Palestinian women haunted by abuse, including rape, in israeli jails

‘Sometimes they feel shame, even though we know that they are our enemy and they do this to break us,’ said one former woman prisoner

Prisoners gesture from their cell at HaSharon high-security prison, some 40 kilometres northeast of Tel Aviv, on 23 February 2014 (AFP)

BETHLEHEM, West Bank – “I remember he brought his chair closer, opened his legs and sat very close to me. It was something ugly for me. It made me feel that he was trying to attack my body,” Khawla al-Azraq said, as she recalled the physical intimidation tactics and sexual harassment used by Israeli interrogators when she was only a teenager.



Khawla al-Azraq is a Fatah Revolutionary Council member (Photo courtesy of Khawla al-Azraq)

Decades later, al-Azraq, who is now 54, still shudders at the memory of Israeli interrogators brushing their hands across her legs to sexually intimidate her.

“They would sit in a way to be very close to us, to touch our bodies. I remember it was terrible for me at that age,” she said.

Al-Azraq is a member of the Fatah Revolutionary Council. Since the age of 14, she has been arrested by Israeli forces four times for her involvement with Fatah and taking part in protests against the Israeli occupation. When she was only 18, she was sentenced to three years in prison.

He brought his chair closer, opened his legs and sat very close to me. It was something ugly for me. It made me feel that he was trying to attack my body

– Khawla al-Azraq, Fatah Revolutionary Council

“The torture, ill treatment, and degrading treatment start from the first moment of the arrest,” said Sahar Francis, director of Addameer, a Palestinian prisoners’ rights group.

She added that women who wear the hijab would often get into heated arguments with soldiers to let them put their headscarves on, before being detained from their homes.

Periods of interrogation are largely described as the most violent part of the detention process, in which women are not only subjected to physical and psychological torture – such as being tied in stress positions, sleep deprivation and beatings – but to methods targeting them specifically because of their gender.

“The interrogator will shout in their faces, try to intimidate them with some sexual words and insults, or start teasing them if they’re married, asking her what her husband is doing while she is imprisoned,” Francis told Middle East Eye.

While Israeli forces are mandated to have a female officer present during the interrogation of women, the former prisoners said that these officers did little to ensure their safety, often even serving as cover for the verbal and physical abuse that took place during interrogations.


Shireen Issawi is a Palestinian lawyer who spent five years in an Israeli prison (Photo courtesy of Shireen Issawi)

“Sometimes the interrogator will talk to us in a sexual way, and they will use her (the female soldier) to say that we are lying when we say they beat us,” said Shireen Issawi, a prominent lawyer who spent five years in prison, including four years for transferring money to Palestinian prisoners. Issawi was released in October 2017.

According to the former prisoners, female officers were rarely present during the long trips back and forth from Israeli courts. They would spend up to 12 hours in transit handcuffed to iron seats in the back of prison vans, sometimes subjected to lewd comments by the Israeli guards transporting them.

Khitam Saafin, the leader of the Union of Palestinian Women’s Committees, said that Israeli soldiers mostly target younger women and sexually harass them during these long journeys.

“They are exhausted; they suffer a lot; they are alone without any older people to take care of them and they are the ones mostly targeted with sexual harassment,” she said.

Rape

Saafin spent three months in administrative detention without being charged, and accused Israeli soldiers of taking photos of her on their phones, as well as strip-searching her, during her arrest.

While some Palestinian women have spoken up about being raped in Israeli custody, for many it is a difficult topic to address because of social taboos.

They will use her (the female soldier) to say that we are lying when we say they beat us

– Shireen Issawi, lawyer 

Additionally, authoritative data on the prevalence of sexual assault on Palestinians in Israeli prisons is not available.

However, a 2016 report by the Public Committee Against Torture in Israel (PCATI), an Israeli human rights organisation, estimated that some four percent of male respondents had been subjected to some form of sexual torture.

Francis emphasised that these practices are not lone acts committed by individual members of the Israeli armed forces.

“It’s not something that’s done by an individual soldier who decided to humiliate or mistreat [the prisoners],” she said. “It’s part of the process, part of the policy, in order to affect the entire society and put it under pressure… because they are aware that [gender] is a sensitive subject in Palestinian society.”

‘This made me stronger’

According to Addameer, there are currently 58 women being held in Israeli prisons.

While this figure is far less than around 6,000 Palestinian male prisoners, women detainees have faced more difficult incarceration conditions in some areas.

Jordanian visitors wait outside Israel’s HaSharon prison where they came to visit jailed relatives on 25 November 2008 (AFP)

According to Francis, women suffer from the same restrictions as men do when it pertains to family visits. However, the fact that all women are detained inside Israel makes it more challenging for relatives to see them, as they must first obtain permits.

According to Addameer, Palestinian female prisoners are mainly held in two prisons located inside Israel, HaSharon and Damon, in violation of Article 76 of the Fourth Geneva Convention regulating the detention of prisoners.

Imagine that they tie you to the bed right until you’re about to give birth, and, immediately after giving birth, they will handcuff one hand and one leg back to the bed

– Sahar Francis, director of Addameer

“When I was a mother, it was so difficult. I can’t express in words how I was feeling at the time,” al-Azraq said of her 25-day interrogation in 1991 for her participation in protests during the First Intifada.

At the time, her first son Khaled was only two and a half years old.

It was a difficult period for her whole family, as her husband Issa Qarage, who is currently the head of the Palestinian Committee of Prisoners’ Affairs, was also in prison.

According to al-Azraq, during the same period her sister-in-law was killed by Israeli forces.

“This made me stronger,” she said. “I didn’t say anything because I wanted to go back to my son.” Al-Azraq was released after 25 days.

Israel classifies all Palestinians detained in its custody as “security prisoners”, whether they are accused of throwing stones, posting what is deemed “incitement” on social media or killing an officer. But Palestinians insist that they are “political prisoners” who are detained either for trumped-up charges or in violation of their right to resist occupation as enshrined in international law.

Inadequate medical care

One of the main issues that advocates have repeatedly brought up has been inadequate medical care, especially following the recent campaign surrounding Israa Jaabis’s dire need for medical treatment after 65 percent of her body was burned and eight of her fingers needed to be amputated.

Israa Jaabis appears in an Israeli court in November 2016 (AFP)

“The prison system says it offers the basic medical service, but honestly we think not, because the main treatment they offer for anything is a painkiller, unless you reach a really serious condition,” Francis said.

Francis also highlighted rarer cases of imprisoned pregnant women, saying that at least two Palestinians had given birth while in Israeli custody, under extremely difficult circumstances.

“It is a very humiliating process. Imagine that they tie you to the bed right until you’re about to give birth and immediately after giving birth, they will handcuff one hand and one leg back to the bed,” she said. “They won’t allow a family member to be present. Imagine a stranger, a policewoman, is standing beside your bed while you’re giving birth.”

Francis added that children under the age of two can accompany their mothers in prison, yet there are few arrangements made for the children’s well-being.

It’s related to our perception of prisoners as heroes. We put them in a space where we as a society are not allowing them to feel weak

– Sahar Francis, director of Addameer

Meanwhile, more mundane aspects of women’s health also become a struggle, particularly when women are in interrogation centres.

“When I had my period, they just gave me paper tissues,” Issawi said.

“They didn’t take into consideration that we have special needs, that our bodies are not like men’s. I didn’t have any rights as a woman.”

Because of insufficient medical care, women have had to step in to take care of their sick or disabled fellow prisoners, despite most not having any nursing experience.

“We took the role of the nurse, the doctor, the social worker,” Issawi said.

The Israel Prison Service did not respond to MEE on allegations of sexual assault, harassment, and medical neglect by the time of publication.

Women’s library

While there is a limit to the number of books available at any given time to both Palestinian men and women detained by Israel, the smaller number of female prisoners means there are fewer books for them. This restricts their access to education and knowledge.

Khitam Saafin, the leader of the Union of Palestinian Women’s Committees, spent three months in administrative detention without being charged (Photo courtesy of Khitam Saafin)

Saafin described how an NGO representative visiting HaSharon while she was being held there was shocked by the number of books available.

“The library of [imprisoned Fatah leader] Marwan Barghouti is bigger than these women’s library,” he reportedly said.

‘They called us mamma’

In spite – or sometimes, because of – the harsh incarceration conditions, female Palestinian prisoners develop a strong sense of solidarity, relying on each other for support.

“It was the best community I’ve experienced, because we all were equal. We shared everything. Nothing belonged to you except your underwear,” al-Azraq said of her time in prison in the 1980s.

“You feel this very strong connection,” Saafin said. “If the prisoners don’t have solidarity, then they don’t survive.”

Older female prisoners, many of whom have been detained several times since their youth, have taken the younger detainees under their wings.

According to Francis, this number has increased since 2015, with nine girls under the age of 18 currently imprisoned.

We shared everything. Nothing belonged to you except your underwear

– Khawla al-Azraq, Fatah Revolutionary Council

“When the children came to prison, we took care of them, we gave them clothes,” Issawi said. “Sometimes they called us ‘mamma’.”

A teacher by profession, Saafin and other adult prisoners said they did their best to complement the classes provided to them by prison authorities, where a teacher visits three times a week and covers only the subjects of Arabic, English, and mathematics.

Saafin said the attitude of the younger girls inspired her, as they persisted in continuing their studies in spite of the minimal access to instruction and restricted number of books.

“Most of the young female prisoners were hopeful,” she said. “I’m happy that I met them, because they also gave me hope.”

Sixteen-year-old Ahed Tamimi stands for a hearing in the military court at Ofer military prison in the West Bank village of Betunia on 1 January 2018 (AFP)

The former prisoners empathised with Ahed Tamimi, who on 31 January turned 17 in Israeli custody.

“In the case of Ahed Tamimi, I saw myself,” said Issawi, whose family has long been targeted by Israeli forces. “This was my childhood.”

“As a mother, I know exactly how difficult it is for children like Ahed,” al-Azraq said. “I know it will be hard for them and it will affect them their whole life.”

Life after prison

The effects of imprisonment continue long after these women are released. Decades later, al-Azraq said she experiences shortness of breath in enclosed spaces and feels claustrophobic even in the shower.

 In the case of Ahed Tamimi, I saw myself

– Shireen Issawi, lawyer

According to Issawi, she still suffers from back and arm pain after having been handcuffed to an iron chair during a month-long interrogation period.

On top of her health issues, since being released she has been unable to resume her work as a lawyer due to efforts to disbar her because of her previous conviction. 

Francis believes that the main issue for former prisoners remains insufficient psychological support.

“It’s related to our perception of prisoners as heroes. We put them in a space where we as a society are not allowing them to feel weak, to feel that they need such support.”

Al-Azraq said that some women she knows, who had been raped in Israeli custody in the early 1970s, still struggle to talk about their experiences.

They believe they have the same role as men and they can do things in the same way or better than men

– Khawla al-Azraq, Fatah Revolutionary Council

“Sometimes they feel shame, even though we know that they are our enemy and they do this to break us,” she said in a trembling voice.

Al-Azraq expressed pride in the small but persistent number of Palestinian women who in spite of the risks have taken an active role in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict.

“They believe they have the same role as men and they can do things in the same way or better than men. They are fighters against the occupation and it’s their right.”

This article is available in French on Middle East Eye French edition.

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The Jewish Timeline – From Moses to Bibi

February 11, 2018  /  Gilad Atzmon

In Jewish history, the members of the chosen tribe are never the aggressors nor do they bear any responsibility for their own plight

In Jewish history, the members of the chosen tribe are never the aggressors nor do they bear any responsibility for their own plight

By Gilad Atzmon

The Jewish timeline is a peculiar one-sided anti-historical narrative that inevitably begins at the point when Jewish suffering is detected and ignores the prior circumstances that may have led to that suffering. In Jewish history, the members of the chosen tribe are never the aggressors nor do they bear any responsibility for their own plight. Quite the opposite, they are always the victims of Goyim’s ‘irrational’ and ‘merciless hatred of Jews.’

Yesterday, Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu provided a remarkable window into the deceptive nature of the Jewish timeline.

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v7HsY5w6U08

In his address following the incident in which an Israeli  F-16 was shot down over Syria, Netanyahu focused on Iranian aggression, alleging that Iran had flown a drone into Israeli territory. Naturally, yours truly is not convinced that such a drone really existed and if it did, that it was operated by Iranians. However, the Israeli PM clearly inveigled to omit from his narrative that it was he, his hawkish government, and their satellite Jewish lobbies around the world (AIPAC, CRIFF, CFI, LFI etc.) that have been crusading for military action and sanctions against the Islamic republic for at least a decade.

How many times have we heard Israeli politicians vowing to attack Iran?  In 2012, The Time of Israel reported that “Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu and Defense Minister Ehud Barak ordered their security chiefs in 2010 to have the military ready to attack Iran’s nuclear facilities within hours if necessary, but were rebuffed by the security chiefs.”  Nonetheless the timeline Bibi presented yesterday  expunged the decade of Israeli belligerence toward Iran. Bibi’s timeline of the conflict with Iran began 48 hours before when, he claimed, an alleged Iranian drone allegedly crossed the Israeli border.

This unique form of delusional and/or duplicitous detachment from reality was not invented by Zionists or Israelis. It is deeply embedded in Jewish culture, Jewish ideology and even the Old Testament. The holocaust, for instance, is taught as “the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators” (USA Holocaust Museum). This is a narrative drained of any historical context. The timeline of the holocaust is a Judeo-Centric construct that begins with the detection of Jewish suffering (1933). For the holocaust to become a proper historical chapter, it will be necessary to ask ‘what were the circumstances that led to the sharp rise in anti Jewish feelings in Europe and beyond?’*

Again, if we examine Jewish history of the 19th century East European pogroms, or the Spanish inquisition we find a timeline that is driven by a similar dismissal of historicity. As in the Jewish history of the Holocaust or in Bibi’s address yesterday, these timelines begin at the point Jewish suffering is detected and omit the circumstances that may have led to such developments. We are dealing with narratives devoid of their most vital element, their rationale. We witness an eternal struggle to suppress self-reflection.

All of this may explain the Jewish fear of Anti Semitism. The Jewish anxiety is not necessarily the fear of the ‘merciless and hateful goyim’ but more probably a fear of self-reflection – looking in the mirror – taking responsibility for one’s own actions once and for all.

The Jewish timeline as a form of self induced detachment is as old as the Jews.  Let’s examine the manner in which Pharaoh is introduce in Biblical Exodus:

“Now there arose up a new king over Egypt, which knew not Joseph. And he said unto his people, Behold, the people of the children of Israel are more and mightier than we: Come on, let us deal wisely with them; lest they multiply, and it come to pass, that, when there falleth out any war, they join also unto our enemies, and fight against us, and so get them up out of the land.” (Exodus 1:8-10)

While King Pharaoh is clearly performing anti-Jewish feelings, there is a notable lack of any context that would make this narrative truly meaningful. In what sense were the Jews ‘mightier’? Why were they suspected of treason, did they keep dual citizenship? Were they dominating the city or its culture? Or maybe, was it the very early Egyptian film industry which they dominated? The Bible keeps this information to itself.

I suggest that perhaps the Jewish timeline is a sophisticated blindfolding mechanism that is set to deny Jews the ability to self-reflect, to see reality for what it is, to see the other as an equal human being with equal needs.

Judaic thought has occasionally been aware of itself as a castrating  mechanism. The Biblical prophets, for instance, had flashes of such self-reflection. They introduced a timeline, a reason, a logos or shall we say a rationale, but in that they were defeated time after time. The same can be said of Jesus, Spinoza and Marx.

This makes it  astonishing that Early Zionism was actually a desperate Jewish attempt to address the Jewish denial of historicity. Bernard Lazare’s Anti-Semitism its History and Causes presented a profound Zionist study of the role of Jews and their culture in their own suffering. Lazare wasn’t alone in his inquiry. Ber Borochov, Max Nordau and even Herzl attempted to understand the Jewish question within a proper historical context. Their diagnosis of Jewish Diaspora culture was astute, however, their remedy has been pretty much a disaster as Israel’s horrendous politics have demonstrated for the past seven decades.

While early Zionism was largely anti Jewish, Zionism was soon hijacked by Jewishness – that sense of delusional judeo-centrism that dismisses otherness and denies historicity. PM Netanyahu’s address illustrates this unique inability to self reflect. Netanyahu’s timeline begins with an alleged act of Iranian aggression and yet ‘forgets’ that Israel has been throwing bombs at Syria for years and threatening to attack Iran for a decade. Is Netanyahu delusional? Is he duplicitous? That is not for me to judge, and in fact, I don’t care. My task is to decipher the message, not to analyse the messenger.

If Zionism was born to teach the Jews how to self reflect so they could become ‘people like all other people,’ Netanyahu, Israel and contemporary Zionists are the proof that the Zionist project was futile. As the Jewish State surrounds itself with ever more walls of separation, as the Zionist lobbies and Zio-cons push for more global conflicts for Israel, it becomes clear that Zionists are actually people like no other- people who can’t self reflect or bear responsibility for their own actions.

If  Elias Davidsson wants to burn it, you want to read it …

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Being in Time – A Post Political Manifesto

Amazon.co.uk  ,  Amazon.com  and   here  (gilad.co.uk). 

* The Jewish historian David Cesarani made such an effort in his last book, ‘Final Solution’ admitting that Holocaust history has been problematic and lacking.

The Banality of Good pt. 7: Global Tribes vs. National Pride

February 05, 2018  /  Gilad Atzmon

If global capitalism is a problem, we may have to consider the idea that equality within borders is a possible answer.

If global capitalism is a problem, we may have to consider the idea that equality within borders is a possible answer.

Global Tribes vs. National Pride

Clara:   I have just been reading a Canadian Jewish news bulletin and all the tribal features are there: the community life with kosher catering, the private Sunday schools with their curriculum of Jewish culture, Judaism and the Holocaust, the comment on why we shouldn’t sympathize with Palestinian children and the trip for adolescents to Israel where each of them is supposed to find out ‘what Israel means to me’.

In my opinion one of the flaws of biologically oriented identity politics is the belief that ‘the differences between the respective identity groups are bigger than the differences within the group’ as the ‘Saker’ defines ‘racism’. I am not sure that supporting Israel’s politics is really in the best interests of all the Canadian (US-American, British or German) Jews or even in the best interests of the Israelis themselves. But as members of the tribe they are all on board of the same ship.

Is that what you mean when you argue that identity politics are a tool of globalization and that  the ‘identitarian tribes’ are used to support Neocon / Zionist policies?

Gilad: It is actually simpler than that. The emergence of more and more ghetto walls between us the people dismantles our ability to fight for our universal needs, let alone see the universal for what it is. In the name of diversity, we create a fragmented human landscape that is blinded to its fragments.  This tribal construct is indeed ideal environment for Neocons, mammonites as well as our compromised politicians.

Clara:   In ‘The wandering who’ you write that compassion has evaporated in Jewish thinking. I often feel it is the same in Germany: we do not sympathise with the Greek people and their poverty in connection with the introduction of the Euro, we think they ought to be punished for ‘being lazy, living above their means and not doing their homework’. The same goes for the poor in our country. And we mourn the victims of terrorism in Germany and France but we are not really interested in the terror victims in St Petersburg, Beirut or the terrible suffering in Yemen. And the one time our politicians seemed to show compassion by opening the borders for refugees, the many Germans who, like myself, welcomed that chance had to realize the double standards which were behind it: supporting the wars and economic policies that caused people to leave their homes and not adequately addressing the social and security problems the influx of refugees caused at home.  

Does this lack of compassion have to do with the ‘incapability of mourning one’s own fate’ we mentioned in the beginning of our conversation and which seems to be a common feature in Jewish and German mainstream thinking?

Gilad: The lack of compassion is a symptom of chosenness and exceptionalism . Chosenness and exceptionalism are indeed attached to Jewishness but not only. It is hardly a secret that the selfish manner of thinking is embedded in capitalist thinking. The next question you may want to ask yourself is what is the connection between Jewish culture and capitalism. This is obviously a loaded question that has many answers. Marx believed that the two were intrinsically tied. Werner Sombart agreed with Marx. Max Weber didn’t.  My point, as always, is that we must be able to discuss these matters in the open.

Clara:   I agree, and it is actually a kind of selective compassion with double standards. But there is also the aspect of collectively getting stuck in the victimized self-image connected with identitarian world views.
Anyway, let’s be a bit more specific here. In a talk you gave in Berlin you said that for example the international feminist movement was used to promote wars for the rights of Muslim women. And just recently Angela Jolie posed for NATO exactly for that reason. You also gave the example of gay rights. When it comes to attacking Russia, gay activists from many countries show their concern about gay rights there. So we are led from one fragmented campaign to the other and forget about more important issues.

But what is the alternative? In that talk you seemed to argue that we should return to think in terms of national interests instead. You seem to want to replace the concept of ‘identitarian tribes’ by returning to the idea of strong national states and fixed borders. Isn’t that a very dangerous right-wing concept? Doesn’t that lead to new chauvinism, the persecution of ethnic minorities and more?

Gilad:  This is a good question. To start with, I am not a political activist. I do not offer solutions or alternatives. As mentioned before, I am a philosopher, I am refining questions rather than repeating readymade answers.  I indeed often argue that if global capitalism is a problem (and it is a problem), we may have to consider the idea that equality within borders is a possible answer. Now, let’s talk about Nationalism and National States. I contend that Nationalism isn’t necessarily a problem unless celebrated on the expense of others. In the 1940’s people and nations were minced in the name of lebensraum, in the Neocon dominated global universe we do the same in the name of Coca-Cola, Gay-Rights and fake democracy. I argue, therefore that ethical thinking which is basically an Athenian aspired domain is the remedy.   

Clara:   If there is a definition of left wing, it is concern for social issues and anti-imperialism. Many people argue that politics addressing these issues need a strong national state, i.e. Bill Mitchell  (fiscal policies), Paul Steinhardt (social welfare policies – paywall) and Professor Michael Hartman (national elites are still strong). While others advocate ‘more EU’ to address social issues on an international level, these people claim that such a project is bound to fail, even if tried which currently is not really the case; the EU is not a social project. The right wing parties want ‘less EU’ as well, but tend to support neo-liberal policies.
But again – slippery grounds – people quickly ‘stone you’ when you start talking about the role of the national state. When Sarah Wagenknecht from the Left Party criticized Merkel’s open-border policy, she was accused of socializing with the right-wingers from AfD.

Often accusations of working together with right-wing people (Nazis!) replace an open exchange of argument. I think this is a dangerous development.

Gilad: Again, you are pointing at the Jerusalemite tendency, that tyranny of correctness that dictates a manner of speech, a pattern of ‘correct’ thinking, newspeak. Orwell recognized that that tendency is inherent to Left politics which is fascinating considering the Athenian dialectic nature of Marx thinking. We are living in an upside down world –The anti Fascist are often intrinsically fascists. The anti Zionists are mostly AZZ (Anti Zionist Zionists) and the Athenians who see it all are castigated subject to constant abuse. Yet, the people are not buying into that reality. Brexit proves that Brits want to see a change. Trump won because Americans are frustrated (surely, they are more frustrated now).  Far from being surprising the popularity of Corbyn in Britain and Sanders in the USA can be realised as a similar symptom of frustration with the current identitarian dystopia. Both leaders are nostalgic anti identiatrian characters.  The meaning of it is simple. We are moving into a realm that transcends beyond left/right banal binary. To be in time is to grasp the post political condition.

If they want to burn it, you want to read it …

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What Happens When Jews are Placed in Charge of WW II Civilians

What Happens When Jews are Placed in Charge of WW II Civilians

Goon Squad — Jan 26, 2018

The world conquerorsIs this those ‘good Jews’ we keep hearing about in the MSM?
From the excellent book, “The World Conquerors,” written in 1958 by Louis Marschalko a Hungarian who escaped this madness and who World Jewry wanted to execute for being a war thought criminal.
Gosh, so many holocaust survivors to fill the ranks of these Jew butchers.
Actually, Europe did not fall under the Russians, British or Americans, but under Jewish occupation. Everything that had rightly or wrongly belonged to Europe for 2,000 years now disintegrated. The avengers continued doing (but more cruelly) the very things they had set down as crimes against Hitler. This was no occupation by the forces of American democracy or Bolshevism but by those of a victorious Jewish nationalism glowing with hatred. Ensconced in key positions among the occupying powers, they were able to punish everyone, whether innocent or guilty. In their eyes there was but one crime ~ to have opposed, or to be in a position to oppose ~ Jewish nationalism.
To be a Jew in Europe became a greater privilege than any enjoyed by even reigning princes of the Middle Ages. The railway stations were guarded by special Jewish police and an identity check of Jews could be carried out by Jewish police only. They received their food ration cards without queuing. For a while, immediately after the war, only Jews received travelling passes, thus securing for themselves free movement and the unrestricted monopoly of the black market. In the refugee camps they were the chief caterers for U.N.R.R.A. as well as the privileged beneficiaries of this relief. Thus, they snatched the best rations from Poles, Ukrainians and Czechs, their former fellow-prisoners in the concentration camps. At the same time, on the roads, military policemen overturned cans and spilled milk to deprive German children and hospital patients of their diet. In German cities, working-class families were turned out of their homes by the tens of thousands, thus rendering vacant the nicest workers’ settlements. The victims had to leave behind everything ~ furniture, kitchen equipment and cooking utensils, clothing and even linen, thus forcing the German people to recompense three times over in the form of Wiedergutmachung (reparations) the actual value of the goods confiscated from the Jews. Uniformed Zionist guards were posted at camp gates and, at first, for a while, even the Military Police of the victorious American Army could not enter Jewish camps. Victorious Jewish nationalism was granted (116) similar rights in the East, in Slovakia, in some parts of Rumania, in Hungary and Bohemia. They took possession of the flats and furniture of the Gentiles, occupied key positions in government offices and in editorial posts of the national press. Concurrently, former Jewish journalists returned to Germany and took complete charge of the newspapers of the occupied zones, and began to incite revenge upon the German nation on its own soil. ..
When Edvard Beneš, the great humanitarian, the “bel espirit” and master of freemasonry entered Prague on Sunday, May 13th, 1945, German citizens were burned alive in his honour in St. Wenceslas Square. (Document No. 15 concerning the expulsion of the Sudeten Germans.) Many Germans were hung up by their feet from the big (119) advertising posters in St. Wenceslas Square, then when the great humanitarian approached their petrol-soaked bodies were set on fire to form living torches.
Six hundred thousand Sudeten Germans were killed during the massacres in the earthly hell of the death camps of Czechoslovakia. The Sudeten German White Paper records these horrors with full details on more than 1,000 pages, horrors for which there is no precedent in the history of mankind. Armed Czech women and Jewesses continued hitting the womb of expectant mothers with truncheons until a miscarriage followed, and in one single camp ten German women died daily in this way. (Document No. 6.) In another camp, the inmates were forced to lick up the bespattered brains of their fellow-prisoners who had been beaten to death. German prisoners were forced to lick up infectious feces from the underwear of their fellow-prisoners suffering from dysentery. (Document No. 17.) The Czech and Jewish doctors refused all medical aid to German women raped by the Russians. Hundreds of thousands died by these means or sought salvation in suicide, as, for instance, in Brno (Brun), where on a single day 275 women committed suicide.
Naturally, the Western” humanitarian” press, the American radio network and the B.B.C. commentators took good care never to mention these facts, although they themselves were in the first place responsible for this campaign of revenge to which they instigated the members of their own nations. They were thus guilty of poisoning the soul of Christendom by the hatred they induced.
But Czechoslovakia was not the first state where horrors of this type occurred. Ana Rabinovich Pauker returned to Rumania as early as August, 1944, and under the orders of the Eastern Jews who arrived with her, massacres began there too.
According to authentic Bulgarian emigrant sources, 30,000 members of the professional classes were murdered in the trail of the invading Soviet armies by Bulgarian “proletarians”, led by those “ladines” whose forefathers had been expelled from Spain by Catholic Ferdinand. Similarly, in Belgrade and Southern Hungary the name of Moša Pijade is connected with bloody “purges” the victims of which were Serbian intelligentsia, prosperous German settlers and the most intelligent Hungarian peasantry. When, in October, 1944, the German and Hungarian armies left the territories of Yugoslavia (120) and Southern Hungary an unprecedented wave of mass-murders broke over the unprotected population. Thirty thousand Hungarians, mostly peasants and smallholders, died in this bloodshed, under the savage terror regime of Moša Pijade’s partisans. The Katyn Wood murders are a modest, amateurish effort in comparison with it. According to documentary proof in our hands, Hungarians, Germans and Croatians alike, died slow and horrible deaths wracked with agony. Besides the 30,000 Hungarians, nearly 200,000 Germans died in the death camps of the “liberators”, where powdered glass was mixed with the children’s food and where with the finesse of Chinese executioners those to perish in the biological class-warfare were dispatched, in order that their places as civic leaders and police officers could be taken by the revengeful representatives of Jehovah.

In this classic age of race murder, the case of Hungary is quite extraordinary. This unfortunate nation, even in its dismembered state after the 1920 Parish treaties, had provided 560,000 Jews with peaceful and safe homes. The Hungarian nation did not take vengeance on Jewry even after the first Communist dictatorship of Bela Kun in 1919-1920, despite the fact that Jews, almost exclusively, were the commissars and leaders of this Communist régime…


One million Hungarian women were raped by the Russian Bolshevik troops, usually led by Jewish commandants. Six hundred thousand prisoners of war, as well as 230,000 civilians, were dragged off to extermination camps in the Soviet Union.
At the most modest estimate, 500,000 people were murdered by the Jews in the cells of 60, Andrássy út, Budapest, in internment camps or in the open streets. All the characteristic features of biological class-warfare can be distinguished in this campaign of revenge. The Hungarian middle classes, the intellectuals and the national leaders had to be slain so that their places could be taken by another middle-class by the Jews! And, moreover, those who presided as judges in the revolutionary tribunals were almost all Jews.
What does the USA have to look forward to?
But don’t read this book, you should spend your time worshiping the most Holy Holocau$t™ GOY and be glad you are still alive… for now.

holocaust propaganda

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Daily Sabah: Exclusive interview with Gilad Atzmon

Comment:

Brother Gilad said: To survive is to win.

I say: To Win is to Survive and to Survive is to Resist. To Win Palestinians should realize that Palestine is a Part of Greater Syria “Bilad Asham”. They should bury Afratat’s slogan about “Palestinian Independent  Decision”. Thanks to Syria and allies for keeping the Palestinian Cause alive. Thanks to Daesh for breaking Sykes-Picot borders. Thanks to stupid TRUMP for uniting real Arabs and Real Muslims and Real Humans.

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Daily Sabah: Exclusive interview with Gilad Atzmon

January 22, 2018  /  Gilad Atzmon

I left Israel because I didn’t want to live on someone else’s land.

I left Israel because I didn’t want to live on someone else’s land.

https://www.dailysabah.com/

Gilad Atzmon In an interview with Daily Sabah’s editor Burak Altun digging into  the current crisis in the Middle East

Burak Altun: Mr Atzmon, you are one of the most gifted jazz musicians around. In addition, you  are actively engaged in peace in the Middle East and criticize the state of Israel  within that context. I can see two separate identities here – you are a musician and a political activist. At the social and political level, you complain about identity politics in the West. What is it all about?

Gilad Atzmon: To start with, you are very kind in your description of me, but let me correct you. I am not a political activist, I have never been involved in politics and I prefer to stay away from the so called activist community. The reason is simple. Activists always know the answers. I am a philosopher. My task is refining the questions. I can easily live in peace with more than one answer and even with competing and contradicting  answers.

However, let me address your question regarding identity politics. In the world in which I grew up the role of the political and especially Left politics was to point at that which unites us. Our left icons insisted that it didn’t matter whether one is a Muslim, Black, Jew or Woman, we were all united against the mammonites, those capitalist plunderers in the City. But this has  changed. At a certain stage the Left decided to embrace new tactics. We were taught how to speak ‘as a’: as a woman, as a Jew, as a Black, as a gay and so on. Instead of being united we were set up to fight each other. In this New Left/progressive universe, we the people are divided by our biology yet the global market is united in its war against us the people, against humanity and humanism.

How do you explain the allegations of anti-Semitism, which are repeatedly directed against you? You yourself differentiate between Judaism (the religion) and Jewish politics.  According to the logic of those who accuse you, critics of “Islamism” must be Islamophobes.

The accusation of anti-Semitsm is obviously an empty one. It is designed to stifle criticism of Israel and Jewish power. In my entire life I have never criticized Jews or anyone else as a people, race, biology or ethnicity. I deal solely with ID politics, ideology and culture!   For me racism becomes a problem when blind hatred is performed, when you hate X for being X, when you hate Black people for being Black or when you hate White people for being White. I can’t think of anyone who hates Jews for being Jews. I would admit that more than a few may oppose Jews for what they interpret as Jewish politics, Jewish Lobbying, Jewish ideology and so on. This tendency deserves our attention. It clearly deserves Jewish attention but Jewish power is the power to suppress criticism of Jewish power.

Now, your point regarding Islamists and Islamophobia deserve attention. I don’t believe that there are such things as ‘Islamists’ or ‘Islamism.’ In Islam, like in Judaism, there is no distinction between the political and religio.  Islamism is a Zionist/Neocon invention. It was created in an attempt to draw an imaginary dichotomy between the religious reality and the political. It is basically a projection of the Jewish post-assimilation reality on the Muslim world. It was invented in order to provide a ‘rationale’ for America and Britain so they could flatten Arab cities on behalf of Zion.

You said once in an interview for Russia Today that your charm is your defense against the antisemitic allegations. Can you elaborate? Can a likeable person basically not be an anti-Semite? And do you sometimes wonder if your critics are secretly playing your music before they go to bed? 

My comment on George Galloway was obviously comical. It is pretty obvious that a person who plays music every night with many Jews and shares platforms with rabbis cannot be ‘anti-semitic.’ It is hardly a secret that many of my supporters are Jews and even Israelis.

I would have loved to think that my detractors can enjoy my music. But I do not have any reason to believe that they are aesthetically inclined.

You grew up in a Zionist family and witnessed the Lebanon War in 1982. Would you be so committed to peace in the Middle East today if you had not had that experience? How do you feel about it when you reflect on your past?

It is hard to say. I am not a political person. I am doing what I am doing because I am curious.

I left Israel because I didn’t want to live on someone else’s land. But when I witnessed the Jewish Diaspora Zionists’ hawkish attitude and even worse, the duplicity at the core of the Jewish anti-Zionist discourse, I realised how intense Jewish identity is. I started to dig into it. We are dealing with complex and fascinating people who are shaped by a very old tribal philosophy that morphs quickly. By the time you think that you understand Jewish ID politics, it only suggests that Jewish ID politics has already morphed into something else. 

My philosophy hero Otto Weininger taught me that in art, self exploration is exploration of the world. For me, self reflection is understanding the troubling affairs around us. I guess that this is why Jews are so troubled by self hatred. It is an attempt of unveiling the concealed, the deepest secrets Jews tend to hide from themselves.

I do not need to ask you how about your stand on the U.S. decision regarding Jerusalem – but it would be interesting to know if you see a long-term departure from the “Trump’s Middle East policy. At the moment, the outcry is particularly great – which is partly due to the relevance of  Jerusalem. However, there had been no constructive development in the Middle East under Obama’s leadership. How do you rate the role of the USA – and especially the Israel lobby? You once said that AIPAC offered you money to become a member. Was the amount not big enough? 

Trump doesn’t have a middle East policy. And this is not a bad thing. America is not a key player anymore and this is a very positive development. We should thank Trump and Kushner for it. But it is true that this deterioration didn’t start just a year ago. I believe Obama made a conscious decision to pull out from the region. 

There is no doubt that AIPAC has been dominating American Middle East policy for a long time and it is totally obvious that AIPAC was serving the interests of a foreign state rather than American national interests. Americans can only blame themselves for letting this happen.

Since I left Israel, I have never been approached by a single Israeli or a Zionist body who tried to buy my support or collaboration.  The Jewish institutions and people who attempted to bribe me a few times in the past were of the Jewish anti-Zionist persuasion. I was offered to be ‘looked after’ and protected as long as I accepted their duplicitous terminology or just dumped my own. They wanted me to limit the discussion to Zionism and to make sure I drift away from the study of Jewish ID politics. Several times I was asked to denounce and disavow several people. I always rejected any dialogue with these kinds of tribal agent. In some cases I exposed these attempts. 

How do you rate the recent move by the Organization for Islamic Cooperation (OIC) led by President Erdoğan against the Trump decision to recognize Jerusalem as the capital of Israel? Will the UN resolution do something?

I’ll be honest with you. I do not think that anyone, including President Erdoğan, can liberate the Palestinians except the Palestinians themselves. How they do that is indeed a complicated question. I believe that Abbas is right. Time is their weapon. To survive is to win. The only people who can destroy the Jewish state are the Jews themselves. This is how they have always done it along their history.

In recent years, President Erdoğan has repeatedly, loudly complained of the Israeli government’s behavior towards the Palestinians and used harsh words such as “terrorist state” or “child murderer” regarding Israel. Many leaders of Arab states would never dare to do so that concretely. So Erdoğan’s popularity in Palestine seems very high. Do you believe that President Erdoğan can build a powerful counter-pole to Israel and the United States? It seems as if the EU member states have also moved a bit toward the Palestinians politically since the last Jerusalem crisis – even if they are looking for political pressure against Israel in vain.

President Erdoğan was indeed outspoken when it comes to Israel but I do understand how volatile the situation he is in. He has to deal with a very complex situation. Syria, the Kurds, Gülen, NATO, Russia and the USA. Unfortunately, Israel is a key player in all of that. We have seen the Turks swinging on issues to do with Israel. At the end of the day, Erdogan was elected to serve the Turkish people and this mission is probably difficult enough considering the complexity involved.

Do you still believe in the possibility of a two-state solution?

I’ve never believed in a two State Solution. And I am not so sure that the discussion about solutions is leading anywhere. It is designed to keep some activists busy so they have something to shout in their gatherings and pickets. 

What we really see is facts on the ground. Israel and Palestine are one state. One electrical grid, one international pre dial number (+972), one sewage system yet this state is oppressive, abusive and often genocidal towards the indigenous people of the land. Why? Because Israel defines itself as ‘the Jewish State.’ It is a state of the Jews rather than ‘a State of its citizens.’ For the situation to be resolved Israel must be ‘de-Jewishified’ (stripped of its Judeo-centric  exceptionalism and become  a state of its citizens, regardless of their ethnicity or religion). However, when this happens Israel will become Palestine from the river to the sea.

Thank you very much for the interview Mr Atzmon, and good luck with your music and your political commitment to peace in the Middle East.

All the best…

 

Israeli Psychosis on Full Display

December 29, 2017  /  Gilad Atzmon

lorde+2.jpg

By Gilad Atzmon

In his attack on BDS activist Justine Sachs, Ynet writer Asaf Wohl performs every tribal morbidity. Sachs is apparently a Jewish pro-Palestinian woman who helped convince New Zealand singer Lorde to cancel her performance in Israel.  Wohl accuses her of inciting ‘violence,’ ‘auto-anti-Semitsm,’ ‘siding with terrorists,’ effectively everything except child molesting.

Among my sins I am critical of some aspects of cultural BDS, but to interpret BDS as a violent act is rather over the top. If anything, BDS was designed to dilute Palestinian militant resistance. Furthermore, boycotting is a very Jewish practice, known as excommunication or herem in Hebrew. You would expect Wohl, an ardent Zionist, to be slightly more familiar with his own culture.

If you ever wonder what is the meaning of Judeo-centrism, Wohl provides the full scope. The Israeli settler really believes that he is the centre of this universe. “The difference between you and me, Justin, is that I’m an Israeli Jew and you’re a Jew. That’s it. You have no nationality. You live in a negligible, insignificant sheepfold stuck somewhere at the end of the universe (New Zealand).” For Wohl, Israel is the world’s capital and Israeliness is the ultimate embodiment of human as well as of Jewish existence.

Sachs is accused of “auto-anti-Semitism” which in Wohl’s words is a “drive towards human self-destruction.” And I wonder whether Wohl really thinks that Sachs persuading a singer not to perform in Tel Aviv points at self destructive or even suicidal inclinations?

Wohl writes that he feels “no need to take the side of a culture which hasn’t brought anything to the world apart from terror. The confidence I am given by the Israeli nationality allows me to pick the democratic, free side.” For Wohl, so it seems, Arabs and Muslims contributed nothing to the world but ‘terror’ yet Israel pretty much invented democracy and the Western ethos in general. Someone should remind this Israeli caricature that democracy is from Athens while state terror against the indigenous people of the land is actually Israel’s official policy.

Wohl seems to believe that the Jewish state is an exponent of Western values. Seemingly, Wohl doesn’t grasp that loving your neighbours is at the core of the Western civilisation’s ethos.

Look how Wohl refers to his Palestinian neighbours.

They are

“the side which hijacks planes, the side which hangs gay people on electric poles, the side which rips out girls’ throats in honor killings, the side which has failed to establish any state or society which isn’t totalitarian, chauvinist, primitive and/or murderous.”

Not a lot of Western compassion on Wohl’s part. And you may be left wondering: which side is Wohl on? The side of ardent Zionist Harvey Weinstein? Or maybe the side of people who plundered other people’s land and dropped white phosphorus on schools in Gaza?

Wohl clearly sides with the people who made that strip of land into the biggest open air prison known to man. It is easy to grasp why Justine Sachs and a few other Diaspora Jews side with the Palestinians and oppose Israel. It is far more depressing to admit that the  majority of them probably side with Wohl.

cover bit small.jpg

Being in Time – A Post Political Manifesto,

Amazon.co.uk , Amazon.com and  here (gilad.co.uk).

Kitos War: Barbaric jewish history from the 1st and 2nd centuries

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kitos_War

The Kitos War (115–117; Hebrew: מרד הגלויות‎: mered ha’galuyot or mered ha’tfutzot [מרד התפוצות]; translation: rebellion of the diaspora. Latin: Tumultus Iudaicus) occurred during the period of the Jewish–Roman wars, 66–136. While the majority of the Roman armies were fighting Trajan’s Parthian War on the eastern border of the Roman Empire, major uprisings by ethnic Judeans in Cyrenaica, Cyprus and Egypt spiraled out of control, resulting in a widespread slaughter of left behind Roman garrisons and Roman citizens by Jewish rebels. Some of the areas with the heaviest massacres were left so utterly annihilated that others were made to settle these areas to prevent the absence of any remaining presence. The rebellions were finally crushed by Roman legionary forces, chiefly by the Roman general Lusius Quietus, whose nomen later gave the conflict its title, as “Kitos” is a later corruption of Quietus

Background[edit]

Tension between the Jewish population of the Roman Empire and the Greek and Roman populations mounted over the course of the 1st century CE, gradually escalating with various violent events, mainly throughout Judea (Iudaea), where parts of the Judean population occasionally erupted into violent insurrections against the Roman Empire. Several incidents also occurred in other parts of the Roman Empire, most notable the Alexandria pogroms, targeting the large Jewish community of Alexandria in the province of Egypt.

The escalation of tensions finally erupted as the Great Revolt of Judea, which began in the year 66 CE. It erupted initially due to Greek and Jewish religious tensions, but later escalated due to anti-taxation protests and attacks upon Roman citizens.[1] The Roman military garrison of Judea was quickly overrun by rebels and the pro-Roman king Herod Agrippa II fled Jerusalem, together with Roman officials to Galilee. Cestius Gallus, the legate of Syria, brought the Syrian army, based on XII Fulminata, reinforced by auxiliary troops, to restore order and quell the revolt. The legion, however, was ambushed and defeated by Jewish rebels at the Battle of Beth Horon, a result that shocked the Roman leadership.

The Roman command of the revolt’s suppression was then handed to general Vespasian and his son Titus, who assembled four legions and began advancing through the country, starting with Galilee, in the year 67 CE. The revolt ended when legions under Titus besieged and destroyed the center of rebel resistance in Jerusalem in the year 70 CE, and defeated the remaining Jewish strongholds later on.

Revolt and warfare[edit]

In 115, the emperor Trajan was in command of the eastern campaign against the Parthian Empire. The Roman invasion had been prompted by the imposition of a pro-Parthian king on the throne of Armenia after a Parthian invasion of that land. This encroachment on the traditional sphere of influence of the Roman Empire — the two empires had shared hegemony over Armenia since the time of Nero some 50 years earlier — could only lead to war.

As Trajan’s army advanced victoriously through Mesopotamia, Jewish rebels in its rear began attacking the small garrisons left behind. A revolt in far off Cyrenaica soon spread to Egypt and then Cyprus, inciting revolt in Judea. A widespread uprising centered at Lydda threatened grain supplies from Egypt to the front. The Jewish insurrection swiftly spread to the recently conquered provinces. Cities with substantial Jewish populations – Nisibis, Edessa, Seleucia, Arbela – joined the rebellion and slaughtered their small Roman garrisons.

Cyrenaica[edit]

In Cyrenaica, the rebels were led by one Lukuas or Andreas, who called himself “king” (according to Eusebius of Caesarea). His group destroyed many temples, including those to Hecate, Jupiter, Apollo, Artemis, and Isis, as well as the civil structures that were symbols of Rome, including the Caesareum, the basilica, and the public baths.

The 4th century Christian historian Orosius records that the violence so depopulated the province of Cyrenaica that new colonies had to be established by Hadrian:

“The Jews … waged war on the inhabitants throughout Libya in the most savage fashion, and to such an extent was the country wasted that, its cultivators having been slain, its land would have remained utterly depopulated, had not the Emperor Hadrian gathered settlers from other places and sent them thither, for the inhabitants had been wiped out.”[2]

Dio Cassius states of Jewish insurrectionaries:

“‘Meanwhile the Jews in the region of Cyrene had put one Andreas at their head and were destroying both the Romans and the Greeks. They would cook their flesh, make belts for themselves of their entrails, anoint themselves with their blood, and wear their skins for clothing. Many they sawed in two, from the head downwards. Others they would give to wild beasts and force still others to fight as gladiators. In all, consequently, two hundred and twenty thousand perished. In Egypt, also, they performed many similar deeds, and in Cyprus under the leadership of Artemio. There, likewise, two hundred and forty thousand perished. For this reason no Jew may set foot in that land, but even if one of them is driven upon the island by force of the wind, he is put to death. Various persons took part in subduing these Jews, one being Lusius, who was sent by Trajan.”[3]

The original 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia cited this about the Cyrene massacres:

“By this outbreak Libya was depopulated to such an extent that a few years later new colonies had to be established there (Eusebius, “Chronicle” from the Armenian, fourteenth year of Hadrian). Bishop Synesius, a native of Cyrene in the beginning of the fifth century, speaks of the devastations wrought by the Jews (“Do Regno,” p. 2).”[4]

The Jewish Encyclopedia acknowledges Dio Cassius’s importance as a source, though believes his accounts of the actions at Cyrene and on Cyprus may have been embellished:

“For an account of the Jewish war under Trajan and Hadrian Dion is the most important source (lxviii. 32, lxix. 12–14), though his descriptions of the cruelties perpetrated by the Jews at Cyrene and on the island of Cyprus are probably exaggerated.”[5]

Egypt[edit]

Then Lukuas, leader of rebel Jews, moved towards Alexandria, entered the city, which had been abandoned by the Roman troops in Egypt under the leadership of governor Marcus Rutilius Lupus, and set fire to the city. The Egyptian temples and the tomb of Pompey were destroyed. Jewish rebels reportedly also prevailed in a battle at Hermopolis in 116, as indicated in a papyrus.[6]

Trajan sent new troops under the praefectus praetorio Marcius Turbo, but Egypt and Cyrenaica were pacified only in autumn 117.

Cyprus[edit]

In Cyprus a Jewish band under a leader named Artemion took control of the island, killing tens of thousands of Cypriot Greek civilians. The Cypriot Jews participated in the great uprising against the Romans under Trajan (117), and massacred 240,000 Greeks.[3][7] A Roman army was dispatched to the island, soon reconquering the capital. After the revolt had been fully defeated, laws were created forbidding any Jews to live on the island.

Mesopotamia[edit]

A new revolt sprang up in Mesopotamia, while Trajan was in the Persian Gulf. Trajan reconquered Nisibis (Nusaybin in Turkey), the capital of Osroene Edessa, and Seleucia (Iraq), each of which housed large Jewish communities.

A pro-Roman son of the Parthian king Osroes I, named Parthamaspatas, had been brought on the expedition as part of the emperor’s entourage. Trajan had him crowned in Ctesiphon as king of the Parthians. “Trajan, fearing that the Parthians, too, might begin a revolt, desired to give them a king of their own. Accordingly, when he came to Ctesiphon, he called together in a great plain all the Romans and likewise all the Parthians that were there at the time; then he mounted a lofty platform, and after describing in grandiloquent language what he had accomplished, he appointed Parthamaspates king over the Parthians and set the diadem upon his head.” (Dio Cassius). With this done, Trajan moved north to take personal command of the ongoing siege of Hatra.

The siege continued throughout the summer of 117, but the years of constant campaigning in the baking eastern heat had taken their toll on Trajan, who suffered a heatstroke. He decided to begin the long journey back to Rome in order to recover. Sailing from Seleucia, the emperor’s health deteriorated rapidly. He was taken ashore at Selinus in Cilicia, where he died, and his successor, Hadrian, assumed the reins of government in 118.

Judea[edit]

Jewish leader Lukuas fled to Judea.[8] Marcius Turbo pursued him and sentenced to death the brothers Julian and Pappus, who had been key leaders in the rebellion. Lusius Quietus, the conqueror of the Jews of Mesopotamia, was now in command of the Roman army in Judea, and laid siege to Lydda, where the rebel Jews had gathered under the leadership of Julian and Pappus. The distress became so great that the patriarch Rabban Gamaliel II, who was shut up there and died soon afterwards, permitted fasting even on Ḥanukkah. Other rabbis condemned this measure.[9] Lydda was next taken and many of the rebellious Jews were executed; the “slain of Lydda” are often mentioned in words of reverential praise in the Talmud.[10] Rebel leaders Pappus and Julian were among those executed by the Romans in the same year.[11]

Lusius Quietus, whom the Emperor Trajan had held in high regard and who had served Rome so well, was quietly stripped of his command once Hadrian had secured the Imperial title. He was murdered in unknown circumstances in the summer of 118, possibly by the orders of Hadrian.

Hadrian took the unpopular, but far-sighted, decision to end the war, abandoning much of Trajan’s eastern conquests and stabilising the eastern borders. Although he abandoned the erstwhile province of Mesopotamia, he installed Parthamaspates – who had been ejected from Ctesiphon by the returning Osroes – as king of a restored Osroene. For a century Osroene would retain a precarious independence as a buffer state, sandwiched between the two empires.

The situation in Judea remained tense for the Romans, who were obliged under Hadrian to permanently move the Legio VI Ferrata into Caesarea Maritima in Judea.

Aftermath[edit]

Further developments occurred in Judea Province in the year 130, when Emperor Hadrian visited the Eastern Mediterranean and, according to Cassius Dio, made the decision to rebuild the city of Jerusalem as the Roman city of Aelia Capitolina, derived from his own name. The decision, together with Hadrian’s other sanctions against the Jews, was allegedly one of the reasons for the eruption of the 132 Bar Kokhba revolt — an extremely violent uprising. The rebellion ended with a ban upon the Jewish faith across the Roman Empire, which was lifted in 138, upon Hadrian’s death.

 

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