Western intellectuals freak over ‘Frankenstein’ China

July 17, 2019

by Pepe Escobar : Posted with permission

Western intellectuals freak over ‘Frankenstein’ China

Western economists and intellectuals obsessed with demonization of China are never shy of shortcuts glaringly exposing their ignorance.

The latest outburst posits that “we” – as in Western intellectuals – “are the modern version of Mary Shelley’s Frankenstein,” who electro-shocked a dead body (China) into a resurrected “murderous monster.”

So, welcome to the Sino-Frankenstein school of international relations. What next? A black and white remake with Xi Jinping playing the monster? Anyway, “we” – as in mankind’s best hope – should “avoid carrying on in the role of Frankenstein.”

The author is an economics professor emeritus at Harvard. He cannot even identify who’s to blame for Frankenstein – the West or the Chinese. That says much about Harvard’s academic standards.

Now, compare this with what was being discussed at a trade war symposium at Renmin University in Beijing this past Saturday.

Chinese intellectuals were trying to frame the current geopolitical dislocation provoked by the Trump administration’s trade war – without naming it for what it is: a Frankenstein gambit.

Li Xiangyang, director of the National Institute of International Strategy, a think tank linked to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, stressed that an “economic decoupling” of the US from China is “completely possible,” considering that “the ultimate [US] target is to contain China’s rise … This is a life-or-death game” for the United States.

Decoupling

Assuming the decoupling would take place, that could be easily perceived as “strategic blackmail” imposed by the Trump administration. Yet what the Trump administration wants is not exactly what the US establishment wants – as shown by an open letter to Trump signed by scores of academics, foreign policy experts and business leaders who are worried that “decoupling” China from the global economy – as if Washington could actually pull off such an impossibility – would generate massive blowback.

What may actually happen in terms of a US-China “decoupling” is what Beijing is already, actively working on: extending trade partnerships with the EU and across the Global South.

And that will lead, according to Li, to the Chinese leadership offering deeper and wider market access to its partners. This will soon be the case with the EU, as discussed in Brussels in the spring.

Sun Jie, a researcher at the Institute of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said that deepening partnerships with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (Asean) will be essential in case a decoupling is in the cards.

For his part Liu Qing, an economics professor at Renmin University, stressed the need for top international relations management, dealing with everyone from Europe to the Global South, to prevent their companies from replacing Chinese companies in selected global supply chains.

And Wang Xiaosong, an economics professor at Renmin University, emphasized that a concerted Chinese strategic approach in dealing with Washington is absolutely paramount.

All about Belt and Road

A few optimists among Western intellectuals would rather characterize what is going on as a vibrant debate between proponents of “restraint” and “offshore balancing” and proponents of “liberal hegemony”. In fact, it’s actually a firefight.

Among the Western intellectuals singled out by the puzzled Frankenstein guy, it is virtually impossible to find another voice of reason to match Martin Jacques, now a senior fellow at Cambridge University. When China Rules the World, his hefty tome published 10 years ago, still leaps out of an editorial wasteland of almost uniformly dull publications by so-called Western “experts” on China.

Jacques has understood that now it’s all about the New Silk Roads, or Belt and Road Initiative: “BRI has the potential to offer another kind of world, another set of values, another set of imperatives, another way of organizing, another set of institutions, another set of relationships.”

Belt and Road, adds Jacques, “offers an alternative to the existing international order. The present international order was designed by and still essentially privileges the rich world, which represents only 15% of the world’s population. BRI, on the other hand, is addressing at least two-thirds of the world’s population. This is extraordinarily important for this moment in history.”

In fact, we are already entering a Belt and Road 2.0 scenario – defined by Minister of Foreign Affairs Wang Yi as a “high-quality” shift from “big freehand” to “fine brushwork.”

At the Belt and Road Forum this past spring in Beijing, 131 nations were represented, engaged in linked projects. Belt and Road is partnering with 29 international organizations from the World Bank to APEC, the Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation.

Apart from the fact that Belt and Road is now configured as a vast, unique, Eurasia-wide infrastructure and trade development project extending all the way to Africa and Latin America, Beijing is now emphasizing that it’s also a portmanteau brand encompassing bilateral trade relations, South-South cooperation and UN-endorsed sustainable development goals.

China’s trade with Belt and Road-linked nations reached $617.5 billion in the first half of 2019 – up 9.7% year-on-year and outpacing the growth rate of China’s total trade.

Chinese scholar Wang Jisi was right from the start when he singled out Belt and Road as a “strategic necessity” to counter Barack Obama’s now-defunct “pivot to Asia”.

So now it’s time for Western intellectuals to engage on a freak-out: as it stands, Belt and Road is the new Frankenstein.

Understanding America’s “regime change” strategy in Russia

June 19, 2019

Understanding America’s “regime change” strategy in Russia

by Ollie Richardson for The Saker Blog

In what is a very timely admission taking into account the topic of my last article – 21st century international relations and decision-making, the head of Russia’s Foreign Intelligence Service (Служба внешней разведки Российской Федерации), Sergey Naryshkin, pointed to a low risk method of “hybrid” warfare and named a specific example where it is being implemented. RT reported the following on June 18th (emphasis my own):

“Western secret services are perfecting clandestine tools which are designed to weaken countries like viruses weaken bodies, the Russian foreign intelligence chief has said. This kind of warfare is currently used in Venezuela.

The criticism came from Sergey Naryshkin, who heads Russia’s foreign intelligence agency SVR. He said spies are constantly improving the tool used to dispose of governments that the West does not like.

‘We are talking about creating a universal algorithm for conducting clandestine influence operations in a continuous manner and on a global scale,’ he said. According to the official, this clandestine work ‘never stops and targets not only enemies, but also friends and neutral powers in the times of peace, crisis and war.’

‘It can be compared to the action of a virus; it can spend decades destroying a human organism without symptoms, and once diagnosed, often it’s too late to treat it.’

The methods used to influence and destabilize other nations include creating network-oriented structures that can operate on a premise of public activism, art, science, religion or extremism, the Russian official said. After collecting data on the fault lines in a targeted society, those structures are used to attack those weak points in a synchronized assault, overwhelming the nation’s capability to respond to crises.

Simultaneously the perpetrators push a narrative through local and global media and social networks that claims that the only way to resolve problems is to replace the government of the victim nation with another one, possibly with a direct foreign support.

‘We can observe this scenario being implemented in Venezuela,’ Naryshkin said.

The US is currently trying to replace Venezuela’s elected President Nicolas Maduro with another person, Juan Guaido, whom Washington recognized as the legitimate head of the South American nation.

Among others, the US backs his bid with economic sanctions against Venezuela and a massive diplomatic and media campaign in support of the pretender. Guaido’s attempts to actually seize power in Caracas have been futile, so far.

The Russian intelligence chief was speaking at an international security forum in Ufa, Russia, which is hosted by the Russian National Security Council. The event is meant for officials directly involved in policy making on security issues. Almost 120 nations are participating in this year’s gathering.”

I will start by saying that Naryshkin could reveal a lot more if he wanted to, but for obvious reasons is limited to presenting an abstract thesis – which RT “coincidently” relayed – as a sort of signal to Western intelligence agencies that Russia’s room to manoeuvre in the information space isn’t limited to just publishing “news”.

On the surface it might seem like he is just describing a banal coup d’état, where one state interferes in the internal affairs of another state for the purpose of overthrowing the government and bringing to power a political circle that is friendlier. If one prefers simplistic and digestible takeaways, then one can stop reading here – nothing new under the sun!

However, what the head of Russia’s Foreign Intelligence Service is alluding to is a far more complex and dense matter. As history has shown, the traditional coup d’état, akin to what has been seen in the MENA and South America for decades now, is not the same as the coup d’état that was rolled out in, for example, Ukraine in 2014. Why?

The precursor to the “colour revolution”

The main reason is that the West has been working on occupying MENA’s lands and raw materials for decades. If the countries of MENA can be said to be tribalistic in terms of structure and aims (more about daily survival than paying bills at the end of the month), then post-WW2 Europe is at first glance much more “developed” and “civilised”. I put these words in quotation marks because they are the generic phrases that organisations like the UN use when describing how MENA should aspire to become “more democratic” and “progressive” in order to “combat poverty” and become “prosperous”. In other words, MENA in general is not as technologically advanced as modern nation states with liberal “democracies”. This is not an insult to MENA; it is simply an observable fact based on the consequences of colonisation. Thus, the scheme for conquering MENA territory is more straightforward than it would be for conquering, for example, Eastern Europe. There is a leader, there is a small circle of wealthy elites, there is an army (armed loyalists), and there are farmers/manual labour workers. Anglo-Saxon colonisers managed to conquer the lands long before the victim nation is able to climb the ladder of scientific research and thus obtain more and more effective ways of defending themselves.

In the example of the Native Indians, the British already had basic guns, thus the former’s bows and arrows were inferior. In the case of Africa, notorious colonisers (which includes the British) arrived with the same guns and were faced with only spears and other relatively primitive weapons. Hence why almost the entire African continent was subjugated so easily. The difference between just general colonisation and a coup d’état can be seen most visibly after the CIA is formed: overthrowing a “dictator” becomes as simple as literally buying off the army (like how the UK pioneered the use of pirates), which allows the capitalist West to take care of business and use its media resources to report another “peaceful” and “successful” “democratisation” project. As soon as a leader manages to come to power and aims to challenge this subjugation (Gaddafi being the most recent MENA example, but there is also Patrice Lumumba and Thomas Sankara), they experience the same problem – they are simply overpowered by the more technologically advanced coloniser.

When it comes to coup d’états in the post-Soviet space, the game is different. For over 60 years the USSR had succeeded to repel the influence of the “free” (capitalist) Anglo-Saxons – thanks to a focus on scientific research and thus nuclear technologies – and create a tightly knit Union based on common history and culture. In the West the governments told their citizens that “on that side of the curtain they are ‘totalitarian’”, whilst in reality America & Co struggled to influence Soviet society and didn’t want their own citizens to see that in the Soviet system of governance everybody had something, as opposed to some people having everything (capitalism). In other words, the USSR was able to defend itself against the traditional coup d’état method.

Due to the fact that the USSR was a developed territory and had much more complex political structures than those of the average African country, it wasn’t as simple as just sending Thomas Lawrence or Sidney Reilly and duping local kingpins into signing agreements that essentially renounce raw material ownership rights. And it is also important to bear in mind that the Soviet intelligence agencies were doing battle with the CIA long before 1991. The changing of times simply obliged the West to update the coup d’état playbook before the target country progressed along the line of scientific development and establishes a defence mechanism that is technologically 20 years ahead of the US’ subversive tools.

Not being physically able to intimidate the USSR enough into submitting to its will since the latter had nuclear weapons, Uncle Sam realised that it was much more wiser and safer to blow it up from the inside. In this article I don’t want to digress too much from the central topic, thus I will not present a mass of details of how America managed to penetrate the USSR and inject it’s liberal ideas throughout society, but a good brief example I can give is the shipping of American clothes/fashion to Soviet ports, such as Odessa. Today this might be called “soft power”, but at the time in question such things served to convince people that individualism could give a more fruitful life than collectivism.

The 2014 coup d’état in Ukraine utilised an upgraded blueprint that was based on the one used to dismantle the Soviet Union (and spark the 1993 constitutional crisis). When the USSR collapsed in 1991, Ukraine found itself in the position of being the wealthiest inheritor of the Soviet legacy: its infrastructure, medicine, education, military, etc was the best in the region. Things started to go pear-shaped around 2004, when America’s interference started to reach new heights at the time of the “multi-vectoral” Kuchma, but the Ukraine of 2014 under Yanukovych was relatively-speaking above the water and swimming comfortably. In an attempt to oust Putin before Russia comes even closer to China, strengthens, and forms the backbone of the emerging Eurasian bloc, America planned to disrupt the equilibrium in Ukraine and violently tear it away from the Russian nation. But the problem for America was “how to make this process look organic? After all, to simply invade Ukraine with the US Army would result in the liquidation of the United States of America itself.”

I will not use precious article space recounting what happened in 2013/2014 in Ukraine, since I have created an archive dedicated to it, but I think the video below – John Tefft in 2013 preparing the terrain in Donetsk for what was about to happen – encapsulates the essence of it very well: US NGOs brainwashed society into flirting with liberalism and its noxious “democracy”, similar to that virus Sergey Naryshkin spoke about; local Galician militant formations are formed (main example: “Right Sector”) and capture administration buildings in Western Ukraine, before eventually being transported to Kiev for the February “revolution”.

“Colour revolution 2.0”

What I really want to focus on is the coup d’état model that is being deployed by America & Co in 2019. So far we can say that there are 3 versions of the coup d’état technology (I am being deliberately simplistic, and I use provisional names and descriptions, since I am still researching this topic):

  1. Traditional coup d’état – a simple smash and grab, effective against the so-called “third world” (examples: Laos, Guatemala, Zaire);
  2. “Colour revolution” – temporarily hijacking “civil society”, effective against more technologically sophisticated states but not superpowers (examples: Egypt, Syria, “independent” Ukraine);
  3. Algorithmic probing (can be thought of as “colour revolution 2.0”) – seizing control over the nation from the ground-up, effective against allies of nuclear superpowers post-2015, when the Minsk Agreements were signed and Russian jets touched down at Hmeymim airbase in Syria (examples: Venezuela, Hong Kong, Russia, Serbia).

Before starting to elaborate on version No. 3, which concerns the post-Syrian-war (I stress, Russia ended the war in 2015 – everything that happened afterwards is just behind the curtain negotiations concerning the next 50+ years of global order) world, it is necessary to present some of the reasons why version No. 2 no longer works:

  • Social media hashtag campaigns like those seen during the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood “revolution” no longer have the same effect due to the exponentially increasing mobilisation of anti-coup (“pro-Russia”/“pro-Assad”/“pro-Maduro”/“pro-Nasrallah”) social media users;
  • It became too difficult to keep the aesthetics of the operation consistently clean – the “White Helmets” may do something that discredits their alleged authenticity, the speaker of the Rada may state that “Hitler was a great leader”, a senior Qatari figure may admit live on TV that Qatar funded militant groups in order to remove Assad, Bana might botch a tweet, a video may emerge showing a “FSA” leader reading a script in front of an American producer, etc;
  • The popularity of mainstream media is becoming less and less (not to mention the effect of Trump’s “fake news” PR campaign), and the popularity of both non-Western state media (RT, Sputnik, Press TV, Telesur, etc) and independent (or apparently independent) media is exponentially growing;
  • Alternative social media websites/apps have since become popular amongst English speakers (VKontakte, Telegram, Instagram, Gab, Snapchat, etc);
  • Eurasia was able to study the past behaviour of the both West’s traditional resources and social media users, allowing to refine its existing resources and to even create new, specialised ones;
  • The existence of independent and anti-coup journalists who are prepared to travel between different theatres (for example, Syria and Venezuela) and expose the pattern of the West’s “regime change” methods.
  • The weakening of the effect of smearing expressions like “anti-Semitism” due to the accumulation effect of reports about Israeli crimes in Gaza and the West Bank;
  • The general strengthening of Eurasia and the decline of the liberal West (and the opportunities it has to violate international law as a result), thus the citizens of the former don’t have a reason to believe that the latter is the paradise it pretends it is;
  • etc.

In other words, the geopolitical reality we have today is not at all the same as the one that we saw before Russia’s involvement in Syria – the highest stakes chessboard in the grand game. Lessons were learnt from the past and enough time has passed for changes to be calculated and implemented. Today, superpowers are obliged to invest exponentially more resources in technologies (hence why Russia wants to invest heavily in the AI sector), since understanding the enemy’s technologies is the difference between them successfully or unsuccessfully penetrating society. And it’s not a coincidence that Naryshkin starts to use terms like “virus”. But what does he really mean? What are the design differences between a regular “colour revolution” and what we are seeing today in, for example, Venezuela?

Firstly, a “colour revolution” is designed to hijack “civil society” over a period of several months (less than 6 months), obtain the support of the elites, and aims to put the target leader in front of two bad choices – a trap: to quell protests means to be depicted by the West’s NGO’s as a “dictator”, and thus the West doesn’t risk receiving a information blow to its rear (if Western society doesn’t agree with something the government is doing, an adversary can exploit it and disrupt the socio-economic situation of a western country or of many western countries); to not quell the protests means to simply hand over power. This explains what happened to Viktor Yanukovych – he did not give the order to Berkut to disperse Maidan for fear of being permanently stained in the Western media, so Joe Biden and his band of merry putschists, after a bit of sniper theatrics to keep the protests alive, took the Rada. Lose-lose. In this scenario Russia could do nothing since a) Ukrainians and their elites are ultimately to blame for flirting with the West, and b) Yanukovych chose the passive option, and thus the only thing Moscow could do was to quickly forecast the consequences and move several step ahead of the US (hence the supercomputers that know about the Yugoslavia war). The result? The Minsk Agreements and the driving of the US’ “anti-Russia” project into a dead end.

Secondly, a “colour revolution” hijacks momentary social discontent in relation to a particular issue, inflates it, and then unleashes it in a very focused manner. The discontent needs to be fed financially and thus can be left to extinguish if plans change. It should be noted here that the target society must already show signs of fragmentation: the work to gradually tear Ukraine away from the bosom of Russia (since the collapse of the USSR) has been ongoing for decades, and over time Kiev succumbed to the West’s Banderist poison, thus the 2014 coup simply brought to the surface what had been boiling below since the times of the NKVD’s battle with OUN-UPA. Syria is very similar –Wahhabism had been nibbling away at the Levant for decades. Of course, the ties between Hafez/Bashar al-Assad and the Russia/USSR have existed for over 30 years, but it cannot be said that the two countries have had a relationship based more on pragmatism.

Thirdly, a “colour revolution” involves the creation of an informational hologram that proverbially floats above the target territory, creating a parallel timeline (example: the green/black/white French mandate flag as the actual Syrian flag, and the Higher Negotiations Committee as the actual UN recognised government of Syria – both of which are of course frauds but allow NATO members to bomb Syria without any indignation from the Western general public), but starts to fade as soon as the balance of forces in the war on the ground tips in the target’s favour (not even the US media machine can sell the narrative that East Aleppo still hasn’t been recaptured by Assad).

Fourthly, a “colour revolution” does not aim to reprogram all the layers of non-elite society in all regions of the country – it only aims to introduce liberal ideas and maintain the support of both those who are already brainwashed and those who succumb to the inculcation. Those who were anti-liberal before will remain anti-liberal post-coup, and thus pose a threat to the puppet regime. Ukraine here is an excellent example of this, where the profoundness of the historical Novorossiya vs Galicia line of divide could be overcome with a few cookies and $5 billion in NGO money.

Version No. 3 of the coup d’état, which in this article I refer to as “algorithmic probing”, is thus designed to: take place over a longer period of time; be fed at the expense of the target government and link together various sources of social discontent; be able to work in conditions where there is no existing ground-based warfare and the likelihood of there being any in the future is low; reprogram the national consciousness and hook all layers of society as geographically far and as wide as possible; make steps towards success even if the elites remain loyal to the target leader.

In situations where the target’s security apparatus is the same, if not better, than the belligerent’s; where society’s average level of trust in the leader is the same, if not higher than the belligerent’s; and where the target’s defence capabilities match, if not overpower, the belligerent’s offensive capabilities; it becomes far too risky for the belligerent to try the “colour revolution” scheme, since failure can compromise any future coup d’état attempts – the coup leader can be detained and may spill the beans concerning who gave him orders and what they were, as well as any valuable intelligence information. The failed coup in Turkey in 2016 was the warning signal to Washington that the habitual “colour revolution” technology will not work in the “multipolar” Eurasian space (hint: Turkey received coup-thwarting intel from allies).

In Venezuela the US is revising its coup d’état technology in real time. There are signs of the “colour revolution” technology: a puppet opposition leader who calls for protests in the street; the expression “the Maduro regime”; imposition of sanctions to give the illusion that the Venezuelan government is starving its own people; even statements like “all options are on the table”, which is PR-friendly way of saying there are no options. There are also some faint signs of “algorithmic probing”: the transferal of assets in the US belonging to the Venezuelan state to the hands of Juan Guaido; the dragging out of the coup d’état (it’s been going on for much longer than 6 months); there is no civil war in the country and it’s unlikely there will be any in the near future, despite the presence of US NGOs in the country.

However, the initial “colour revolution” attempt failed because Russia and China – nuclear superpowers – helped Caracas to weather the storm and keep society together. Later the Venezuela’s state oil company PDVSA moved its assets to Moscow, Russia sent polite green men to calm down the US, and Moscow and China both sent humanitarian aid (as well as “humanitarian aid”) for the sanctioned people of the country, and Juan Guaido was exposed so much so that even his rich boyfriend Richard Branson was obliged to throw him under the bus:

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But in this example, like vis-à-vis the Syrian war, Russia doesn’t have to do much informational work in order to justify its involvement, simply because ties between Caracas and Moscow already existed before the Bolton-Pompeo tandem came to power, and Russia would be acting within international law anyway. I.e., the door was slammed shut in the face of the CIA, and in order to re-open it America’s only option is to either remove Russia’s nuclear weapons (and in order to do this the S-400 must be removed from the equation) or to overhaul Venezuelan society at the grass roots level.

The “colour revolution” version of the coup d’état even more so does not work in Putin’s Russia. He has succeeded to build a system that leaves no holes for CIA mice (e.g. successors of Gorbachev, Yeltsin, or other notorious liberal saboteurs) to scurry though. Some might call it “authoritarian”; others might call it coup d’état-resistant.

The CIA-orchestrated Boris Nemtsov assassination served as a test balloon, to learn if the Ukrainian scheme can be repeated (death[s] from gunfire -> protests and clashes with law enforcement -> target president flees). The aim was to gather enough people in Moscow for a “march in memory of Nemtsov” and to replicate what happened on Independent Square in Kiev, but this time outside of the Kremlin (how convenient for propagandist photographers – he was killed on the bridge next to the Kremlin!).

Not enough people came, and the security agencies succeeded to block the path to the Kremlin. Russian senator Evgeny Federov did a fantastic job of explaining this in more detail:

The next experiment was the Navalny card in the run-up to the 2018 presidential election. I recommended to delve into the material found here for more details about this. In brief, the CIA tried to use the image of children being arrested by OMON during unsanctioned protests in order to shake Russian society. The result? Putin outlawed it, and of course, Western propagandists were howling “repression”. Putin won the election anyway, in the presence of international observers too.

Fast forward to the most recent (at the time of writing) provocation – the case of Ivan Golunov, who works for the liberal propagandist agency “Meduza” – and we see familiar things: a fifth-columnist is used as a battering ram designed to shake society and remove the evil “dictator”. An unsanctioned “Golunov is a hero” march took place on June 12th, and analysis of the footage shows that it has nothing to do with journalism and everything about putting Putin in a bad light. The crowd even chants “Russia without Putin”, and one hired clown in particular gave the message a visual aspect.

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Evgeny Federov noted that the Golunov club refused the government’s offer to hold a sanctioned rally on June 16th, since the US needs images of “innocent journalists and activists” being detained by “evil” OMON. Federov’s statement in full:

“There is no doubt that it is an attempt to interfere. Both the US State Department and Brussels made official statements on this issue. They have included their forces, and we know them well, many of the participants in the illegal demonstration are well known to us. From the photos in the police vans, you may remember that these forces repeatedly came out before. Personally, I saw them on Pushkin Square, when Navalny took them there.

These are obvious foreign forces, the fifth column on the territory of Russia, they became active on June 12th. For them, they just need a reason, but the reason has already disappeared, Golunov was released, but they don’t care. The team arrived, the money was received, and they need to put it to use. The actions of the protesters are connected to the general system of shaking the situation that is practiced in the West, primarily in the US. It is enough to see how events were prepared in Ukraine, in Georgia, in Moldova, how they were prepared in hundreds of other countries through foreign intervention using the orange technology method.

Everything happens in the same way everywhere. Firstly, a sacred victim is selected, and then proven groups who don’t care about the cause are used. The main thing for them is that the performance is against Russia and in support of foreign handlers. Completely the same scheme works in Russia concerning garbage collection and in Ekaterinburg. No matter what the reason, the most important thing is to continue to shake the situation. And I stress that the Americans managed to do this many times. At the second echelon, they usually involve separatists, and this is also being prepared in Russia.”

Ollie's MacBook:Users:O-RICH:Downloads:Screenshots:Screenshot 2019-06-19 at 00.00.00.pngThus, instead of holding a sanctioned march on June 16th, a “support Golunov” event took place. The turnout for this rally was pathetic. As Federov says, Putin neutralised the Golunov bomb by releasing the “journalist” and sacrificing some police generals. Of course, the social media attacks followed the same script as with Navalny’s unsanctioned protests and arrests (there is no indignation vis-à-vis Kirill Vyshinsky’s detention, naturally):

The fifth column media in Russia in unison started to promote the “I/We are Golunov” NGO campaign. UK newspapers presented the situation as Putin “backing down” and claimed that the “independent press is harassed, which in reality means that the FSB doesn’t let the fifth column breathe. There were also attempts (example) to stretch the Golunov template over other “unlawful arrests”. And the cherry on the cake is that it turns out that the clown Navalny was present at the unsanctioned Golunov march:

There are of course other examples of US-instigated agitation in Russian society – ranging from churches in Ekaterinburg to pension reform – but they all show the same traits of a “colour revolution” and encounter the same problem: Putin is one step ahead of them.

Long story short, America’s post-Syrian war application of its “colour revolution” technology is inadequate when it comes to toppling either the leaders of nuclear superpowers or the leaders of their ally countries (and it’s not just Eurasia that is the target of these attacks – Trump also attacks the EU [example and example], the individual states of which qualify, if to use Naryshkin’s expression, as “friends and neutral powers in the times of peace, crisis and war”). And taking into account the activity of both Russia and China in Africa today, this inadequacy can mean that the “third world” countries that previously were bulldozed by the most basic method of capturing state power may start to escape from the net of colonisation and enjoy the protection offered by Russia’s “algorithmic counter-probing”. After all, that’s what Venezuela is basically doing, and it’s the only reason Maduro, like Assad, is still in power.

Why do I use the word “algorithmic”?

If we recall, in my previous article I introduced the idea that the foreign policy decision-making of nuclear superpowers is being assisted by supercomputers, simply because the way in which we communicate and send/receive data is becoming exponentially quicker, and the human brain is not able to process such data at such speed. Because of this rapidity of communication, it has meant that one state can encroach on the sovereignty of another state (both digitally and physically), deal a blow, and withdraw to relative safety before the target has the time to adequately respond. Thus, the deployment of the S-400 allowed Russia to establish certain rules in international relations that a) take pressure off Russia’s nuclear weapons – the deterrent of all deterrents, and b) exert pressure on America in such a way that Washington currently – and probably not for the next 25 years at least – has no way of countering it.

So we understand from the description directly above that, like in any system, there can be latency/lag when it comes to responding. I have mentioned in the past how Russia was caught off balance with the first “White Helmets” false flag (Ghouta in 2013, which was designed by buy the jihadists time), since it used a media technology that has not been seen before. The second false flag – Khan Shaykhun – was much less sucessful since Russia had already deployed its jets, was able to learn from the previous false flag, and thus adjusted its algorithm (see my previous article, especially the section about media disinformation with complex equations) and deploy a counter media campaign. The third false flag – Douma – was even more of a failure.

The aim of the adversary is to outmanoeuvre the rival in the global information space via a coordinated media and ground campaign (coined by some as “fourth generation warfare”). The “White Helmets” have to film the false flag, and the agencies have to spread the fake footage in parallel, coordinating it with the general daily topics in such a way that the consumer feels that their regular “trustworthy” news service is the same as it’s always been – because of course, the last thing a neoliberal government wants is its subjects starting to entertain the idea that one’s government is sponsoring Al Qaeda. In other words, the higher the geopolitical stakes, the more technologically sophisticated the methods used in the information space.

In this affair it’s not just about the speed of a “hybrid” attack, but also about its composition. One can have the most rapid “input->process->output” informational algorithm, but it is useless if it cannot provide multiple angles of attack.

Here is a very abstract (rushed) diagram I made just to illustrate this point. The black circle represents a designated point in time, when all media resources will parrot “Assad gassed his own people” in sync. The objective of America is to coordinate as many “chemical attack reports” as possible, thus making it look “credible”. The red arrows represent Russia’s counter attack, which will prevent the black circle from growing (the West employing more media resources/NGOs to disseminate the disinformation) or moving forward (the West using the same amount of resources, but reporting “updates” later along the timeline). This is how the attempt to execute a fourth false flag was negated – see hereherehere, and here for examples. As I mentioned in another article, this same preventative tactic was used in Donbass a lot to stop the US’ aggressive exertion of pressure. Of course, the map is not the territory, and the diagram below is not supposed to literally depict how the Russian Ministry of Defence’s supercomputer works.

Ollie's MacBook:Users:O-RICH:Downloads:Untitled Diagram.pngThe reader may be thinking “You said that Syria was an example of a ‘colour revolution’, not of ‘algorithmic probing’, so why use it as an example?” The answer is: Syria is not a nuclear superpower, and thus “colour revolution” technology (albeit incrementally improved over the many years of the war) worked. In the case of Russia, “colour revolution” technology doesn’t work, period. So the US’ only option is to try to inject this “virus”, as Naryshkin calls it. Thus, America’s aim is to encroach on the Russian information space without the Russian authorities having the time to repel attacks. When viewed from a gestalt perspective, America would thus have a permanent presence in the Russian information space, since by the time Russia has plugged one hole, another blow will have been landed from another angle.

Navalny, Golunov, the Yeltsin Center, RBK, Kommersant, Novaya Gazeta, Meduza, Roizman, Kasparov, Kasyanov, Gorbachev, Solzhenitsyn – America sure has a lot of assets at its disposal, but they all suffer from the same problem: they are designed to make Western people hate the Russian world (I doubt Russians care what rats like Jeremy Hunt thinks), but they do not noticeably shake the internal situation in Russia. And after all, it is the Russian people themselves who determine the legitimacy of the Russian government, not Joe Blogs in Coventry. As a result, America’s only hope in relation to paralyzing Putin’s legacy is to create a phantom Russian identity that can spark a civil war. This is a topic for another article, but the Russia-friendly reader mustn’t immediately start losing sleep, since I am talking about processes that need 10-20 more years before we can start to judge whether or not America’s coup d’état technology has adapted to the CIA’s needs.

One thing is for sure: as long as the Russian state is viable and self-sufficient, social unrest will remain for Washington only a wet dream, not a reality. And it’s not excluded that the socio-economic situation inside America and/or the EU will buckle before any Yankee algorithms start to poison the roots of the Russian state. After all, America has a rear, Russia also has information-disseminating resources, and the S-400 isn’t going anywhere. And what sort of technology does China have? Imagine if Russian and Chinese supercomputers are interconnected? Actually don’t, because I don’t want to give the reader a headache!

Power Struggle Warming Up: US Fears Being Militarily Outplayed By China in Africa

By Staff, Agencies

China’s increasing military presence in Africa is disturbing Washington, with Pentagon officials airing concerns that Asia’s biggest economy is gaining the upper hand in winning regional allies.

“They [China] have upped their game, in plain language, and ultimately they are offering things that our partners want, that our partners need,” an official with US Africa Command [AFRICOM] told CNN.

“In places, we have concerns we are being out-competed.”

The comments referred to China’s expansion in Djibouti, a tiny country located at the southern entrance to the Red Sea, close to one of the world’s busiest trading routes.

Djibouti hosts the US’ only permanent military base in Africa, called Camp Lemonnier, a hub for the US spying network and counter-terrorism operations in Africa.

Although Djibouti, a haven of political stability in a turbulent region, has plenty of foreign bases, it is Beijing’s growing presence in the country that has Pentagon hawks on edge.

In 2017, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army [China’s armed forces] − opened its first overseas support base in Djibouti, nearly 10 kilometers away from Lemonnier.

The Pentagon warned in a 2019 annual report to Congress that China is expected to build on its success in Djibouti. More Chinese bases will come “to establish overseas logistics facilities that would further extend and sustain regional and global air operations”, the report said.

But for the time being, it is China’s base in Djibouti that has raised particular concerns among US commanders, given that the well-armed outpost is located close to a critical seaport, which the 4,000-strong Lemonnier contingent heavily relies on.

Last year, AFRICOM commander Gen. Thomas Waldhauser warned Congress that two out of five terminals in the port were already under Chinese control, and now the fear is that China could cut off US access to the port someday.

“It’s no secret that roughly 98% of the logistics support for Djibouti, as well as Somalia and East Africa, come through that port,” Gen. Waldhauser noted. “That port is one of five entities in the overall Djiboutian port. And so, our access there is necessary and required.”

He also told the House of Representatives Armed Services Committee that “if the Chinese took over that port, then the consequences could be significant.”

Relatively, the Trump administration accused China of stealing US commercial software and technology and laid the groundwork for blocking American companies from doing business with Chinese telecom firms.

Huawei Technologies, a tech giant which Washington claims is being financed by China’s military and spying on behalf of the government, has become the most recent target of this campaign to choke off Chinese firms.

We’re all actors in the New Silk Road play

May 05, 2019

By Pepe Escobar – posted with permission

We’re all actors in the New Silk Road play

Scores of nations across the Global South have adopted the Chinese development model over financing from the US or EU for very simple reasons

It’s the same old story: The dogs of demonization bark while the New Silk Road caravan advances. The Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), according to a projection by Anglo-Australian mining and metals giant BHP Billiton, will generate as much as US$1.3 trillion in myriad projects up to 2023 – only a decade after its official launch by Chinese President Xi Jinping in both Astana (now Nur-Sultan) and Jakarta.

It’s easy to forget that the BRI – a massive connectivity project, both geo-strategic and geo-economic, now in effect all across the Eurasian landmass, as well as straddling the South China Sea, plus the Indian Ocean all the way to East Africa – is less than six years old, and projected to last until 2049.

As I previously reported, the BRI is now configured as the authentic International Community 2.0 – much more representative than the Group of Twenty, not to mention the Group of Eight. Even before the start of the Belt and Road Forum in Beijing last week, 126 states and territories had signed BRI cooperation agreements. After the forum there are 131, plus Switzerland soon to join. The BRI is also engaged with no fewer than 29 international organizations, including the World Bank.

Considering only projects already being implemented, the World Bank estimates that BRI nations have reduced shipping times by up to 3.2%, and trade costs by up to 2.8%.

The BRI forum’s key takeaway was Beijing’s ability to execute a masterful geopolitical Sun Tzu maneuver – realizing that for the scheme to proceed more smoothly it would have to address key questions about debt sustainability, anti-corruption, consultative processes, plus emphasize “bottom-up” negotiations.

Scores of nations across the Global South, as well as some aspiring to developed world status, have adopted the Chinese investment and development model over financing from Washington or Brussels for three very simple reasons: no strings attached, no one-size-fits-all straitjacket, and no interference in their internal affairs.

That’s the case in BRI projects focused on the group of China plus Central and European nations, now called 17+1 (Greece just joined). The BRI has been on a roll implementing the China-Europe Land-Sea Express Line, from Athens to Hamburg via Skopje and Belgrade – with a branch out to the Mediterranean port of Bar in Montenegro, just across from Italy – and then to Budapest, the ultimate crossroads in Eastern Europe, and all the way north via the Czech Republic to Hamburg.

Additionally, the Land-Sea Express Line will connect to the Pan-European Corridor linking Bari, Bar, Belgrade and Timisoara in Romania.

Three silk roads stretching from China to Southeast Asia Europe and Africa, Jan 2017.
New Silk Roads stretch from China to Europe, Southeast Asia and Africa. Image: CFR

ASEAN goes BRI

The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is arguably the crucial front to ensure the BRI’s further success – side by side with the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC). And all 10 ASEAN leaders attended the BRI forum.

Beijing’s strategic outlook involves the positioning of Thailand as ASEAN’s key transportation hub. Thus it needs to complete the $12 billion, multi-phase, 873-kilometer high-speed rail line linking central and northeastern Thailand to the rail line being built from Kunming to Vientiane, which is due to be completed in 2021.

This is the flagship project of the BRI’s China-Indochina Peninsula Economic Corridor, connecting southern China with mainland Southeast Asia all the way to Singapore.

At the recent BRI forum, China, Thailand and Laos signed a memorandum of understanding on building the stretch between Nong Khai and Vientiane. Now comes the hard slog of renegotiating the terms for building the 607km stretch from Bangkok to Nong Khai, on the Thai side of the Mekong.

Malaysia managed to renegotiate the budget and route of its Eastern Coast Rail Link. Plus, China and Myanmar are renegotiating the $3.6 billion Myitsone Dam project.

At least nine of no fewer than 23 projects, part of the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, are rolling – including a special economic zone (SEZ) in Kyauk Phyu in the west, the Kyauk Phyu-Kunming railway and three border cooperation zones in Kachin and Shan states. Myanmar is absolutely key for China to enjoy strategic access to the Indian Ocean.

Elsewhere in maritime Southeast Asia, the $6 billion, 150km Jakarta-Bandung high-speed rail is a goer, despite facing accusations of non-transparency by Indonesia’s Investment Coordination Board. Still, the Joko Widowo administration’s second term is bound to be involved in no less than $91 billion worth of BRI-related projects to develop four different economic corridors.

One thing is common to these multiple BRI negotiation fronts – the Lost in Translation syndrome. Imagine terms and contracts mired in a maze of cross-references and a trilingual swamp (Mandarin, English and then Thai, Lao, Indonesian, etc).

Not to mention the clash between local red tape and the ultra-streamlined Chinese infrastructure-building juggernaut – perfected to the millimeter for the past few decades.

Still, Beijing is learning the key lessons, admitting it’s essential to renegotiate key terms, amend deals, pay close attention to local input, and, essentially, allow more transparency.

Chinese contractors must employ more local workers, encourage technology transfer, and be very aware of negative environmental impacts. There are suggestions that an overseas BRI arbitration court – for instance in neutral Geneva – could be set up in addition to BRI courts in Shenzhen and Xian, in the interests of more transparency.

 

All aboard for a Silk Road journey. Photo: Pepe Escobar

Hop on a camel and join the band

Wang Huiyao, founder of the Center for China and Globalization think-tank in Beijing, correctly argues that the BRI “has become a plan for global development – the kind the world has been sorely lacking since the financial crisis of 2008.”

That was certainly the intent even during the long gestation period before the birth of the BRI in 2013. The Chinese system works like this. The top of the pyramid issues a guideline, or a plan, and then the subsequent layers of the pyramid come up with their own implementation strategies, tweaking the process non-stop. It’s always a variant of Little Helmsman Deng Xiaoping’s famous dictum “crossing the river while feeling the stones.”

As it stands, there’s no evidence the US government will be engaged with the BRI, not to mention “try to shape it to bring about a more multipolar Asia,” as my friend Parag Khanna argues. The BRI itself – along with other mechanisms such as the Eurasian Economic Union – is already configuring a multipolar Asia. And no one across Eurasia – apart from Hindutva fanatics and Japanese supremacists – is buying the Pentagon narrative of China as an existential threat.

It’s quite enlightening to pay attention to the words of former Hong Kong governor Tung Chee-hwa, who seems to display more wisdom in his 80s now, as chairman of the Chinese Consultative People’s Congress, than when he was lodged in Government House.

And then we could travel in time to the Ancient Silk Road – which as a trade and cultural exchange network between East and West was a de facto prototype of globalization.

We’ll find out that among the non-stop Ancient Silk Road travelers – and merchants, messengers, pilgrims – there was also a motley crew of jugglers, acrobats, musicians, dancers and actors. Centuries later, history strikes again, and we are all actors now in a massive, global development caravan.

زخمٌ جديدٌ في «طريق الحرير» الصينية: مواجهة لـ«الحمائية» الأميركية

Image result for ‫منتدى الحزام والطريق‬‎

الأخبار

 الثلاثاء 30 نيسان 2019

انتهت أعمال قمة «منتدى الحزام والطريق»، التي عُقدت في بكين بحضور أكثر من 37 من رؤساء دول وحكومات ووفود، مسجّلة صفقات يزيد إجمالي قيمتها على 64 مليار دولار أميركي

اختتم الرئيس الصيني شي جين بينغ، قبل يومين، قمة «منتدى الحزام والطريق»، بحضور قادة من 37 دولة ومنظمة دولية، من بينهم الرئيس الروسي فلاديمير بوتين. القمة، وهي الثانية للمنتدى، شكّلت مرحلة جديدة في مسيرة مبادرة «حزامٌ واحد وطريقٌ واحد» التي أطلقتها بكين قبل ستة أعوام، وتهدف إلى إعادة إحياء طريق الحرير التاريخي، الذي كان يربط الصين بعشرات الدول تجارياً.

شي أعلن في نهاية القمة التي احتضنتها بكين لمدة ثلاثة أيّام، التوصل إلى توافقات واسعة بشأن تدعيم «التعاون العالي الجودة» في إطار المبادرة، مع سعيٍ لطمأنة المتشككين في أن مشروع البنية التحتية الهائل سيركز على «تنمية مفتوحة ونظيفة وصديقة للبيئة» مع الأطراف المختلفة، التي تُجري «مشاورات على قدم المساواة»، مؤكداً أن مزيداً من الدول ستنضم إلى هذا المشروع لإنشاء بنى تحتية تربط بين آسيا وأوروبا وأفريقيا. وفي مؤتمر صحافي، أكد الرئيس الصيني أن مبادئ السوق ستطبق في جميع مشاريع التعاون التي تتضمنها المبادرة التي تهدف إلى إحياء «طريق الحرير» القديم الذي كان يربط بين الصين وآسيا وأوروبا، مشيراً إلى أن الشركات هي المحرك الأساسي لكل مشاريع المبادرة التي ستطبق عليها كل مبادئ السوق، فيما تلعب الدول دوراً داعماً.

أكّد شي أن المبادرة ستواصل رفض «الحمائية» في انتقاد لواشنطن التي تتبع سياسة حمائية (أ ف ب )

وفي تصريحات خلال الجلسة الختامية للقمة، قال شي إن «المزيد من الأصدقاء والشركاء سينضمون إلى المبادرة»، موضحاً أن «الجميع دعم فكرة تطوير شراكة، واتفقوا على تعزيز آليات التعاون». ووُقّعت اتفاقيات تعاون بقيمة تزيد على 64 مليار دولار أميركي في مؤتمر للمديرين التنفيذيين خلال المنتدى. كذلك، أشار البيان الختامي المشترك إلى أن الزعماء اتفقوا على أن يحترم تمويل المشاريع الأهداف العالمية المتعلقة بالديون، وعلى الترويج للنمو الاقتصادي الصديق للبيئة». من جهتها، أعلنت الصين، في بيانٍ منفصل، أنها وقّعت مذكّرة تفاهم مع دول عديدة، من بينها إيطاليا وبيرو وباربادوس ولوكسمبورغ وجاميكا.

أمّا على صعيد مهاجمة الولايات المتحدة المبادرة الصينية، واتهامها بإيقاع الدول النامية في ديون بعرض تمويل رخيص لا يمكنها تحمّله، فقد حاول شي في خطابه تبديد هذه المخاوف. وقال: «هذا العام، يرسل المنتدى رسالة واضحة: المزيد من الأصدقاء والشركاء سينضمون إلى دائرة الحزام والطريق»، مؤكداً أن المبادرة ستواصل رفض «الحمائية»، في انتقاد لواشنطن التي تبنّت سياسات حمائية في عهد الرئيس دونالد ترامب.

والمبادرة التي تم اقتراحها عام 2013، امتدت من آسيا وأوروبا إلى أفريقيا والأميركيتين وأوقيانوسيا، لتفتح مساحة جديدة للاقتصاد العالمي بنتائج أفضل من المتوقع. ووقّع أكثر من 150 دولة ومنظمة دولية على وثائق تعاون مع الصين في إطار المبادرة. واللافت أنه خلال السنوات الخمس الماضية، تجاوز حجم التجارة بين الصين والدول الأخرى المشاركة في المبادرة 6 تريليونات دولار أميركي، فيما تجاوزت استثمارات الصين في الدول المشاركة في المبادرة 90 مليار دولار. كذلك، حظيت المبادرة بدعم قوي من قبل القادة ورجال الأعمال الأجانب. وقد تمظهر ذلك في الكلمات الافتتاحية للرؤساء.

تم توقيع اتفاقيات تعاون في القمة بقيمة تزيد على 64 مليار دولار أميركي

من جانبه، دعا بوتين الدول المشاركة في المنتدى للانضمام إلى مشروعي الطريق البحري الشمالي و«طريق الحرير». وفي كلمته، أوضح الرئيس الروسي أن بلاده تولي اهتماماً كبيراً لتطوير الطريق البحري الشمالي، مضيفاً: «نحن نفكر في إمكانية ربطه بطريق الحرير الصيني، وبالتالي إقامة طريق نقل عالمي وتنافسي، يربط شمال شرق، وشرق وجنوب شرق آسيا بأوروبا». وأكد بوتين أن هذا المشروع الضخم يعني قيام تعاون وثيق بين دول أورآسيا لزيادة حركة الترانزيت وبناء محطات استقبال البضائع والحاويات في الموانئ، وكذلك المراكز اللوجيستية.

يُذكر أن الطريق البحري الشمالي هو وجهة نقل تمتد من المحيط الأطلسي إلى المحيط الهادئ على طول سواحل شمالي روسيا في الدائرة القطبية الشمالية. ويعبر هذا الطريق بحور الشمال بمحاذاة سيبيريا إلى الشرق الأقصى الروسي على الحدود مع اليابان وكوريا، وصار متاحاً أمام حركة الملاحة البحرية مع ذوبان الجليد في القطب الشمالي.

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Battlefield Libya: Fruits of US-NATO Regime Change

April 10, 2019 (Tony Cartalucci – NEO) – Libya is back in the news, as fighting escalates around the capital, Tripoli.

Forces under the control of Khalifa Haftar – a former Libyan general under the government of Muammar Qaddafi – turned opposition during the 2011 US-led NATO intervention – turned “opposition” again against the UN-backed “Government of National Accord” (GNA) seated in Tripoli – have most recently reached Tripoli’s airport.

The confusing chaos that has continually engulfed Libya since 2011 should come as no surprise. It is the predictable outcome that follows any US-led political or military intervention. Other examples showcasing US-led regime change “success” include Afghanistan, Iraq, and Ukraine.

And just like in Afghanistan, Iraq, and Ukraine – the Western corporate media has regularly omitted mention of Libya from headlines specifically to mask the very predictable consequences of US-led regime change as additional interventions against nations like Venezuela, Syria, and Iran are engineered and pursued.

Battlefield Libya 

In 2011, the North African nation of Libya was transformed from a prosperous, developing nation, into a divided, perpetual battlefield where local warlords backed by a milieu of opposing foreign sponsors and interests have vied for power since.

Libya’s current status as a failed, warring state is owed entirely to the US-led NATO intervention in 2011.

Predicated on lies promoted by Western-funded “human rights” organizations and fought under the pretext of R2P (responsibility to protect) – the US and its NATO allies dismembered Libya leading to predictable and perpetual chaos that has affected not only Libya itself, but North Africa, Southern Europe, and even the Middle East.

The war immediately triggered not only a wave of refugees fleeing the war itself, but the redirection of refugees from across Africa seeking shelter and work in Libya, across the Mediterranean and into Europe instead.

Militants fighting as proxies for the US-led war in 2011 would be armed and redeployed to Turkey where they entered Syria and played a key role in taking the cities of Idlib and Aleppo during the early stages of that US-led proxy war.

Currently, Libya is divided between the UN-backed government based in Tripoli, eastern-based forces loyal to Haftar, and a mix of other forces operating across the country, holding various degrees of control over Libya’s other major cities, and equally varying degrees of loyalty to the UN-backed government, Haftar’s forces, or other factions.

Fighting around Tripoli has even allegedly prompted US military forces stationed in Libya to temporarily evacuate. CNBC in its article, “US pulls forces from Libya as fighting approaches capital,” would report:

The United States has temporarily withdrawn some of its forces from Libya due to “security conditions on the ground,” a top military official said Sunday as a Libyan commander’s forces advanced toward the capital of Tripoli and clashed with rival militias. 

A small contingent of American troops has been in Libya in recent years, helping local forces combat Islamic State and al-Qaida militants, as well as protecting diplomatic facilities.

The presence of US forces in Libya might be news to some – and was certainly only a dream within the Pentagon until after the 2011 US-led NATO intervention finally toppled the Libyan government.

America’s foreign policy of arsonist-fireman has endowed it with a large and still growing military footprint in Africa – one it uses to project power and affect geopolitics well beyond the continent.

America’s Growing Footprint in Africa 

The ongoing Libyan conflict – flush with weapons pouring in from foreign sponsors – has also fuelled regional terrorism impacting neighboring Egypt, Tunisia, Algeria, Niger, and Chad, as far west as Mali and Nigeria, and southeast as far as Kenya. The war has been a boon for US Africa Command (AFRICOM) which has used the resulting chaos as a pretext to expand Washington’s military footprint on the continent.

In a 2018 Intercept article titled, “U.S. Military Says it has a “Light Footprint” in Africa. These Documents Show a Vast Network of Bases,” it was reported that:

According to a 2018 briefing by AFRICOM science adviser Peter E. Teil, the military’s constellation of bases includes 34 sites scattered across the continent, with high concentrations in the north and west as well as the Horn of Africa. These regions, not surprisingly, have also seen numerous U.S. drone attacks and low-profile commando raids in recent years.

The article notes that much of AFRICOM’s expansion in Africa has occurred over the past decade.

While the pretext for US military expansion in Africa has been “counter-terrorism,” it is clear US military forces are there to protect US interests and project US power with “terrorism” a manufactured pretext to justify Washington’s militarization of the continent.

Much of the terrorism the US claims it is fighting was only possible in the first place through the flood of weapons, equipment, and support provided to militants by the US and its partners amid regime change operations targeting nations like Libya.

The US-led NATO war in Libya is a perfect example of the US deliberately arming terrorist organizations – including those listed as foreign terrorist organizations by the US State Department itself – overthrowing a nation, predictably destabilizing the entire region, and using the resulting instability as a pretext to massively expand America’s military footprint there.

The wider agenda at play is Washington’s desire to displace current Russian and Chinese interests on the continent, granting the US free reign.

Fruits of US-NATO Regime Change 

As NATO celebrates its 70th anniversary, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg would claim:

Over seven decades, NATO has stepped up time and again to keep our people safe, and we will continue to stand together to prevent conflict and preserve peace.

This “peace” includes 8 years of heavy fighting in Libya following NATO’s intervention there.

NATO’s Secretary General proclaims NATO’s mission as one to “prevent conflict and preserve peace,” yet it paradoxically and very intentionally engineered the war in Libya, overthrew the government in Tripoli, and triggered regional chaos that not only plagues North Africa to this day – but also inundated Europe with refugees fleeing the conflict.

Europe is one of the few places NATO could conceivably claim any mandate to protect or operate in – yet its own wars of aggression abroad directly compromised European safety and security.

The media blackout that has shrouded the true impact of NATO’s intervention in Libya for the past 8 years helps enable the US and its NATO partners to perpetrate additional proxy wars and political interventions elsewhere.

As the US openly pursues aggressive regime change in Venezuela and meddles in the internal politics of nations across Southeast Asia, the “fruits” of US intervention in places like Libya should always be kept in mind.

What is most alarming of all is considering that the US-led intervention in Libya may not necessarily be a failure. It is only a failure if one believed the US truly sought a better future for the nation. However, if the fruits of perpetual chaos and an equally perpetual pretext for the US militarization of Africa were intentionally set out for from the beginning – then in many ways – Libya was a resounding success.

Depending on how the current fighting around Tripoli unfolds, whether or not a unified Libya emerges, and whose foreign military presence and economic interests are allowed to persist on Libyan soil thereafter – will help determine just how successful Washington’s true agenda in Libya – and in Africa – has been.

Tony Cartalucci, Bangkok-based geopolitical researcher and writer, especially for the online magazine New Eastern Outlook”.

Islamic Movement in Nigeria: Anti-imperialism Organization in Africa

Harun Elbinawi

Imperialism is a system in which a rich and powerful country controls the instrument of leadership and by extension the resources of other less powerful countries, or a desire for control over other countries.

Imperialism and neo-colonialism are two faces of the same coin. Due to intense pressure from Nationalists, greedy European colonialists were forced to leave Africa but they never left. They later engineered coups and counter-coups to impose their puppets to facilitate their continue looting of African resources.

Dear Friends, please check the mineral resources map of the African continent. Africa is among the richest continents in terms of resources but it is the poorest continent in the world. Why? The rich African resources are being looted by the greedy imperialist directly or via their lackeys who are head of government of African countries.

My country, Nigeria, is rich in mineral resources that included Crude Oil but today Nigeria is the extreme capital of the whole world. The funds that should have been used for developmental purposes were looted by corrupt leaders and deposited in Western financial institutions for safe keeping. Nigeria, a country of more than 180 million in population, can only provide 4,000MW of electricity. Funds earmarked for power were looted and there is no single person in jail for that.

The Islamic Movement in Nigeria under the leadership of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky is an Anti-imperialism organization. The IMN awakens Nigerians and Africans of the ills of imperialism and neo-colonialism and call on Africans to free the continent of this scourge. There were great African anti-imperialism leaders in the past. Great Heroes such as Patrick Lumumba, Thomas Sankara etc. all murdered by the greedy and arrogant imperialist.

The recent brutal and genocidal attack of the Islamic Movement by the Buhari regime that resulted in the inhuman slaughter of more than one thousand innocent children, women and men in Zaria in December 2015 was a desperate quest to extinguish this anti-imperialism light in Africa. For more than 20 years now, whenever any government assume power in Nigeria, three entities [US, Saudi Arabia & the “Israeli” regime] send security reports against Sheikh Zakzaky and the Islamic Movement. We have it on credible information that since 2004 the US regime via the CIA have IMN desk at the American embassy in Abuja. A desk dedicated to the Islamic Movement.

In order to perpetuate imperialism looting of African resources, the arrogant imperialist considered organizations such as the Islamic Movement as a threat to them and they always plan on how to either cripple or destroy such organizations. The main reason of the brutal and inhuman Zaria genocide. The Saudi regime was the front of the Zaria genocide but if the mask is removed the greedy imperialists are behind the mask.

On a Final note, Africans need to wake up and take this rich continent back from the greedy agents of imperialism and neo-colonialism that has impoverished Africans. African resources should be for Africans not for the greedy Western imperialists.

Source: elbinawi.wordpress.com

 elbinawi.wordpress.com

Nigeria: When the President become a Liar

“Investors are falling over themselves to come and do business in Nigeria” -President Buhari

1st October 2016 marked the 56th year anniversary of Nigerian independence from British colonialism and as its customary the Leader of the country addressed the country to commemorate such important occasion. This year President Buhari addressed the nation but his speech was full of questions instead of addressing Nigerian problems.

The above excerpt quotation was from the speech and all Nigerians knows that what the President said was not correct. Investors are not trooping into Nigeria at the moment, infact investors are leaving Nigeria due to the bad state of the economy. The Nigerian economy is in deep recession and the pilots of the economy are responsible but the same pilots are using Clerics in Northern Nigeria to deceive the masses that God is to be blame for their plight. If the economy is healthy and developing these people would have praise President Buhari but now that the economy is bad and in recession they are blaming God!

In his Independence Day speech President Buhari also said that his government had defeated the Boko Haram insurgency last December. Nigerians especially those in Northeast know that this is not true. Nigerians are still attack, kill and maimed in the Northeast to this day.

What actually happened in Nigeria last December was the inhuman Zaria massacre of IMN members that was ordered by President Buhari to serve a foreign imperialist agenda that has the Saudi Wahhabi regime as a front. More than one thousand Nigerians that included women, children and the aged were brutally murdered by the Nigerian army in less than 48 hours and their death bodies dumped in mass graves. The Saudi King immediately called President Buhari to congratulate him. President Buhari tried to defend the massacre at the earliest period but he is now trying to distance himself from it since the world had rejected their narration and condemned the inhuman massacre.

The Buhari administration is turning out to be the biggest catastrophe in the history of Nigeria. President Buhari ignorantly assumed that if he is loyal to Western imperialism then they will grant him all his wishes. He should have studied the life of former Iraqi despot Saddam Hussein and his relationship with Western imperialism. One day the same West will deliver Buhari and his murderous gang to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for their role in the Zaria massacre.

The true Nigerian situation is that the economy is in a very bad state, people are dying of hunger, inflation is high, unemployment is high, suicidal rate have increase and the Nigerian currency is freely falling against the US dollars. Nigeria today needs a responsible leader who will face these challenges and addressed these problems and not a President who will be lying to them.

On a last note, I want to remind President Buhari that God is just and will surely punish all those who mass-murdered His servants and dumped their bodies in mass graves. To all Nigerians ” Happy Independence Day anniversary!”

Harun Elbinawi
elbinawi@yahoo.com
Elbinawi.WordPress.com

 

#IMN: Anti-imperialism Organization in Africa

#IMN: Anti-imperialism Organization in Africa

Imperialism is a system in which a rich and powerful country controls the instrument of leadership and by extension the resources of other less powerful countries, or a desire for control over other countries.

Imperialism and neo-colonialism are two faces of the same coin. Due to intense pressure from Nationalists, greedy European colonialists were forced to leave Africa but they never left. They later engineered coups and counter-coups to impose their puppets to facilitate their continue looting of African resources.

Dear Friends, please check the mineral resources map of the African continent. Africa is among the riches continent in terms of resources but Africans are the poorest continent in the world. The question is why? The rich African resources are being looted by the greedy imperialist directly or via their lackeys who are head of government of African countries.

My country, Nigeria, is rich in mineral resources that included Crude Oil but today Nigeria is the extreme capital of the whole world. The Funds that should have been used for developmental purposes were looted by corrupt leaders and deposited in Western financial institutions for safe keeping. Nigeria that is a country of more than 180 million in population can only provide 4,000MW of electricity. Funds earmarked for power were looted and there is no single person in jail for that.

The Islamic Movement in Nigeria under the leadership of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky is an Anti-imperialism organization. The Islamic Movement awaken Nigerians and Africans of the ills of imperialism and neo-colonialism and call on Africans to free the continent of this scourge. There were great African anti-imperialism leaders in the past. Great Heroes such as Patrick Lumumba, Thomas Sankara etc. all murdered by the greedy and arrogant imperialist.

The recent brutal and genocidal attack of the Islamic Movement by the Buhari regime that resulted in the inhuman slaughter of more than one thousand innocent children, women and men in Zaria in December 2015 was a desperate quest to extinguish this anti-imperialism light in Africa. For more than 20 years now, whenever any government assume power in Nigeria three entities (US, Saudi Arabia & the Israeli regime) send security reports against Sheikh Zakzaky and the Islamic Movement. We have it on credible information that Since 2004 the US regime via the #CIA have IMN desk at the American embassy in Abuja. A desk dedicated to the Islamic Movement.

In order to perpetuate imperialism looting of African resources, the arrogant imperialist considered organizations such as the Islamic Movement as a threat to them and they always plan on how to either cripple or destroy such organizations. The main reason of the brutal and inhuman Zaria genocide. The Saudi regime was the front of the Zaria genocide but if the mask is removed the greedy imperialists are behind the mask.

On a Final note, Africans need to #WakeUp and take this rich continent back from the greedy agents of imperialism and neo-colonialism that has impoverished Africans. African resources should be for Africans not for the greedy Western imperialists. #FreeZakZaky

Harun Elbinawi
elbinawi@yahoo.com

Friday Reflection: Be Principled & Do Not Be a Reactionary

Friday Reflection: Be Principled & Do Not Be a Reactionary

“In Islam, everything is a prelude to making true human beings. If this creature is left to itself, it will ruin and destroy the whole world.”

#ImamKhomeini (ra)

When the savage Saudi regime sponsored and financed the brutal and inhuman slaughter of 1000+ innocent and defenseless civilians in Zaria in December 2015, they asked their paid Nigerian agents to be shouting “Shia Kafir (Shia are infidels)”. They were expecting members of the Islamic Movement in Nigeria to reciprocate and be saying “Sunni Kafir” or even “Wahhabi Kafir” but that never happened. Members of the Islamic Movement continue to promote and propagate the true teachings of Islam. They continue to chin out the eternal and unmatchable words of Imam Ali (as) – words that are only surpassed by the Quran and sayings of the seal of all Prophets and Messenger of God (sa).

When the notorious Child-killer and mass grave digger Elrufai recruited Shia traitors and asked them to question the authenticity of the Shia-ness of members of the Islamic Movement, they were not dignified with an answer. The murderous terrorist Elrufai buried Shia children alive in Mando mass grave according to Amnesty international.

It is a yearly tradition for Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky to provide food items to his neighbors during the Ramadan Fast. After the Zaria genocide he instructed that the tradition should not only continue but should be expanded to include more people. After the Zaria genocide, the Buhari regime recruited some of the neighbors of Sheikh Zakzaky to spread lies and fake propaganda against him and the Islamic Movement. But despite all these, Sheikh Zakzaky insisted that they should be provided with food items during Ramadan.

The path of greatness is to be principled in life. Be guided with the set of Principles as coded in the Quran if you are a Muslim. And like wise the Bible for Christians. Never be a reactionary who is guided by the reactions to the actions of others. Imagine reacting to the actions of bloodthirsty Wahhabi barbarians like Buhari, Elrufai, Buratai and gang! One will end up burying children in mass graves at night.

Prophet Muhammad (sa) had a Jewish neighbor who frequently dumped all their refuse in the house of the Prophet. If people complained the Prophet will say do not talk. The Prophet used to personally evacuate the refuse dump. Then one day the Prophet did not see refuse dump. The next day no refuse dump. The Prophet went to his Neighbor’s house and asked. He was told his Jewish neighbor was sick. The Prophet prayed for quick recovery. This was how that his neighbor embraced Islam. This is the true Islam. Violent and bloodthirsty Wahhabism is not Islam. This is a deviation that has today produced all the murderous terrorists that are killing the innocent in the name of Islam.

Jumu’at Mubarak to Muslims and bless Weekend to All Friends!

#FreeZakZaky

#ElbinawiTweets

Adeyanju Deji – Hero of Freedom

Adeyanju Deji – Hero of Freedom

We fixed an appointment. We did not used the phones because all our phone lines were bugged by the oppressive and tyrannical Buhari regime. A regime of wicked mass murderers and notorious Child-killers.

I arrived Abuja for the appointment. I made contact with Prince Adeyanju Deji. He told me he is at the Venue of the Daily #FreeZakzaky Sit-down protest. I proceeded to the protest venue. I saw Adeyanju Deji given speech in Hausa Language about the illegal and unlawful detention of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky and his injured wife. We waited until the end of the day event then he came towards me. We finally met. We embraced with tears in both our eyes. It was the tears of brotherhood that was created since the creation of Adam and Eve. I said “Thank you, we are grateful of your support!”

Other members of the Free Sheikh Zakzaky campaign committee were also there. Sheikh AbdulRahman Yola, Dr Shuaibu Musa, Muhammad Ibrahim Gamawa etc were all there. They were happy to see me again since my return for 3 months stay in Iran.

We left the venue with Adeyanju Deji and he insisted he will take us out for Lunch before our meeting. He took us to a Restaurant with good Nigerian Dishes. We all ate. Then we moved to the business of the day.

President Buhari was then on medical tourism in London. Adeyanju Deji suggested that we take the Free Sheikh Zakzaky campaign to his door step in London. One thing President Buhari is scared of is international attention. This wicked mass murderer love to slaughter innocent and defenseless women and children in the Deep land of Zaria and dumped their dead bodies in mass graves at night.

We instantly planned the protest. Adeyanju Deji made contact with some Nigerians who are based in London for their support. They gave their full support. A Free Sheikh Zakzaky protest will be stage in front of the house President Buhari is staying in London from night till mourning for three days. The tyrant will not sleep for wickedly disobeying the judgement of a Nigerian court.

Adeyanju Deji and two members of the Islamic Movement will leave Nigeria for UK to coordinate the protest. He suggested that I should be one of the two. I told him that is not possible as my broken leg has not healed. I asked about Visa? He said the then British Ambassador to Nigeria is his close friend. He said we will contact the BBC to fully cover the protest.

We made a rough estimate that the program will cost 5,000 British Pounds. I promised to make contacts and raised the money within that short period of time. When we are about to depart Adeyanju Deji said the Evil tyrant Buhari will arrest us when he return to Nigeria. I told him that it will be a great honor to share the same prison with him.

And we parted. This was how I first met this Hero of Freedom. A Christian, A true follower of Jesus (as). The fact that he is presently in the dungeon of the wicked mass murderer tyrant Buhari underlined his justice-seeking credentials.

Today (03/01/2019) the Islamic Movement in Nigeria under the leadership of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky will honor this Hero for justice. Adeyanju Deji has attended Free Sheikh Zakzaky protest that the Nigerian army shot at the peaceful protesters. He is fearless, a brave Lion.

#FreeDejiAdeyanju
#FreeDejiAdeyanjuNow

Harun Elbinawi
elbinawi@yahoo.com

A Government Spy in the Movement:

A Government Spy in the Movement:

From the Photo the Lady you are seeing with the Nigerian army chief Buratai was a Spy for the Nigerian regime in the Islamic Movement in Nigeria under the leadership of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky. Her name is Hajiya Rabi. She hails from Mararraban Jos, Kaduna state. She was one of the Spies planted in the Movement by government for a very long time. At some point, she was one of the closest Aides to the wife of Sheikh Zakzaky. However, she disappeared mysteriously from the Movement shortly before the #ZariaGenocide.

She was a sleeping mole planted by the regime inside the Movement. Those shameless rascals that blocked the road for the Nigerian army chief Buratai were also moles in the Movement. The Buhari regime needed an Alibi to attack the Movement, eliminate the leading lights of the Movement and destroy the Iconic Zaria Husseiniya. Their moles in the Movement gave them the Alibi by blocking the road. None of them was killed and no one charged with road blockade by the Buhari Regime. The brutal and inhuman Zaria genocide was pre-planned with set goals and objectives. It was executed using the foolish pretext of “road blockade”. This underlined the thuggish nature of those that executed the Zaria genocide. When did road blockade lead to the murder of more than one thousand innocent children, women and men?

The Spy, Hajiya Rabi, got millions of Naira from them and she joined politics and contested for a seat in the House of Representatives. She lost in the party primaries after spending huge money. Now she is mostly seen in the company of the Nigerian army chief Buratai and Kaduna state Governor Elrufai.

Last year some youths called one of the members of the #FreeZakZaky campaign committee that they want to see him for an important issue. They introduced themselves but he knew no one of them but because they said the issue is important he asked them to meet him in a neutral venue. When they came they told him that they had secured enough weapons to start eliminating the murderous criminals who executed the Zaria genocide. He asked them who gave them the weapons? They were silent. He asked them who ordered them? They were silent. He told them that government agents gave them those weapons and the same people will come and arrest them, then parade them as terrorists working to kill people for the Movement. He told them that we do not kill people and that they should return those weapons to the person that gave them.

There are many Hajiya Rabis in the Movement. Members of the Islamic Movement should be very careful of these spies and moles of the enemy. They plant them to achieve certain objectives. The murderous terrorists who executed the Zaria genocide had failed and they failed woefully without realizing any of their objectives but they are presently desperate. We should be careful.

Harun Elbinawi
elbinawi@yahoo.com

Nigerian Shia Traitors are not followers of Imam Khamenei

When the Palestinian Resistance visited Grand Ayatollah Sayyed Ali Khamenei yesterday his advice to them was:

“If you #Resist, you will gain victory. As long as #Resistance exists, the decline and perishing process of the Zionist regime will continue.”

When people are face with gross oppression and injustice the only option for the #Free is to Resist the monstrous evil. Never kneel to wicked tyrants and bloodthirsty oppressors.

The Nigerian Shia traitors want us to kneel to wicked mass murderer tyrant Buhari and his murderous gang just because they have guns and bombs to slaughter the innocent.

These shameless traitors and paid mercenaries of The Saudi crown prince Mohammed bin Salman fraudulently claimed that they are followers of the Great Leader #Khamenei. Sayyed Khamenei is a Revolutionary, a soldier on the Battlefield and a true #Husseini.

While these shameless Shia traitors had never organize any protest in Nigeria. They did not condemn the brutal and inhuman #ZariaGenocide. While Nigerian Christians cried and mourned the victims of the Zaria genocide, these shameless Shia traitors celebrated with bloodthirsty Wahhabi barbarians.

Yes, they celebrated and went to the kangaroo Judicial Commission of Inquiry that the Islamic Movement in Nigeria should be banned!

Dear Friends,

Are these commercial Shia followers of Imam Khamenei?

#FreeZakzaky

#ElbinawiTweets

How to Defeat BokoHaram Insurgency

If Nigeria and the West African sub-region want to totally defeat the #BokoHaram insurgency they should invite #Iran, #Russia and #Hezbollah.

These trio defeated the US-created #ISIS terrorism.

Do not invite the West and it Saudi puppets. They created these murderous Wahhabi terrorist groups. They will feign they are helping you but they are with the terrorists.

Russian and Iranian weapons are good and battlefield tasted. Iranian surveillance and armed Drones are among the best in the world. Russian jet fighters and Battle Tanks are among the best in the world. For the Guerilla tactics of BokoHaram you need the Battlefield experience of Hezbollah.

To defeat #BokoHaram insurgency Nigeria must purge the Nigerian army of officers who are moles of BokoHaram. They are wearing military uniforms but they are worst than BokoHaram terrorists.

From experience the Chadian army is better in the fight against BokoHaram than the Nigerian army because their infiltrators are few.

President Buhari who desperately wanted to please US President #Trump went to America and bought out dated jet fighters that Nigeria will receive in 2023! Why not go to Russia and get Mig 29 that Nigeria will receive in few months? More cheaper and reliable. The jet fighters President Buhari ordered are not even of the “F” class.

#ElbinawiTweets

BokoHaram Better Armed than Nigerian Army:

BokoHaram Better Armed than Nigerian Army:

“Many men don fall, we gat to go house. If Nigerian army is ready they should call us back to fight those idiots, we want to fight but we are not soldiers without adequate weapons.” – A Nigerian Soldier Fleeing the Battlefield (viral Video)

#BokoHaram insurgency is an imperialism concoction to slaughter the innocent, rape women and girls and destroy towns and cities to facilitate looting and plunder of resources. Wahhabism is the ideology used to recruit and mobilize brainwashed Sunni youths to execute this murderous imperialist agenda in the name of Islam. One of the reasons why the savage Saudi regime is closely allied to Western imperialism and global Zionism. #ISIS, #AlQaeda, Shabbab etc all part of the murderous Wahhabi terrorism.

For close to 10 years now of the BokoHaram insurgency the Nigerian government has failed to tell Nigerians who is funding and arming BokoHaram terrorists. They only parade half-staved brainwashed youths as BokoHaram terrorists. These youths can not even afford to feed themselves but they are carrying 50 – Calibre Heavy duty Machine Gun.

President Buhari came with the promise to end the murderous BokoHaram insurgency that has killed more than 50,000 innocent Nigerians, destroyed many towns and cities and displaced more than 3 millions into IDPs and refugees in neighboring countries. During GEJ presidency BokoHaram terrorists once fingered President Buhari as someone they trusted to act as their representative while negotiating with the government. They love him. They trusted him.

The present Nigerian army chief Buratai is notoriously corrupt. This man bought choice properties in Dubai, UAE, with looted BokoHaram funds. This man spearheaded the brutal and inhuman genocide of 1000+ innocent children, women and men in Zaria in December 2015 and wickedly dumped the dead bodies in mass graves at night to bury the evidences. Despite his incompetency and corrupt practices, President Buhari is keeping him because he is extremely loyal to the wicked mass murderer tyrant. The recent #AbujaShiaMassacre is one of his trade mark.

These paid Saudi agents in Nigeria who are notorious in freeing murderous BokoHaram terrorists are also notorious in shooting and bombing Shia civilians. No Nigerian leader gave BokoHaram so much money like President Buhari. Buhari gave BokoHaram terrorists more than 10 million dollars using the fraudulent pretext of ransom payment. Today BokoHaram terrorists are better armed than the Nigerian army. Exactly what this soldier said in this video. BokoHaram terrorists attack with Rocket Propelled Grenade (RPG) at Matele while the Nigerian army do not have RPG. But when the same Nigerian army attacked the residence of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky in Zaria in December 2015 they came with RPGs and bombed innocent and defenseless women and children.

Dear Friends,
As I always say the Islamic Movement in Nigeria under the leadership of Sheikh Ibraheem Zakzaky is not the enemy of the Nigerian army or police. Our enemies are the bloodthirsty Wahhabi barbarians who send the Nigerian army and police to murder innocent civilians. An army should protect and defend civilians. When an army is notorious in killing civilians, burning children alive and burying children in mass graves at night, what is the difference of this army and murderous terrorists?

There is massive corruption going on in the Nigerian army. Massive looting of funds meant to fund BokoHaram insurgency. Obsolete weapons were bought and given to soldiers while BokoHaram terrorists have better weapons. What we hear daily is the massacre of soldiers. Yes, brutal massacre of soldiers in the hands of BokoHaram terrorists! BokoHaram terrorists had destroyed 2 out of 3 battalions in Borno state. Yet President Buhari is still keeping the Nigerian army chief Buratai. There are political office holders and senior officers in the Nigerian army who do not want the insurgency to end because they are making millions of dollars at the expense of innocent Nigerian lives. Filthy blood money!

On a final note, the outburst of this frustrated soldier who risked his life to tell the world the truth should act as a #WakeUp call to Nigerians. President Buhari has failed, failed woefully in all indices of development and progress.

Harun Elbinawi
elbinawi@yahoo.com

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