of all that’s going on, to be the father of terrorism in the Middle East?” Begin proclaimed, “In the Middle East? In all the world!”

Terrorists set up U.S. front groups

Hillel Kook and “The Bergson Boys”

The Irgun had been operating in the U.S. since the 1930s. As one of their leaders later wrote, “It was in Europe of those days that the idea of transferring the focal point of our activity to the United States was born, and it was from there that we left on a mission that lasted far longer than originally planned…”[144]
The “we” referred to a small group known as the Irgun Delegation that operated in the U.S. from the late 1930s until 1948 and that formed a half dozen front organizations for what they themselves called “a military operation.”[145]
Two of the leaders were Yitshaq Ben-Ami (father of Jeremy Ben-Ami, founder of today’s J-Street) and “Peter Bergson,” the pseudonym of the senior Irgun officer working outside Palestine, Hillel Kook. The group is often called the Bergson Group.[146]
Among their numerous activities they lobbied Congress and the White House, organized a march on Washington, D.C. of 500 Rabbis, placed full-page ads in newspapers around the U.S., and produced a pageant “We Will Never Die!” celebrating the Jewish contribution to Western civilization, written by Ben Hecht, directed by Moss Hart, featuring music by Kurt Weil, and starring Edward G. Robinson.
Forty thousand attended the extravaganza’s New York performances. It then went on to play in most of America’s largest cities.[147]
While the various organizations created by the Irgun Delegation frequently pushed for rescuing European Jews, one of the major demands was for the creation of a “Jewish Army of Stateless and Palestinian Jews.” This was a goal that Revisionist Zionists had sought even before the Nazi holocaust had begun and is believed to have had a mixed agenda.
Author William Rubinstein writes, “It is rather difficult to believe that Bergson’s implausible proposal did not have far more to do with creating the nucleus of a Jewish Palestinian force, to be used against the British and the Arabs, than with saving Europe’s Jews from the Nazis.”[148]
Critics point out that the delegation did not manage to rescue any Jews during the Nazi holocaust.[149]
Bergson-Kook’s uncle was Rabbi Avraham Yitzhak Kook, often known as “Rabbi Kook the Elder.” Rabbi Kook was originally from Eastern Europe, had worked toward the Balfour Declaration in Britain, and eventually became the “Chief Rabbi of Palestine.”
Perhaps his most significant accomplishment was to devise an ideology that merged a kabalistic version of religious Judaism with political Zionism, founding an extremist religious Zionism that continues today.[150]
The Cabbala teaches that non-Jews are the embodiment of Satan, and that the world was created solely for the sake of Jews.[151] Rabbi Kook, who achieved saintly status among his followers in Israel and the U.S., stated: “The difference between a Jewish soul and souls of non-Jews… is greater and deeper than the difference between a human soul and the souls of cattle.”[152]
In addition to spanning the Jewish religious-secular continuum, the Irgun Delegation spanned the political spectrum from left to right. Its historian Judith Baumel writes that it “evinced many of the unique characteristics of Eastern European protofascism” while also forming partnerships with communists and Jews who belonged to left-wing American groups.
All of this was hidden from view, however, as the “Bergson Boys” aimed for the American man in the street, using tantalizing slogans, illustrated advertisements, and “seductive curiosity-whetting gimmicks.” As Baumel notes, the Irgun Delegation’s primary triumph was to understand “the power of Madison Avenue.”[153]

Rabbi Korff and the “Political Action Committee for Palestine”

Another terrorist front group, the Political Action Committee for Palestine, was formed by Rabbi Baruch Korff[154], who indirectly admitted that the financing of terrorism was among its activities.[155]
In actuality, Korff did more than just finance terrorism.
In 1946 British intelligence uncovered plots by Jewish terrorists to assassinate the British foreign minister. Details were heavily censored from the public for many years, but eventually it came out that Korff was part of this.[156]
In 1947 Rabbi Korff and his group planned to drop explosive bombs on the British foreign office, accompanied by 10,000 Stern Gang leaflets. The plot was foiled by a young American aviator they had tried to recruit, Reginald Gilbert, promising him “lucrative jobs” after the mission was completed.[157]
Gilbert, who had flown 136 combat missions over Europe, shooting down three German planes and damaging seven, informed the American Embassy, and then worked with Scotland Yard and the Paris police to have the would-be assassins arrested. French police, who said they “feared for the flier’s life if the Stern gang ever caught up with him,” flew him to London until he could return to the U.S.[158]
Although almost no one remembers this plot, it was headline news at the time in newspapers across the United States, [159] though many sanitized versions mentioned only the leaflets.
In a first-hand account of the plot published by the New York Herald Tribune, Gilbert writes that the group planned much more than a leaflet drop. The first idea was to drop bombs on Parliament, but the target was subsequently changed to the Foreign Ministry, “because Korff held a grudge against that office for refusing him a visa to Palestine.”
When Gilbert (who, at the direction of the Paris police, was pretending to go along with the plot) mentioned that fog might prevent them from locating the exact target, Korff told him in that case they would just drop the bombs anywhere on London. When Gilbert protested that innocent people might be killed, Rabbi Korff replied, “They are British, so they are our enemy.’” [160]
Korff then came up with various stories. At one point he claimed that Gilbert had been the guilty party. Next, he and Peter Bergson claimed that the plot was a British “frameup” and that Gilbert was a British agent.[161]
According to the London Times, Rabbi Korff later said that “millions of dollars had been subscribed by private American sources’ to fund the purchase of the aircraft.”[162]
In 1948 Korff published a large advertisement in the New York Post calling a State Department policy against enforcing partition “pure and simple anti-Semitism… plain everyday anti-Semitism, incorporated in the hearts and minds of those who govern free America.”[163]
Later, Rabbi Korff became a close friend and strong supporter of President Richard Nixon, who called him “my rabbi.”[164] Korff is reported to have influenced Nixon’s strong support for Israel and efforts to allow Soviet Jews to emigrate.[165]
Korff served as a chaplain for the Massachusetts Department of Mental Health for 21 years.[166] He later acted as a consultant to Brown University in conjunction with the school’s acquisition of his archives.[167] According to the London Independent, Korff had many supporters in high places in Israel, including Ytzahak Rabin and Golda Meir.[168]
The “Sonneborn Institute”
Another American front group for illegal Zionist activities was known as the “Sonneborn Institute,” named after its founder, Rudolf G. Sonneborn, scion of a wealthy German-Jewish family from Baltimore.[169]
Sonneborn had first met Zionist leader and future Israeli Prime Minister David Ben Gurion in 1919 when Sonneborn, at the behest of family friend Supreme Court Justice Brandeis, had traveled to the Versailles peace conference as secretary of a Zionist delegation and afterward gone on a tour of Palestine.[170]
In 1945 Sonneborn and Ben Gurion hosted a meeting of 17 well-connected guests at Sonneborn’s Manhattan penthouse. They came from Los Angeles, Toronto, Miami, Birmingham, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Columbus, Minneapolis, St. Louis, Newark, New Haven and New York. One was a rabbi, five were lawyers, and the others were highly successful businessmen.
The purpose, Ben Gurion explained, was to create a secret underground organization that would be the American arm of the Zionist paramilitary in Palestine, the Haganah. The organization was to have a representative in at least 35-40 industry groups, and in one month alone there were meetings in Memphis, Ohio, New Jersey, Cedar Rapids, Iowa City, Baton Rouge, Dallas, Washington DC, and 40 more were scheduled.[171]
Their objective was to raise money and support “for purposes which could not be publicized or even fully disclosed.” A variety of front groups were created for military arms and equipment smuggling of everything from machine guns to B-17s.[172]
Zionist youth groups were organized, the members sometimes helping load guns onto boats headed for Palestine.
US authorities tried to stop what were not only illegal but also extremely damaging activities.
In 1948 the Director of Central Intelligence, Rear Admiral R.H. Hillenkoetter, filed a top-secret report with the Secretary of Defense about the Zionist arms trafficking. He warned, “U.S. National security is unfavorably affected by these developments and it could be seriously jeopardized by continued illicit traffic in the ‘implements of war.’”[173]
Author Grant Smith reports that under Truman “the role of Feinberg and Haganah operative groups active in arms trafficking within the US, like the terrorist charges, would only be lightly investigated and seldom prosecuted.”[174]

Infiltrating displaced person’s camps in Europe to funnel people to Palestine

A similar underground campaign was operating in Europe. Zionist cadres infiltrated Europe’s displaced person’s camps to orchestrate a clandestine operation to funnel people to Palestine.
When it turned out that only a minority of Jewish refugees wished to go to Palestine, a Zionist report by Rabbi Klaussner concluded that “the people must be forced to go to Palestine.”
Author Alfred Lilienthal reports that numerous means were employed, including confiscation of food rations, dismissal from work, expulsion from the camps, taking away legal protection and visa rights; in one case, “even the public flogging of a recalcitrant recruit for the Israel Army.”[175]
The American public, however, was led to believe that European Jews desperately wished to go to Palestine, and the well-organized and well-funded operation behind this (including $25 million from the Jewish Joint Distribution Committee) was hidden from view.
A British general who had been Eisenhower’s deputy credited with the buildup for the Normandy invasion, Sir Frederick Morgan, publicly noted that many of the refugees were well dressed and well fed – “their pockets bulging with money” – and concluded that something must be encouraging their travels.
Morgan commented:
“The Jews seem to have an organized plan for becoming a world force, a weak force numerically, but one which will have a generating power for getting what they want.”
He was attacked viciously by the press and others; comedian Eddie Cantor took out a New York Times ad saying, “I thought Hitler was dead.”
The World Jewish Congress stated officially and duplicitously, “General Morgans allegation of ‘ secret Jewish force inside Europe aiming at a mass exodus to Palestine’ is… fanatically untrue.”
Morgan was forced to apologize, despite, as a pro-Israel author writes, “Morgan’s analysis of the situation was quite correct.”[176]
\
The Sieff group:
Blocking a counter-Balfour declaration

Another secret group working on behalf of Zionism was formed in 1942 by Israel M. Sieff, a British clothing magnate who was temporarily living in the U.S.
The Sieff group was, as historian Grose puts it, “a sophisticated version of Brandeis’s Parushim.”
While its existence was never openly acknowledged, it grew into the secret back channel through official Washington during the last years of FDR’s presidency and the critical first years of Truman’s.
Its members included such men as Ben Cohen, a member of the White House staff; Robert Nathan, in intelligence; David Ginsburg, a New Deal bureaucrat; David Lilienthal, chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority, and David Niles, a high White House official under both Roosevelt and Truman. Grose reports:
“The little nucleus possessed the entree and the clout to carry the message of Jewish Palestine into the highest policymaking circles – through casual suggestion, indirection, chance remarks among well-placed colleagues in the corridors of power and the salons of social Washington.”[177]
When State Department and English diplomats, concerned that Zionist activities were causing serious harm to the war effort, were about to issue a “reverse Balfour” declaration on July 27, 1943 calling on these activities to cease, the Sieff group, Felix Frankfurter, Henry Morgenthau, Jr., David Niles, Bernard Baruch, et al took emergency, and successful, action to block it.[178]

Palestinian refugees
By 1949 as a result of Israel’s “War of Independence” and its campaign to cleanse the land of as many non-Jews as possible,[179] there were hundreds of thousands of Palestinian refugees. The U.S. Representative in Israel sent an urgent report to Truman:
“Arab refugee tragedy is rapidly reaching catastrophic proportions and should be treated as a disaster. …..Of approximately 400,000 refugees approaching winter with cold heavy rains will, it is estimated, kill more than 100,000 old men, women and children who are shelterless and have little or no food.”[180]
The number of refugees continued to grow, reaching at least three-quarters of a million. U.S. Diplomats in Cairo and Amman described a disastrous situation in which the “almost nonexistent resources” of Arab countries inundated by desperate, starving Palestinian refugees were stretched almost to the breaking point.
The State Department reported that during the last nine months of 1948 Arab states had donated $11 million to refugee aid, stating, “This sum, in light of the very slender budgets of most of these governments, is relatively enormous.”[181]
During this time, the report noted, “…the total direct relief offered…by the Israeli government to date consists of 500 cases of oranges.”[182]
Meanwhile, Israel had acquired properties worth at least $480 million in 1947 dollars; one estimate put the figure at $35 billion in 1990 dollars.[183]
Journalist and academic Anders Strindberg reports:
“In the process of ‘Judaizing’ Palestine, numerous convents, hospices, seminaries, and churches were either destroyed or cleared of their Christian owners and custodians. In one of the most spectacular attacks on a Christian target, on May 17, 1948, the Armenian Orthodox Patriarchate was shelled with about 100 mortar rounds—launched by Zionist forces from the already occupied monastery of the Benedictine Fathers on Mount Zion.
“The bombardment also damaged St. Jacob’s Convent, the Archangel’s Convent, and their appended churches, their two elementary and seminary schools, as well as their libraries, killing eight people and wounding 120.”[184]
Truman, whose caving in to Zionist pressures had helped create the disaster, now tried to convince Israel to allow the refugees to return to their homes. His main representative working on this was Mark Ethridge, former publisher of the Louisville Courier Journal.
Ethridge was disgusted at Israel’s refusal, reporting to the State Department:
“What I can see is an abortion of justice and humanity to which I do not want to be midwife…”[185]
The State Department finally threatened to withhold $49 million of unallocated funds from an Export-Import Bank loan to Israel if it did not allow at least 200,000 refugees to return. The U.S. coordinator on Palestine Refugee Matters George C. McGhee delivered the message to the Israeli ambassador and later described his response:
“The ambassador looked me straight in the eye and said, in essence, that I wouldn’t get by with this move, that he would stop it… Within an hour of my return to my office I received a message from the White House that the President wished to dissociated himself from any withholding of the Ex-Im Bank loan.” [186]
Edwin Wright, a State Department Middle East specialist from 1945-66, was the subject of an oral history interview many years later for the Truman Library. He stated when this was completed:
“The material I gave Professor McKinzie was of a very controversial nature–one almost taboo in U.S. circles, inasmuch as I accused the Zionists of using political pressures and even deceit in order to get the U.S. involved in a policy of supporting a Zionist theocratic, ethnically exclusive and ambitious Jewish State. I, and my associates in the State Department, felt this was contrary to U.S. interests and we were overruled by President Truman.”[187]

Zionist influence in the media

As historian Richard Stevens notes, Zionists early on learned to exploit the essential nature of the American political system: that policies can be made and un-made through force of public opinion and pressure. Procuring influence in the media, both paid and unpaid, has been a key component of their success.[188]
From early on, the Zionist narrative largely dominated news coverage of the region. A study of four leading newspapers’ 1917 coverage showed that editorial opinion almost universally favored the Zionist position. Author Kathleen Christison notes that “editorials and news stories alike applauded Jewish enterprise, heralding a Jewish return to Palestine as ‘glorious news’.” Other studies showed the same situation for the 1920s. Christison writes:
“The relatively heavy press coverage is an indicator of the extent of Zionist influence even in this early period. One scholar has estimated that, as of the mid-1920s, approximately half of all New York Times articles were placed by press agents, suggesting that U.S. Zionist organizations may have placed many of the articles on Zionism’s Palestine endeavors.”[189]
At one point when the State Department was trying to convince Israel to allow Palestinian refugees to return, Secretary of State Marshall wrote:
“The leaders of Israel would make a grave miscalculation if they thought callous treatment of this tragic issue could pass unnoted by world opinion.”[190]
Marshall underestimated the ability of Zionists to minimize the amount of information on this from reaching Americans. A State Department study in March 1949 found the American public was “unaware of the Palestine refugee problem, since it has not been hammered away at by the press or radio.”[191]
As author Alfred Lilienthal explained in 1953:
“The capture of the American press by Jewish nationalism was, in fact, incredibly complete. Magazines as well as newspapers, in news stories as well as editorial columns, gave primarily the Zionist views of events before, during, and after partition.”[192]
When the Saturday Evening Post published an article by Milton Mayer that criticized Jewish nationalism (and carried two other articles giving opposing views), Zionists organized what was probably the worst attack on the Post in its long history.
The magazine was inundated with vitriolic mail, subscriptions cancelled, and advertising withdrawn. The Post learned its lesson, later refusing to publish an article that would have again exposed it to such an onslaught, even though the editor acknowledged that the rejected piece was a “good and eloquent article.”[193]
This was typical in a campaign in which Zionists exploited sympathy for victimized Jews, and when this did not sufficiently skew reporting about Palestine, they used financial pressure. Lilienthal writes:
“If ‘voluntary’ compliance was not ‘understanding’ enough, there was always the matter of Jewish advertising and circulation. The threat of economic recriminations from Jewish advertisers, combined with the fact that the fatal label of ‘Anti-Semite’ would be pinned on any editor stepping out of line, assured fullest press cooperation.”[194]
Author Christison records that from the moment partition was voted by the UN, “the press played a critical role in building a framework for thinking that would endure for decades.” She writes that shortly before May 15, 1948, the scheduled beginning of the Jewish State, a total of 24 U.S., British, and Australian reporters converged on Palestine.
“Virtually all reporting was from the Jewish perspective. The journals the Nation and the New Republic both showed what one scholar calls ‘an overt emotional partiality’ toward the Jews. No item published in either journal was sympathetic to the Arabs, and no correspondent was stationed in Arab areas of Palestine, although some reporters lived with, and sometimes fought alongside, Jewish settlers.”[195]
Bookstores were inundated with books espousing the Zionist point of view to enthusiastic press reviews. Conversely, the few books published that dared to provide a different perspective were given scathing reviews, when they were reviewed at all.[196]
When Professor Millar Burrows of the Yale School of Divinity, a distinguished scholar and archaeologist, wrote Palestine Is Our Business, the American Zionist Council distributed a publication labeling his book “an anti-Semitic opus.”
In fact, Professor Burrows’ life history showed the opposite. He had been one of the organizers and Vice-President of the National Committee to Combat Anti-Semitism and had long been active in the interfaith movement in New Haven.[197]
In his book Burrows wrote, “A terrible wrong has been done to the native people of [Palestine.] The blame for what has happened must be distributed among all concerned, including ourselves. Our own interests, both as Americans and as Christians, are endangered. The interests of the Jewish people also have suffered. And we can still do something about it.”[198]
Burrows emphasized: “This is a question of the most immediate and vital concern to many hundreds of thousands of living people. It is an issue on which one concerned with right and wrong must take a position and try to something.”[199]
Burrows wrote that imposing a Jewish state on Palestine violated the principle of self-determination, and noted that the “right of a majority of the people of a country to choose their own government would hardly be questioned in any other instance.”[200]
Burrows criticized what he termed “pro-Zionist reporting,” and pointed out that “a “quite different view of the situation would emerge if the word ‘resistance’ were used” when describing Palestinian and Arab fighting in 1948.[201] He wrote that the “plan for Palestine advocated by the Arabs was a democracy with freedom of religion and complete separation of religion and the State, as in this country.”[202]
In his conclusion, Burrows stated: “All the Arab refugees who want to return to their homes must be allowed and helped to do so, and must be restored to their own villages, houses, and farms or places of business, with adequate compensation from the Government of Israel for destruction and damage.”[203]
He also stated: “Homes must be found in this country or elsewhere for Jews desiring to become citizens of other countries that Israel, and their religious, civic, social, and economic rights must be guaranteed.[204]
In their onslaught against him, Zionists accused Burrows of “careless writing, disjointed reporting and extremely biased observation.”[205]
Another author who described the misery of Palestinian refugees (as well as the suffering of Jewish suffering in Israel), Willie Snow Ethridge, was similarly attacked by pro-Israel reviewers. When she was invited to address the Maryland Teachers Association and chose to speak on her book, Journey to Jerusalem, she was told she must speak on a different subject. The secretary of the association explained that so much pressure had been brought on him that he would lose his job if she didn’t changed to another topic.[206]
Still another was the eminent dean of Barnard College, Virginia Gildersleeve, a highly distinguished personage with impeccable credentials as a humanitarian. When she wrote that Palestinian refugees should be allowed to return to their homes, a campaign was begun against her as a Christian “anti-Semite.”[207]
Gildersleeve, who had been instrumental in drafting the Preamble to the U.N. Charter and had taken a leading role in creating the U.N. Human Rights Commission, later devoted herself to working for human rights in the Middle East. She testified before Congressional committees and lobbied President Truman, to no avail. In her memoir, she attributed such failures to “the Zionist control of the media of communication.”[208]

Dorothy Thompson, played by Katharine Hepburn & Lauren Bacall

America’s most famous female journalist of the time also attempted valiantly, but unsuccessfully, to tell Americans about Palestinian refugees.
According to the Britannica encyclopedia, Dorothy Thompson was “one of the most famous journalists of the 20th Century.”[209]
Her column was in newspapers all over the country, her radio program listened to by tens of millions of Americans, she had been married to one of America’s most famous novelists, graced the cover of Time magazine, been profiled by America’s top magazines and was so well-known that “Woman of the Year,” a Hollywood movie featuring Kathryn Hepburn and Spencer Tracey and a Broadway play starring Lauren Bacall, were based on Thompson.[210]
She had been the first journalist to be expelled by Adolph Hitler and had raised the alarm against the Nazis long ahead of most other journalists. She had originally supported Zionism, but then after the war had visited the region in person. She began to speak about Palestinian refugees, narrated a documentary about their plight[211], and condemned Jewish terrorism.
Thompson was viciously attacked in an orchestrated campaign of what she termed “career assassination and character assassination.” She wrote: “It has been boundless, going into my personal life.” She wrote of this organized attack:
“…when letter after letter is couched in almost identical phraseology I do not think the authors have been gifted with telepathy.”[212]
She was dropped by the New York Post, whose editor Ted Thackry, and his wife, Dorothy Schiff, were said by other Post editors to be close to the Irgun and Menachem Begin. Begin, the Irgunists, the Stern Gang and other Zionists organizations had what was termed “inordinate access” to the Post’s editorial board.[213]
(Dorothy Schiff, granddaughter of financier Jacob Schiff and owner of the Post, later divorced Thackry and married Rudolf Sonneborn.[214])
Thompson’s mail was filled with ferocious accusations that she was “anti-Semitic.” One such correspondent told her that her “filthy incitements to pogroms” would not be tolerated by New York’s Jews.[215]
Before long, her column and radio programs, her speaking engagements, and her fame were all gone. Today, she has largely been erased from history.
In the coming decades other Americans were similarly written out of history, forced out of office, lives and careers destroyed; history distorted, re-written, erased; bigotry promoted, supremacy disguised, facts replaced by fraud.
Very few people know this history. The excellent books that document it are largely out of print, their facts and very existence virtually unknown to the vast majority of Americans, even those who focus on the Middle East. Instead, false theories have been promulgated, mendacious analyses promoted, chosen authors celebrated, others assigned to oblivion.
George Orwell once wrote: “’Who controls the past, controls the future. Who controls the present controls the past.’.”[216]
Perhaps by rediscovering the past, we’ll gain control of the present, and save the future.
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Blind to Injustice

by Dr. Paul J Balles

Dr. Paul J BallesSaturday, June 16th, 2012    

Much of the public seems blind to the truth of major events and issues that have long needed to be addressed openly.

  • The injustice of the occupation suffered by the Palestinians
  • The doubts about the 9/11 commission findings
  • The under-reporting of child sexual abuse
  • The cover-up of Israel’s attack on the USS Liberty
  • The lies about who holds power in a democracy

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

Palestinians have been subjected to Israeli terrorism and colonial rule for more than six decades.

Israeli historian Ilan Pappe briefly describes what the victims suffer while the rulers rejoice:

Beginning with the ethnic cleansing of 80 percent of Palestine in 1948, and Israel’s occupation of the remaining 20 percent of the land in 1967, Palestinians in Israel are now enclaved in mega-prisons, bantustans, and besieged cantons, and singled out through discriminatory policies.”

Pappe reminds us that the peace process “has only increased the number of Israeli settlements in Palestine, from less than 10 percent of Palestine in 1936 to over 90 per cent of the country today.”

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

Almost 11 years ago, the events now referred to as 9/11 shook America and most of the rest of the world. On November 27, 2002 the 9/11 Commission was set up.
When the commission’s report was released in 2004 Richard Posner of the New York Times observed that “the commission’s analysis and recommendations are unimpressive.” Part of the delay was due to the administration’s hold on documents.

Since that time, organizations like 9/11 Truth.Org have amassed an incredible collection of evidence challenging both the media and the commission’s reports.

Dozens of books, cover everything from tales of brave “first responder” to conspiracy theories and many unanswered questions like those posed by David Ray Griffin in The New Pearl Harbor.

None of the doubt and challenging questions posed by the books and alternative media has awakened the public enough to demand answers from the mainstream media. Meanwhile the media engages in repetitious trifling about presidential political candidates

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

Sexual abuse of children has long been either unreported or under-reported. In a current trial in America, 15 years of child abuse went unreported until 2011.
A case now in America involves a former Penn State coaching assistant who faces charges that he sexually abused 10 boys over a 15-year period.
A number of people who worked with the coach revealed that they knew of instances of reported abuse. It took 15 years for the truth to see some daylight?

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

One of the most duplicitous acts is the pretence of patriotism when a country celebrates its servicemen while sacrificing them for political gain.

On Memorial Day, America pays tribute to those who serve in the military and honours those who lost their lives in combat.

In a criminal attack 45 years ago, Israeli planes and torpedoes attempted to destroy the USS Liberty murdering 34 of the sailors. Those serving on the ship attempted to get help but were denied it by President Lyndon Johnson and Secretary of Defence Robert McNamara.

It was “one of the classic all-American cover-ups,” said retired former Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Thomas Moorer.

Despite regular efforts to expose the truth on the internet, the mainstream media and the US government continue to refuse to expose the culprits.

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

One of the most disingenuous positions of most Westerners holds that the only legitimate form of government is democracy.

Chris Hayes, an MSNBC anchor, regularly spouts the line that democracy “forces those in power to listen to those without power”
That statement is unadulterated rubbish. If there was any truth to the comment, it would apply equally to absolute monarchs who habitually listen to their subjects.

Hayes’s statement, however, is simply untrue as applied to democracy. In America, power rests in the hands of powerful corporations and lobbies who completely ignore those outside of their privileged circles.

Does anyone care? The blind wear blinders.

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian  
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

Thaer Halahleh: Making His Own Palestinian Destiny

Thaer Halahleh narrowly skirted death when Israel agreed to a deal that ended his 78-day hunger strike (photo: AFP -Gali Tibbon)
Published Wednesday, June 6, 2012
Thaer Halahleh narrowly skirted death when Israel agreed to a deal that ended his 78-day hunger strike, returning home on Tuesday night after languishing behind Israeli bars without charge for over two years.

“I had been in detention for 25 months, and in solitary confinement for 78 days, which is the hunger strike period,” Halahleh, his speech frail after the ordeal, told Al-Akhbar.

There was concern Israel would renege on its promise – as it has so often done in 64 years of its occupation of Palestine – and renew Halahleh’s detention once again.

“I threatened the authorities with going on a silent hunger strike in case they didn’t release me,” he said.
Israel has already renewed dozens of administrative detention sentences despite having made a deal with 2,000 Palestinian hunger strikers, pledging their release at the end of their current terms.
The Jewish state has also maintained a prohibition on family visits to a number of detainees, again in violation of the deal.

Halahleh’s hunger strike has left him weak and thin, but is on the road to recovery.
“I am at al-Khalil hospital and staying there to take the necessary tests. Although I still feel pain when I eat sometimes, I am getting better,” he said.

Thaer, whose name means “rebel”, expressed deep joy at seeing his family, including his two-year-old daughter, Lamar, whom he barely knows thanks to Israel’s stringent restrictions on family visits.
“I want to spend time with my only daughter who still doesn’t know me and refused to acknowledge my presence until now,” he said bitterly, demonstrating deep resentment at the Israeli occupiers that robbed him of two years of his daughter’s life.

But despite winning his own freedom, Halahleh could not contain the sadness at the thought of the many friends he left behind.

“I am overwhelmed with happiness and I am so glad to see my family again with their warm welcome. At the same time, I feel sad to have left my fellow detained brothers who hold the same mission,” he said.

Israel’s draconian administrative detention policy dates back to the British mandate era of historic Palestine.

The policy enables Israel to detain Palestinians indefinitely without charge, and without disclosing the evidence supposedly gathered against them.

Human rights groups, including Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, have slammed the policy as a violation of international humanitarian law.

Hundreds of Palestinians languish in Israeli prisons under the policy, which is just one of the many injustices Palestinian people suffer from under Israeli rule.

Halahleh described the inhumane conditions of the Israeli prison.

“The conditions in the jail were extremely harsh. They aren’t fit for a human to live in. I was under the grip of the [Israeli] occupation which has all the means to provoke and pressure me.”

Halahleh has spent much of the past 15 years behind Israeli bars. The first time the 33-year-old was arrested by the Israeli occupation army was just before his senior year in high school.

Due to his frequent arrests and time spent in prison, Halahleh only managed to study for one year at Hebron University. He later managed to open a used furniture store.

He expressed hope in returning to his studies and continuing his furniture store business.

“I still haven’t graduated from university. I think I will pursue my Quran and Islamic Sharia studies which I had started before I was detained. I will also handle the management of the furniture store I own,” he said.

Halahleh wrote the following to his daughter on the final days of his hunger strike, concerned that his non-violent resistance to Israeli occupation would take his life.

”My Beloved Lamar, forgive me because the occupation took me away from you, and took away from me the pleasure of witnessing my firstborn child that I have always prayed to God to see, to kiss, to be happy with. It is not your fault; this is our destiny as Palestinian people to have our lives and the lives of our children taken away from us, to be apart from each other and to have a miserable life.”

The letter describes the pain that Palestinian people must endure, and the misery Israel is bent on imposing upon them. But in Halahleh’s case, his strength won him his freedom.

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian  
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

Israeli Independence Day in Jerusalem 2012

DateTuesday, June 5, 2012 at 10:04AM AuthorGilad Atzmon

So far, the orthodox Torah Jews are the only genuine Jewish anti Zionists. Interestingly enough they do not attempt to dominate the Palestinian solidarity discourse. Bless them all..

River to Sea Uprooted Palestinian  
The views expressed in this article are the sole responsibility of the author and do not necessarily reflect those of this Blog!

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