«ثنائية الجيش والدفاع الشعبي» تعمّق مأزق العدوان الأميركي

أبريل 16, 2019

العميد د. أمين محمد حطيط

بعد إيران ولبنان والعراق وسورية، ها هي فنزويلا تخطو خطوة مماثلة وتعتمد نظرية «الدفاع الشعبي» الرديف للجيش الرسمي، حيث أعلن الرئيس مادورو هذا القرار معتبراً «قوات الدفاع الشعبي في البلاد، ستصبح جزءاً من القوات المسلحة الفنزويلية». قرار جاء ليشكل ضربة قاسية لما تخطط له أميركا من غزو لفنزويلا، وتجعل كلّ سلوكيات التهويل والتهديد الأميركي جوفاء لا يكترث بها، فأميركا تعلم جيداً ما معنى أن يكون كلّ الشعب مقاوماً وما معنى أن تواجه القوات المحتلة حركة مقاومة شعبية تنطلق ضدّ الاحتلال ولا تتوقف حتى زواله. وللوقوف على أهمية اعتماد هذه النظرية نعود إلى ما سبق واعتمدته الدول الاستعمارية من سياسة في مجال بناء الجيوش للدول الأخرى. وكيف جاءت هذه النظرية رداً عليها وأفشلتها.

ففي سياق الإمساك بالدول في العالم الثالث اعتمد الغرب عامة وأميركا بشكل خاص سياسة الإمساك بالقدرات العسكرية والتحكم بالجيوش وبسياسة التسلح في تلك الدول. وكان واضحاً أن جيوش دول العالم الثالث تلتزم بالإطار التنظيمي الذي تضعه لها احدى دول الغرب، كما أنها تلتزم بالعقيدة القتالية ومستوى ومصدر التسليح وأنظمة القتال التي توضع لها من قبلها وكان ذلك يبعث الطمأنينة لدى الغرب بأن تلك الجيوش التي لا تملك مصادر تسليحها والتي تخضع مباشرة أو مداورة لإملاءات الخبراء الأجانب، أن تلك الجيوش لن تجازف في القيام بأيّ مهمة عسكرية لا تكون محلّ رضا او قبول او تشجيع دول الغرب، وبهذه الصيغة معطوفة على الصيغة السياسية للحكم تكون دول الغرب حافظت على الإمساك بقرار تلك الدول واطمأنت لانصياعها وعدم الخروج عن سيطرتها.

لكن دولاً في المنطقة خرجت عن السياسة الأميركية وتملّصت من قيودها واستطاعت في حقبة من الزمن أن تحقق إنجازات وطنية هامة كما هو الحال مثلاً في مصر وسورية اللتين استطاعتا تنظيم جيش لكلّ منهما امتلك القدرة على تحقيق انتصارات في الميدان على «إسرائيل» كما حصل في العام 1973، لكن أميركا والغرب كانت تتنبّه للثغرات في سياستها التضييقية وتسارع إلى سدّها بشكل يمكنها من العودة للتحكم بمسار الأمور وتمنع عن مثل هذه الدول التي لا تخضع لقرارها السياسي الوصول إلى مصادر القوة.

أما الشيء الذي لم تستطع دول الغرب إيجاد حلّ له، فهو ما بات يُعرف بنظرية الثنائية العسكرية لقوى الدفاع الوطني في الدول التي تحفظ استقلالها الوطني وتمتنع عن الدخول في دائرة التبعية للقرار الوطني، فكرة عرفتها إيران ونفذتها تحت عنوان الحرس الثوري والجيش الرسمي ومعهم قوات الباسيج. ثم بدأت الفكرة تنتشر في المنطقة، فشهد للبنان المقاومة إلى جانب الجيش وأرسى معادلة القوة القائمة على الجيش والشعب والمقاومة، وشهد العراق الحشد الشعبي إلى جانب الجيش وفي سورية كانت قوات الدفاع الوطني إلى جانب الجيش السوري ثم كانت الضربة الكبرى التي تتلقاها أميركا اليوم هو ما تشهده فنزويلا من الاتجاه إلى تشكيل قوى الدفاع الشعبي التي ينتظم فيها ملايين من الفنزويليين ليرفدوا الجيش في مهام الدفاع عن الوطن ويفشلوا أي مخطط أميركي لغزو فنزويلا وإسقاط حكومتها الشرعية برئاسة مادورو وتنصيب حكومة انقلابية عميلة لأميركا بدلاً منها.

إن الفكر العسكري المقاوم الذي ابتدع فكرة الدفاع الوطني القائم على الثنائية المؤسسية، حول المواجهة مع العدوان والاستعمار الاحتلالي من مواجهة مع الجيش يقود فرد إلى مواجهة مع الشعب لا يمكن أن يصادر قراره حاكم واعتمد للمواجهة أساليب قتال تجعل سلاح الخصم المتطوّر والفتاك، سلاحاً محدود الفعالية في مواجهة خلايا تتقن القتال من الجيل الرابع، أو تشحن نفسها لتتحوّل قنابل بشرية ترعب العدو وتفتك بمراكزه وتحشداته.

لقد وقفت أميركا عاجزة عند المشهد الجديد في دفاعات من لا يرضخ لحكمها وقرارها، ما جعلها تتجه أيضاً إلى اعتماد الثنائية المعاكسة فلجأت إلى استراتيجية القوة الناعمة وابتدعت منظمات إرهابية تواجه بها قوى المقاومة والدفاع الوطني الشعبي من جهة أولى، واعتمدت سياسة التجويع للتركيع عبر اللجوء إلى التدابير الكيديّة والحرب الاقتصاديّة التي أسمتها عقوبات بحق الخارجين عن إرادتها.

وباتت المواجهة بين أميركا وبين الآخرين المتمرّدين على قراراتها وسياستها الاستعمارية تشمل اليوم حرباً إرهابية وحرباً اقتصادية مع تلويح بالحرب العسكرية التي تشنّها الجيوش التقليدية، وقد أثبتت السنوات الماضية من هذا العقد انّ الحرب الإرهابية قادرة على التدمير والتشريد، لكنها غير قادرة على فرض الإرادة الأميركية على الدول المستهدفة إذا توفرت إرادة المقاومة لدى حكامها واعتمدت الثنائية الدفاعية المتمثلة بالجيش وقوى الدفاع الشعبي المتعدّد التسميات حرس ثوري – مقاومة حشد شعبي دفاع وطني الخ… أما العقوبات الاقتصادية فرغم أنها أحدثت بعض الأثر في حياة الشعوب وعرّضت رفاهيتهم لأضرار شتى فإنها ومع وجود الإرادة والصلابة والوطنية تبقى عجزة عن الوصول إلى الأثر الذي تتوخاه أميركا.

ومع هذا المشهد ونتائج المواجهة، ترى أميركا أنّ التهديد والتهويل بالحرب لا يجدي نفعاً مع وضوح الرؤية لدى الأطراف التي يوجه إليها التهديد مع وجود إرادة الدفاع لديها ووجود قوة قتالية متنوّعة مستعدة للمواجهة وقادرة على خوض الدفاع والقتال الدفاعي المتعدّد الأشكال والأجيال، وهذا ما حصل في غربي آسيا ووضع أميركا أمام حالة العجز الميداني الذي ألجأها إلى قرارات استراتيجية علاجية برأيها، كان أولها قرار تجميد الوضع السوري مع اللجوء إلى حرب استنزاف منخفضة السقف، وقرار الانزياح إلى أفريقيا وتفجير الوضع مجدّداً في بعض دولها العربية الجزائر والسودان فضلاً عن ليبيا وقرار تصنيف مؤسسة رسمية إيرانية منظمة إرهابية الحرس الثوري .

لكن أميركا تدرك أنّ الغرض الأساسي من سياستها وهو تركيع دول مركزية في منطقة الشرق الأوسط وفي طليعتها ايران وسورية أمر لن يتمّ بالعقوبات والحرب الاقتصادية ولم تنجح في تحقيقه الحرب الإرهابية، وأنّ الحرب العسكرية أمر ليس مضمون النتائج في ظلّ إرادة وطنية فولاذية لدى الأنظمة الحاكمة واحتضان شعبي لها وخاصة مع وجود تلك الثنائية الفذّة في تنظيم القوى المدافعة القائمة على جيش رسمي وتشكيلات شعبية، لذلك تشدّد أميركا على سياسة العقوبات الاقتصادية التي هي أيضاً باتت محلّ شكوك في إحداث الآثار المطلوبة مع الخشية إلى انقلاب السحر على الساحر فيها والاضطرار في تطبيقها إلى عمل عسكري ما لا يضمن أن يبقى محدوداً، او القبول بارتفاع جنوني لأسعار النفط واكتواء أميركا بناره.

إذن… وخلافاً لما تريد أميركا إشاعته إعلامياً ودبلوماسياً، فإنّ أميركا ليست طليقة اليد في فعل ما تشاء ضدّ الدول التي تستهدفها بقراراتها العدوانية، وليس لأميركا هامش واسع للمناورة فيه ضدّ هذه الدول خاصة مع تلك التي عرفت كيف تنظم دفاعها على الفرعين من التشكيلات وأن تحصّن قرارها بإيلائه إلى حكام وطنيين غير مرتهنين للاستعمار، ولهذا لا يكون مستغرباً أن تشنّ أميركا هذه الحملات العدوانية الشعواء على مثل هؤلاء الحكام وتعمل على تغيير أنظمة الحكم التي يعتمدونها كما وتعمل بكلّ جهدها لحلّ التنظيمات الدفاعية الرديفة للجيوش بعد أن تصنّفها إرهابية وتحشد أوسع الطاقات لمحاربتها والضغط لتصفيتها وأن تمنع عن الجيوش الرسمية أيّ عمل تدريبي او تسليحي يمكّن هذه الجيوش من امتلاك القوة الوطنية المستقلة… ويبقى المستقبل للشعوب التي عرفت كيف تدافع عن حريتها واستقلالها وسيادتها…

أستاذ جامعي ـ باحث استراتيجي

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Syrian War Report – Feb. 21-22, 2019: Iran Took Control Of Several US Drones Flying Over Syria, Iraq

South Front

22.02.2019

The Syrian Arab Army (SAA) and the National Defense Forces (NDF) have finished their combing operation in the central Syrian desert, the NDF media center said in a statement.

According to the released statement, the SAA and the NDF eliminated several ISIS members and seized loads of weapons and equipment in the framework of the operation, which covered desert areas of Homs, Rif Dimashq, Deir Ezzor and Raqqa provinces. Despite this, ISIS cells still control a large chunk of the Homs-Deir Ezzor desert.

On February 21, a car bomb exploded near the Deir Rasm hospital in the center of the Turkish-occupied city of Afrin injuring up to 10 people. The attack took place a few hours after a military parade held  by Turkish-backed militants in the city. Opposition activists accused YPG-linked rebels of carrying out the attack. Since early 2018, YPG-linked cells had conducted multiple IED attacks and ambushes on positions of Turkey-led forces in the region.

A car bomb hit a bus currying workers returning from the Omar oil fields. At least 15 people were killed and multiple others were injured. No group has claimed responsibility for the attack, but local sources say that it was likely conducted by ISIS cells.

Multiple convoys carrying men, women and children, mostly ISIS members and their families, left the ISIS-held pocket in the Euphrates Valley in the last 2 days. These persons are being transferred to filtration camps controlled by the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF). According to reports, about 250 ISIS fighters remained besieged in the area because they refuse to surrender.

It is interesting to note that pro-SDF sources pretend that the group allows civilians only to leave the pocket. However, evidence from the ground contradicts to these claims. On February 21, it appeared that the US-backed group had handed over 500 ISIS members to the Iraqi military.

On February 19, Russian forces opened two humanitarian corridors allowing refugees to leave the camp. Members of the Syrian Arab Red Crescent were stationed at the checkpoints to provide medical aid to refugees leaving the camp.

However, according to the Russian Reconciliation Centre, militants have blocked the exit from the camp by building an earth berm. They also threatened the refugees with “jail and death” on the territory under the control of the Damascus government.

Head of the Centre Sergei Solomatin added that at the same time, “the possibility of exit of foreign fighters from the 55-kilometer zone to Jordan and Iraq is not limited” and ISIS militants and their families are being moved to the camp from the eastern bank of the Euphrates River. From its side, US-backed militants continue to repeat that the Damascus government is persecuting and punishing refugees returning to their homes.

The Iranian Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) have got control of 7-8 US unnamed aerial vehicles operating in Syria and Iraq, IRGC Aerospace Force Brigadier General Amir Ali Hajizadeh said adding that the IRGC extorted intelligence data from the aircraft. The IRGC media also released videos confirming its claims.

While ISIS is de-facto defeated in Syria and Iraq, a possible escalation of the long-standing conflict between the US-Israeli-led bloc and Iran continues to pose a threat to regional security.

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ON RT TO DISCUSS TERROR ATTACKS ON VILLAGES NEAR IDLIB, ESP #MHARDEH, ALSO WHITE HELMETS PENDING FALSE FLAG CHEMICAL HOAX

Eva Bartlett

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In studio in Damascus yesterday, discussing the tragic attack on Mhardeh on September 7, an attack with at least 9 Grad missiles, according to the local defense forces (NDF), 6 of which contained cluster sub munitions.

11 killed, over 20 injured, including critically. I interviewed Shadi Yousef Shehda, a father whose three young children were murdered, along with his wife and mother. His pain was beyond heartbreaking, while speaking to me and showing his children’s clothing and toys.

This was not the first attack on his house, but the third. Attacks on Mhardeh and other villages nearby have been incessant over the years. 117 civilian martyrs, 52 Syrian soldiers killed, according to the NDF commander.

More on that soon.

The interview:

Please also see my interview with Shadi Shahda:

 

SYRIAN WAR REPORT – MAY 29, 2018: FINAL WARNING TO MILITANTS IN SOUTHERN SYRIA

South Front

29.05.2018 

The Syrian military has concentrated a notable force in the province of Daraa to be able to employ a military option should negotiations with local armed groups fail. Reinforcements from the Tiger Forces, the 4th Armoured Division, the 5th Armoured Division, the National Defense Forces, Liwa al-Quds and the Syrian Social Nationalist Party have recently arrived in the area.

According to local sources, the Syrian-Russian delegation has recently send militants a final warning providing them with three options:

  • To surrender heavy weaponry and to withdraw to militant-held areas in the provinces of Idlib and Aleppo;
  • To accept a full reconciliation agreement, to surrender weaponry and to normalize their legal status;
  • To face a military operation.

At the same time, armed groups in southern Syria, including the Southern Front, Ahrar Nawa, Al-Maghawir and Ahrar al-Golan, have merged into a new militant formation entitled The Army of Salvation. Syrian experts immediately linked this development with the militants’ preparations to repel the upcoming offensive instead of reaching a peaceful solution with Damascus.

These developments come amid newly surfaced unconfirmed media reports about indirect Iranian-Israeli talks with a Jordanian mediation on the situation in southern Syria. According to these reports, Iran has agreed to stay away from the battle against militants in southern Syria while Israel has pledged not to intervene into clashes near the occupied Golan Heights and near the Syrian-Jordanian border as long as no Iranian forces are deployed there.

Reports of this possibility have immediately become wide spread and popular in the media. However, there is little new about the Iranian attitude in it because Teheran has officially announced that its forces will not participate in the aforementioned operation. As to the Israeli side, according to some experts, it’s hard to believe that Israel will stay away when Syrian government forces crush militants near the Golan Heights. However, Tel Aviv will likely limit its activity to individual strikes justified by some shells falling in the occupied area.

Defence Minister Avigdor Lieberman, military intelligence chief Tamir Heiman and other Israeli officials will visit Moscow later this week for meetings with their Russian counterparts. Among other topics, the sides will probably discuss the situation in Syria, including the upcoming military operation in southern Syria.

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Palestinians fight to retake Yarmouk Camp from ISIS

BEIRUT, LEBANON (6:20 P.M.) – A large number of Palestinians are currently taking part in the ongoing struggle to retake the Yarmouk Camp District from the Islamic State (ISIS) forces that have occupied this area in southern Damascus for years.

While the battle for the Yarmouk Camp is being led by the Syrian Arab Army (SAA), thousands of Palestinians are also fighting alongside these troops to retake this historic home to the Palestinian people of Syria.

According to a military source in Damascus, the Palestinian forces taking part in this offensive are the following:

  • Liwaa Al-Quds – A Palestinian paramilitary force from the Handarat and Nayrab refugee camps in Aleppo
  • The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC) – A Palestinian political and military faction that was previously headquartered in the Yarmouk Camp
  • The Palestine Liberation Army (PLA) – The Palestinian wing of the Syrian Arab Army
  • Fatah Al-Intifada – A Palestinian political and military group that is active inside of the Jaramana Camp and several others in Damascus
  • Qawat Al-Jaleel – A Palestinian paramilitary group that operates in several provinces across Syria
  • National Defense Forces (NDF) – A pro-government paramilitary group that is mostly comprised of Syrians, but also has a significant Palestinian membership

These aforementioned groups have taken part in many battles across Syria, including the liberation of Palmyra and its surrounding area.

Many Palestinian fighters have already lost their lives in southern Damascus, with the highest number of casualties coming from the NDF and Fatah Al-Intifada.

The Palestinian losses have been rather high in southern Damascus; however, these fighters remain determined to retake the areas they lost to ISIS.

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SYRIAN WAR REPORT – MARCH 26, 2018: SYRIAN ARMY IS ABOUT TO GET FULL CONTROL OVER EASTERN GHOUTA

South Front

The situation is rapidly developing in the Damascus suburb of Eastern Ghouta where the Syrian Arab Army (SAA) and its allies are on the verge of liberating the entire area from militants.

Following the evacuation agreement in Harasta, government forces have liberated Ayn Tarma and have forced militants in Jobar, Zamalka, Hazeh and Irbin to accept another evacuation agreement. The implementation of this agreement started on March 24. More than 7,000 civilians and members of Hayat Tahrir al-Sham and Faylaq al-Rahman are set to leave the area under the deal.

Separately, negotiations are ongoing in the area of Douma controlled by Jaish al-Islam. According to pro-government experts, the key issue preventing the group from accepting the deal is that its leadership seeks to prevent the evacuation to the militant-held area of Idlib, mostly controlled by its competitors, like Hayat Tahrir al-Sham. According to some reports, the group is willing to be evacuated to Eastern Qalamoun area.

In any case, the SAA has de-facto won the battle for Eastern Ghouta. Gaining a full control over the area is just the matter of time.

On March 24, the General Staff of the Turkish Armed Forces (TAF) released a statement claiming that the Afrin area is under “complete” control of Tukey-led force and efforts to help civilians return their homes securely are underway.

Chief of General Staff Gen. Hulusi Akar announced that there are still few villages, which Turkey seeks to capture south of the city of Afrin.

“There are 3-5 villages left in the west. We will arrive in the suburb of Aleppo called Nubl-Zahra and Afrin will be completely secured soon,” Akar said at a conference in the capital Ankara.

On the same day, units of Syrian government forces, mostly members of the National Defense Forces (NDF), deployed in the villages of Bashmra, Zoq al-Kabir, Buurj al-Qas. Miyasa, Aqiba and Ziyara as well as the nearby high points south of the city of Afrin. The deployment was aimed at preventing further advances by the TAF and its proxies.

Turkish forces captured the city of Afrin from the Kurdish People’s Protection Units (YPG) on March 18. Since then, the TAF and  the Free Syrian Army (FSA) have made a series of limited advances south of the city expanding a buffer zone between the Turkish-occupied area and the government-held countryside of Aleppo.

On March 25, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan claimed that 3,747 so-called “terrorists” had been neutralized since the start of Operation Olive Branch in Afrin. The presided said that 302 members of FSA died during the same period. Erdogan also vowed that Turksih forces will capture Tal Rifaat before ending the operation.

The advance on Tal Rifaat may trigger a confrontation between Turkish forces and the Syrian government because a number of NDF units have established checkpoints near the city under an agreement with the YPG.

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SYRIAN WAR REPORT – AUGUST 11, 2017: GOVERNMENT FORCES LIBERATE 1,300KM2 NEAR JORDANIAN BORDER

South Front

The Syrian Arab Army (SAA), the National Defense Forces (NDF), the Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) military wing and other pro-government factions have liberated from US-backed militant groups 1300 km2 in southeastern Syria, including 30 km of the border with Jordan. The recently liberated area includes Tal al-Tabaqah, Tal al-Riahi, Tal Asda, Tal al-Ezami, Bir al-Sout and the Abu Sharshouh crossing other posts and points near the border.

US-backed militants withdrew to the al-Rushd refugee camp where they could hide from government forces attacks and airstrikes. According to pro-government sources, the Russian Aerospace Forces participated the SAA-led advance. This confirms that Moscow supports the Damascus willingness to regain control over its borders and to drive US-led coalition troops out from the occupied garrisons near At Tanf.

The control over the border will also decrease significantly arms and goods trafficking in which so-called US partner forces are deeply involved.

ISIS has been evacuating its members from the key town of Maadan in the southern Raqqah countryside, according to pro-government sources. Earlier this week, the SAA Tiger Forces and tribal forces allies reached Maadan and seized a number of villages near it threatening to encircle the ISIS-held town. This situation allegedly became a main reason behind the reported ISIS decision.

In the eastern Hama countryside, the SAA recaptured Khara’eb al-Katna area, Mount Doyleb and Tal al-Mazrou from ISIS.

In the area of Sukhna, government forces are dismantling IEDs set up by ISIS in the town amid continued clashes with terrorists. ISIS and its suicide bombers still pose a notable threat to the SAA there but it seems that the terrorist group will not be able to take Sukhna back.

The ISIS-linked News Agency Amaq published an infographic showing alleged losses of the US-backed Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) during the 2 months of the battle for Raqqah. According to ISIS, 1040 SDF members were killed, 207 of them because of sniper fire, 40 SDF vehicles and a bulldozer were destroyed and a UAV was downed. ISIS also damaged 3 BMP vehicles and 6 other vehicles. In total, the terrorist group conducted 54 raids against the SDF, including 36 suicide vehicle borne improvised explosive device attacks.

On Thursday, the Pentagon announced that a US Special Operation Forces vehicle came under sniper fire near Manbij city in the northeastern Aleppo countryside. No casualties were inflicted. Army Col. Ryan Dillon said that the US-led coalition do not know who is behind the attack. According to local sources, ISIS was likely behind it.

The tensions between the Kurdish-dominated SDF and the Arab population as well as the indiscriminate bombing of civilian areas by the US-led coalition create a situation when a notable number of long-standing ISIS supporters remain and new supporters appear in the areas formally liberated from the terrorist group. Following the formal defeat of ISIS, the US-led coalition will likely face an ISIS-led insurgency campaign in Syria and Iraq. The same problem that the US forces faced following the invasion in Iraq.

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